Hopper, Grace Murray

Hopper, Grace Murray
orig. Grace Brewster Murray

born Dec. 9, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.
died Jan. 1, 1992, Arlington, Va.

U.S. mathematician and rear admiral.

She received a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1934 and taught at Vassar College in 1931–44. As a U.S. Navy officer (1943–86), she worked on Harvard's Mark I (1944) and Mark II (1945) computers, and in 1949 she helped design an improved compiler for translating a programmer's instructions into computer codes. She helped devise UNIVAC I, the first U.S. commercial electronic computer (1951), and wrote naval applications for COBOL. She received the National Medal of Technology in 1991.

* * *

▪ United States naval officer and mathematician
née  Grace Brewster Murray 
born December 9, 1906, New York, New York, U.S.
died January 1, 1992, Arlington, Virginia
 American mathematician and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy who was a pioneer in developing computer technology, helping to devise UNIVAC I (UNIVAC), the first commercial electronic computer, and naval applications for COBOL (common-business-oriented language).

      After graduating from Vassar College (B.A., 1928), Hopper attended Yale University (M.A., 1930; Ph.D., 1934). She taught mathematics at Vassar before joining the Naval Reserve in 1943. She became a lieutenant and was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's Computation Project at Harvard University (1944), where she worked on Mark I (Harvard Mark I), the first large-scale automatic calculator and a precursor of electronic computers. She remained at Harvard as a civilian research fellow while maintaining her naval career as a reservist. After a moth infiltrated the circuits of Mark I, she coined the term bug to refer to unexplained computer failures.

      In 1949 Hopper joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp., where she designed an improved compiler, which translated a programmer's instructions into computer codes. She remained with the firm when it was taken over by Remington Rand (1951) and by Sperry Rand Corp. (1955). In 1957 her division developed Flow-Matic, the first English-language data-processing compiler. She retired from the navy with the rank of commander in 1966, but she was recalled to active duty the following year to help standardize the navy's computer languages. At the age of 79, she was the oldest officer on active U.S. naval duty when she retired again in 1986. She was elected a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (1962), was named the first computer science Man of the Year by the Data Processing Management Association (1969), and was awarded the National Medal of Technology (1991).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hopper,Grace Murray — Hopper, Grace Murray. 1906 1992. American mathematician and computer programmer. Noted for her development of programming languages, especially COBOL, she is credited with inventing the first compiler. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hopper, Grace Murray — orig. Grace Brewster Murray (9 dic. 1906, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.–1 ene. 1992, Arlington, Va.). Matemático y vicealmirante estadounidense. Recibió su Ph.D. en la Universidad de Yale en 1934 y ejerció la docencia en el Vassar College en 1931–44.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Grace Murray Hopper — (20 de enero de 1984) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Grace Murray Hopper Award — The original Grace Murray Hopper Awards (named for computer pioneer RDML Grace Hopper) have been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971. The award goes to a young (age 35 or less) computer professional who makes a… …   Wikipedia

  • Grace Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper (Januar 1984) Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (* 9. Dezember 1906 in New York City; † 1. Januar 1992 in Arlington, Virginia) war eine US amerikanische Informatikerin und Computerpionierin. Sie war im letzten Dienstgrad Konteradmiral der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Grace Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper Grace Hopper en 1984 Grace Murray Hopper (9 décembre 1906 1er janvier 1992) est une informaticienne et amiral de la marine américaine. Elle est la conceptrice du premier compilateur en 1951 ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Grace Murray Hopper Park — is a small memorial park in Arlington, Virginia. The park is named in honor of Grace Hopper, a computer scientist and naval officer. A pioneer in the field, she was the first programmer of the Mark I Calculator and developed the first compiler… …   Wikipedia

  • Grace-Murray-Hopper-Preis — Der Grace Murray Hopper Award ist der erste von mittlerweile vielen nach Grace Hopper benannten Preisen. Er wird von der ACM seit 1971 an junge Computerexperten verliehen, die zum Zeitpunkt der gewürdigten technischen Leistung nicht älter als 35… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Grace Murray Hopper Award — Der Grace Murray Hopper Award ist der erste von mittlerweile vielen nach Grace Hopper benannten Preisen. Er wird von der ACM seit 1971 an junge Computerexperten verliehen, die zum Zeitpunkt der gewürdigten technischen Leistung nicht älter als 35… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hopper , Grace — (1906–1992) American mathematician and computer scientist Hopper, born Grace Murray, was educated at Vassar and at Yale, where she gained her PhD in 1934. She taught at Vassar until 1944, when she enlisted in the US Naval Reserve and was… …   Scientists

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”