Punjabi language

Punjabi language
or Panjabi language

Indo-Aryan language of the Punjab in India and Pakistan.

Punjabi has about 26 million speakers in India and more than 60 million in Pakistan
nearly half the population of the latter
but linguists have sometimes considered the dialects of southwestern, western, and northern Punjab province in Pakistan a different language. Inhabitants of southern Punjab province have agitated for consideration of their speech, Siraiki (with more than 12 million speakers), as a distinct language, though Siraiki and Punjabi are mutually intelligible.

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also spelled  Panjabi,  

      central Indo-Aryan language spoken in Punjab (around Lahore and Amritsar), an area now divided between India and Pakistan; to the west, modern Punjābī merges into the Lahnda language (q.v.). Punjābī is one of the 14 regional languages recognized in the Indian constitution. In vocabulary it is very similar to Western Hindi. It has little literature and shows little borrowing from Persian, Arabic, or Sanskrit. Two alphabets are used: Lahnda (Lahnda language), indigenous to the region and related to Devanāgarī; and Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi alphabet), devised by the Sikh Gurū Aṅgad (ruled 1539–52) to be used for the scriptures of the Sikhs and now employed for general purposes as well. Earlier, Punjābī was transported to other regions in India and even to China.

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Universalium. 2010.

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