- Clement of Alexandria, Saint
Latin Titus Flavius Clemensborn 150, Athensdied between 211 and 215, Palestine; Western feast day November 23; Eastern feast day November 24Christian apologist, missionary theologian to the Hellenistic world, and leader of the catechetical school at Alexandria.He was converted to Christianity by Pantaenus, a former Stoic who preceded him as head of the Alexandria school. Clement believed that philosophy was for the Greeks what the Law of Moses was for the Jews, a preparatory discipline leading to the truth. He asserted that men lived first as citizens of heaven and second as earthly citizens, and he defended the right of an enslaved people to rebel against its oppressors. Persecution by the emperor Septimius Severus in 201–202 obliged him to leave Alexandria and take refuge with Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem. He was revered as a saint in the Latin church until 1586, when doubts about his orthodoxy led to the removal of his name from the list of Roman saints.
* * *▪ Christian theologianIntroductionLatin name Titus Flavius Clemensborn AD 150, Athensdied , between 211 and 215; Western feast day November 23; Eastern feast day November 24Christian Apologist, missionary theologian to the Hellenistic (Greek cultural) world, and second known leader and teacher of the catechetical school of Alexandria (Alexandria, School of). The most important of his surviving works is a trilogy comprising the Protreptikos (“Exhortation”), the Paidagōgos (“The Instructor”), and the Strōmateis (“Miscellanies”).Early life and careerAccording to Epiphanius, a 4th-century bishop, the parents of Titus Flavius Clemens were Athenian pagans. There is little significant information about his early life. As a student, he traveled to various centres of learning in Italy and in the eastern Mediterranean area. Converted to Christianity by his last teacher, Pantaenus—reputedly a former Stoic philosopher and the first recorded president of the Christian catechetical school at Alexandria—Clement succeeded his mentor as head of the school about 180.During the next two decades Clement was the intellectual leader of the Alexandrian Christian community: he wrote several ethical and theological works and biblical commentaries; he combatted heretical Gnostics (Gnosticism) (religious dualists who believed in salvation through esoteric knowledge that revealed to men their spiritual origins, identities, and destinies); he engaged in polemics with Christians who were suspicious of an intellectualized Christianity; and he educated persons who later became theological and ecclesiastical leaders (e.g., Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem).In addition to the famed trilogy, his extant works include a tract on the use of wealth, A Discourse Concerning the Salvation of Rich Men; a moral tract, Exhortation to Patience; or, Address to the Newly Baptized; a collection of sayings by Theodotus, a follower of Valentinus (a leading Alexandrian Gnostic), with commentary by Clement, Excerpta ex Theodoto; the Eclogae Propheticae (or Extracts), in the form of notes; and a few fragments of his biblical commentary Hypotyposeis (Outlines).Clement presented a functional program of witnessing in thought and action to Hellenistic inquirers and Christian believers, a program that he hoped would bring about an understanding of the role of Greek philosophy and the Mosaic (Torah) tradition within the Christian faith. According to Clement, philosophy was to the Greeks, as the Law of Moses was to the Jews, a preparatory discipline leading to the truth, which was personified in the logos. His goal was to make Christian beliefs intelligible to those trained within the context of the Greek paideia (educational curriculum) so that those who accepted the Christian faith might be able to witness effectively within Hellenistic culture. He also was a social critic deeply rooted in the 2nd-century cultural milieu.Clement's view, “One, therefore, is the way of truth, but into it, just as into an everlasting river, flow streams but from another place” (Strōmateis), prepared the way for the curriculum of the catechetical school under Origen that became the basis of the medieval quadrivium and trivium (i.e., the liberal arts). This view, however, did not find ready acceptance by the uneducated orthodox Christians of Alexandria, who looked askance at intellectuals, especially at the heretical Gnostics who claimed a special knowledge (gnōsis) and spirituality. Led by Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria who was elevated to the episcopacy in 189, they taught a legalistic doctrine of salvation and preached that the Christian was saved by faith (pistis).Clement's view of the roles of faith and knowledgeClement attempted to mediate between the heretical Gnostics and the legalistic orthodox Christians by appropriating the term gnostic from the heretical groups and reinterpreting to meet the needs of both the uneducated orthodox stalwarts and the growing numbers of those educated in the Greek paideia who were enlisting in the Christian church. Gnōsis became, in Clement's theology, a knowledge and aspect of faith; he viewed it as a personal service that “loves and teaches the ignorant and instructs the whole creation to honor God the Almighty” (Strōmateis). Thus, Clement's Christian Gnostic—as opposed to the heretical Gnostic—witnessed to nonbelievers, to heretics, and to fellow believers, the educated and uneducated alike, by teaching new insights and by setting a lofty example in moral living. Like the pistic Christians (those who claimed that man was saved by fait (faith)h, which was to be demonstrated in legalistic and moral terms), Clement held that faith was the basis of salvation; but, unlike them, he claimed that faith was also the basis of gnōsis, a spiritual and mystical knowledge. By distinguishing between two levels of believers—i.e., the pistic Christian, who responds through discipline and lives on the level of the law, and the Christian Gnostic, who responds through discipline and love and lives on the level of the gospel—Clement set the stage for the efflorescence of monasticism that began in Egypt about a half century after his death.Though much of Clement's attention was focussed upon the reorientation of men's personal lives in accordance with the Christian gospel, his interest in the social witnessing of Christians also involved him in the political and economic forces that affected man's status and dignity. In keeping with the logos–nomos (word–law, or, sometimes, gospel–law) theme that pervades his works, Clement alluded to the theory of the two cities, the city of heaven and the city of the earth. Like Augustine (Augustine, Saint), the great theologian who utilized the same theme two centuries later in De civitate Dei (The City of God), Clement did not equate the city of heaven with the institutional church. According to Clement, the Christian was to live under the Logos as befitting a citizen of heaven and then, in an order of priorities, under the law (nomos) as a citizen of the earth. If a conflict should arise between God and Caesar (i.e., the state), the Christian was to appeal to the “higher law” of the Logos. At one point Clement advocated the theory of the just cause for open rebellion against a government that enslaves people against their wills, as in the case of the Hebrews in Egypt. In this view he also anticipated Augustine's theory of the just war, a theory that has been dominant in Western civilization since the early Middle Ages. He also struck at racism when it is considered a basis for slavery.Views on wealthIn Egypt during the late 2nd century the rising inflation, high cost of living, and increased taxes placed extreme burdens not only on the poor but also on the relatively wealthy middle class, which was eventually ruined. From the tenor of the Paidagōgos, one can conclude that the majority of Clement's audience came from the ranks of Alexandrian middle and upper classes, with a few intelligent poorer members coming from the Alexandrian masses. The problem of wealth (wealth and income, distribution of) was disturbing to the pistic Christians, who interpreted literally the command of Christ to the rich young man who wanted to be saved, “sell what you have and give to the poor.” In response to the literal interpretation, Clement wrote The Discourse Concerning the Salvation of Rich Men, in which he stated that wealth is a neutral factor in the problem. Possessions are to be regarded as instruments to be used either for good or for evil. “The Word does not command us to renounce property but to manage property without inordinate affection” (Eclogae Propheticae). In the matter of welfare (almsgiving), Clement's views are not consistent. On the one hand, he advised that the Christian should not judge who is worthy or unworthy of receiving alms by being niggardly and pretending to test whether or not a person is deserving. On the other hand, he stated that alms should be dispensed with discernment to the deserving, for freeloaders, who are lazy and have some possessions, take what can be given to the needy.Because of the persecution of Christians in Alexandria under the Roman emperor Severus in 201–202, Clement was obliged to leave his position as head of the catechetical school and to seek sanctuary elsewhere. His position at the school was assumed by his young and gifted student Origen, who became one of the greatest theologians of the Christian church. Clement found safety and employment in Palestine under another of his former students, Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem. He remained with Alexander until he died.AssessmentIn his various roles, as missionary theologian, Apologist, and polemicist, Clement developed or touched upon ideas that were to influence the Christian world in the areas of monasticism, political and economic thought, and theology. In this last area, the Greek church regarded his views as too close to Origen's, some of which were considered heretical. In the Latin church, however, he was regarded as a saint, and his feast day was celebrated on December 4. In 1586, however, because some of his views were questioned in regard to their orthodoxy, Sixtus V deleted his name from the Roman martyrology.Linwood Fredericksen Ed.Additional ReadingClement's works are found in Otto von Stählin, Clemens Alexandrinus, 4 vol. (1905–36), a critical edition of the Greek text; and J.P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol. 8–9 (1890–91), Greek texts with Latin translations. English translations include “Clement of Alexandria,” in Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (eds.), Fathers of the Second Century, vol. 2 of The Ante-Nicene Fathers (1885, reprinted 1994); Simon P. Wood (trans.), Christ the Educator (1954); John Ernest Leonard Oulton and Henry Chadwick, Alexandrian Christianity (1954, reprinted 1977); and Thomas Merton, Selections from the Protreptikos (1962).Various aspects of Clement's thought are covered in Charles Bigg, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria (1886, reprinted 2001); R.B. Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Liberalism, 2 vol. (1914); Einar Molland, The Conception of the Gospel in the Alexandrian Theology (1938); E.F. Osborn, The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (1957, reprinted 1978); Werner Jaeger, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia (1961, reissued 1985); Henry Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition (1966, reissued 1984); and W.E.G. Floyd, Clement of Alexandria's Treatment of the Problem of Evil (1971).
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