(Sanskrit: "Song of God") One of the greatest of the Hindu scriptures, constituting part of the Mahabharata.

It is written in the form of a dialogue between the warrior Prince Arjuna and the charioteer Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu. It was probably composed in the 1st or 2nd century AD, later than much of the epic. Concerned over the suffering the impending battle will cause, Arjuna hesitates, but Krishna explains that the higher way is the dispassionate discharge of duty without concern for personal triumph. The Bhagavadgita considers the nature of God and ultimate reality and offers three disciplines for transcending the limitations of this world: jnana (knowledge or wisdom), karma (dispassionate action), and bhakti (love of God). It has inspired numerous commentaries over the centuries, including those by Ramanuja and Mohandas K. Gandhi.

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▪ Hindu scripture
Sanskrit“Song of the Lord”

      an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit (Sanskrit literature) poem of the Hindus (Hinduism), the Mahabharata. It occupies chapters 23 to 40 of book 6 of the Mahabharata and is composed in the form of a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Krishna, an incarnation or avatar of the god Vishnu. Composed perhaps in the 1st or 2nd century CE, it is commonly known as the Gita.

      On the brink of a great battle between warring branches of the same family, Arjuna is suddenly overwhelmed with misgivings about the justice of killing so many people, some of whom are his friends and relatives, and expresses his qualms to Krishna, his charioteer—a combination bodyguard and court historian. Krishna's reply expresses the central themes of the Gita. He persuades Arjuna to do his duty as a man born into the class of warriors, which is to fight, and the battle takes place. Krishna's argument incorporates many of the basic teachings of the Upanishads, speculative texts compiled between 1000 and 600 BCE, as well as of the philosophy of Samkhya Yoga, which stresses a dualism between soul and matter (see mind-body dualism (mind–body dualism)). He argues that one can kill only the body; the soul is immortal and transmigrates into another body at death or, for those who have understood the true teachings, achieves release ( moksha) or extinction ( nirvana), freedom from the wheel of rebirth (see reincarnation). Krishna also resolves the tension between the Vedic injunction to sacrifice and to amass a record of good actions ( karma) and the late Upanishadic injunction to meditate and amass knowledge ( jnana). The solution he provides is the path of devotion ( bhakti). With right understanding, one need not renounce actions but merely the desire (kama) for the fruits of actions, acting without desire (nishkama karma).

      The moral impasse is not so much resolved as destroyed when Krishna assumes his doomsday form—a horrendous image of a fiery, gaping mouth, swallowing up all creatures in the universe at the end of the eon—after Arjuna asks Krishna to reveal his true cosmic nature. The prince then cries out,

I see your mouths with jagged tusks, and I see all of these warriors rushing blindly into your gaping mouths, like moths rushing to their death in a blazing fire. Some stick in the gaps between your teeth, and their heads are ground to powder.

      In the middle of this terrifying epiphany, Arjuna apologizes to Krishna for the many times when he had rashly and casually called out to him. He begs Krishna to return to his previous form, which the god consents to do. The reader or hearer of the text is comforted by the banality, the familiarity of human life. This individual, however, has been persuaded that, since war is unreal, it is not evil, and the warrior with ethical misgivings has been persuaded to kill, just as the god kills. This attitude toward war and death is made palatable by the god's resumption of his role as intimate human companion of the warrior Arjuna.

      The Gita has always been cherished by many Hindus for its spiritual guidance, but it achieved new prominence in the 19th century when British and American philosophers—particularly the Transcendentalists (Transcendentalism) Ralph Waldo Emerson (Emerson, Ralph Waldo) and Henry David Thoreau (Thoreau, Henry David)—recognized it as the pivotal Hindu text.

Wendy Doniger

Additional Reading
Valuable translations and commentaries on the Bhagavadgita are J.A.B. van Buitenen, The Bhagavadgītā in the Mahābhārata: Text and Translation (1981); and R.C. Zaehner, The Bhagavad-Gītā, with a Commentary Based on the Original Sources (1969, reissued 1973).Wendy Doniger

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Universalium. 2010.

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