Etana Epic

Etana Epic
Ancient Mesopotamian myth concerning dynastic succession.

The gods chose Etana as the first king, but his wife, though pregnant, could not give birth, and thus Etana had no heir. The god Shamash answered Etana's prayers by directing him to rescue a maimed eagle, which rewarded Etana by carrying him high up in the sky, near heaven, where Etana could obtain the birth plant to help his wife. Surviving texts are incomplete and divergent: in one version Etana makes it to heaven (but the text then breaks off); in another he falls to earth. A king named Etana ruled Kish in southern Mesopotamia sometime in the 3rd millennium BC.

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      ancient Mesopotamian tale concerned with the question of dynastic succession. In the beginning, according to the epic, there was no king on the earth; the gods thus set out to find one and apparently chose Etana, who proved to be an able ruler until he discovered that his wife, though pregnant, was unable to give birth, and thus he had no heir to the throne. The one known remedy was the birth plant, which Etana was required to bring down personally from heaven. Etana, therefore, prayed to the god Shamash, who heard his request and directed him to a mountain where a maimed eagle, languishing in a pit (into which it had been thrown as punishment for breaking a sacred pact), would help him obtain the special plant. Etana rescued the eagle, and as a reward it carried him high up into the sky.

      The result of Etana's quest is uncertain because of the incomplete state of the texts. According to one fragment, Etana reached heaven and prostrated himself before the gods. There the text breaks off. According to another fragment, however, Etana either became dizzy or lost his nerve before reaching heaven and crashed to the ground. If, as many scholars believe, Etana was successful, the myth may have been used to support early dynastic claims.

      Etana of the myth is probably the Etana who ruled Kish in southern Mesopotamia sometime in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC, although there is no historical evidence laying claim to the exploits recorded in the epic. His flight is depicted on several cylinder seals of the period.

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Universalium. 2010.

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