- Berruguete, Alonso
born с 1488, Paredes de Nava, Castiledied 1561, Toledo, CastileSpanish sculptor and painter.His father, Pedro Berruguete, was a great Renaissance painter. Alonso worked in Florence and Rome с 1508–16. In 1516 he returned to Spain, and in 1518 he became court painter to Charles V. He succeeded primarily as a sculptor, however, and became known for his intensely emotional Mannerist sculptures of figures portrayed in spiritual torment or in transports of religious ecstasy. His best-known work is a set of wooden reliefs with highly expressive figures for choir stalls in Toledo Cathedral (1539–43). Berruguete's use of a rather rich and extravagant but delicate ornamentation in his church decorations is typical of Spain's Plateresque style. He is considered the greatest Spanish sculptor of the 16th century.
* * *▪ Spanish sculptorborn c. 1488, Paredes de Nava, Castile [now in Palencia, Spain]died 1561, Toledo, Castilethe most important Spanish sculptor of the Renaissance, known for his intensely emotional Mannerist sculptures of figures portrayed in spiritual torment or in transports of religious ecstasy.After studying under his father, the painter Pedro Berruguete, Alonso went to Italy (c. 1504/08). Most of his sojourn was spent in Florence and Rome, where he was influenced by the works of Michelangelo and such examples of Hellenistic sculpture in the Vatican collections as the “Laocoön.” Berruguete's painting of “Salome” (Uffizi Gallery, Florence) suggests that his Italian paintings were in the early Mannerist style of Jacopo Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino.Berruguete returned to Spain in about 1517, and in 1518 he was made court painter to Charles V and settled at Valladolid. Because he did not follow the emperor to Germany in 1520, however, he received no royal commissions for paintings. Berruguete turned, therefore, to sculpture and architecture, and in the period 1518–21 executed sculpture for the tomb of Juan Selvagio in the church of Santa Engracia at Zaragossa, carved the relief of the “Resurrection” in the cathedral of Valencia (c. 1517), and submitted plans in 1521 for the Capilla Real (Royal Chapel) in Granada, which, not meeting with official approval, were never realized. Among his major sculpture commissions of the Valladolid period were the retables, or altarpieces, for the monastery of La Mejorada at Olmedo (1526), for San Benito at Valladolid (1527–32), for the Colegio de los Irlandeses at Salamanca (1529–32), and for the Church of Santiago at Valladolid (1537).In 1539 the great Spanish humanist and art patron Juan Pardo Cardinal Tavera asked Berruguete to Toledo to execute the choir stalls on the epistle side of the Toledo Cathedral (1539–43), as well as the alabaster “Transfiguration” at the west end of the choir (1543–48). These carvings are somewhat more moderate and classical in feeling than his earlier works. At the time of his death Berruguete was working on the tomb for Cardinal Tavera (1552–61) in the Hospital de San Juan Bautista at Toledo. Berruguete's use of a rather rich and extravagant but delicate ornamentation in his church decorations is typical of Spain's Plateresque style.
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