- Phyfe, Duncan
orig. Duncan Fifedied Aug. 16, 1854, New York, N.Y., U.S.Scottish-born U.S. furniture designer.His family settled in Albany, N.Y., с 1784; there he became an apprentice cabinetmaker and eventually opened his own shop. In 1792 he moved to New York City, where he changed the spelling of his name and became so successful that he employed 100 carvers and cabinetmakers. He was one of the first Americans to use the factory method of manufacturing furniture successfully. Though he did not originate a new furniture style, he interpreted fashionable European styleswith such grace that he became a major exponent of Neoclassicism. His furniture, decorated with typical period ornaments such as harps and acanthus leaves, was generally of high-quality mahogany.Mahogany side chair designed by Phyfe, 1807; in The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, ...By courtesy of The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Delaware
* * *▪ American furniture designeroriginal name Duncan Fifeborn 1768, near Loch Fannich, Ross and Cromarty, Scot.died Aug. 16, 1854, New York, N.Y., U.S.Scottish-born American furniture designer, a leading exponent of the Neoclassical style, sometimes considered the greatest of all American cabinetmakers.The Fife family went to the United States in 1784, settling in Albany, N.Y., where Duncan worked as an apprentice cabinetmaker and eventually opened his own shop. In 1792 he moved to New York City (changing the spelling of his name to Phyfe about 1793). Two years later he was listed as a cabinetmaker in the New York Directory and Register. From his first shop on Broad Street, he later moved to Fulton Street. In later years he employed more than 100 carvers and cabinetmakers. One of the first American cabinetmakers to successfully use the factory method of manufacturing furniture, in 1837 he took two of his sons, Michael and James, into partnership as Duncan Phyfe and Sons. After the death of Michael (1840), the firm name was changed to Duncan Phyfe and Son. In 1847 the business was sold and Duncan retired.Although Phyfe did not originate a new furniture style, he interpreted fashionable European styles in a manner so distinguished by grace and excellent proportions that he became a major spokesman for Neoclassicism in the United States. About 1800 his workshop was executing delicate furniture in the Sheraton, Regency, and French Directoire styles; by 1825, as taste changed, his pieces developed into the Empire style. His Sheraton chairs, tables, and sofas often had delicate, reeded legs; and his Empire pieces, massive claw feet. His furniture, with its low relief carvings in the manner of the great English Neoclassicist Robert Adam, was decorated with typical period ornaments—harps, lyres, acanthus leaves, bow knots, and lion masks—and generally was made of high-quality mahogany; often he executed suites for fashionable New Yorkers.The patronage of John Jacob Astor, Anglo-American tycoon and philanthropist, helped make Phyfe's furniture popular. Phyfe was particularly popular in the South. At his death his fortune was estimated to have been almost $500,000. Interest in Phyfe's furniture was revived in 1922 when the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, organized a comprehensive exhibition of his work.
* * *