Alcatraz Island

Alcatraz Island
Rocky island in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S. It has an area of 22 acres (9 hectares) and is located 1.

5 mi (2 km) offshore from the city of San Francisco. The site of the first lighthouse (1854) on the California coast, it became an army garrison (1859) and a military prison (1868). From 1934 to 1963 it served as a federal prison for dangerous civilian prisoners. Its famous inmates included Al Capone, George "Machine Gun" Kelly, and Robert Stroud, the "Birdman of Alcatraz." It is now open to the public.

* * *

byname  The Rock 
 rocky island in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S. The island occupies an area of 22 acres (9 hectares) and is located 1.5 miles (2 km) offshore.

      The island had little vegetation and was a seabird habitat when it was explored in 1775 by Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala, who named it Isla de los Alcatraces (“Isle of the Pelicans”). Sold in 1849 to the U.S. government, Alcatraz was the site of the first lighthouse (1854) on the coast of California. Thereafter other buildings were erected on the island, and the first permanent army detachment was garrisoned there in 1859. In 1861 the island was designated a residence for military offenders. Later prisoners included some 19 Hopi Indians from the Arizona Territory who passively resisted government attempts to assimilate them and American soldiers fighting in the Philippines who had joined the Filipino cause in 1900. In 1907 the island was designated the Pacific Branch of the United States Military Prison.

      From 1934 to 1963 it served as a federal prison for some of the most dangerous civilian prisoners. Among its famous denizens were Al Capone (Capone, Al), George (“Machine Gun”) Kelly, and Robert Stroud (Stroud, Robert), the “Birdman of Alcatraz.” Although the Alcatraz penitentiary was able to house 450 convicts in cells that measured about 10 by 4.5 feet (3 by 1.5 metres), no more than 250 prisoners ever occupied the island at one time. Escape attempts were rare, but a few inmates did escape from the island; whether they survived the currents of the bay is unknown. One daring escape was popularized in the film Escape from Alcatraz (1979). Eventually the necessity of transporting fresh water to and waste away from the island resulted in its abandonment in 1963.

      In March 1964 a group of Native Americans claimed the island, citing an 1868 treaty with the Sioux allowing Indians from the reservation to claim any “unoccupied government land”; however, they occupied Alcatraz for only several hours. In November 1969 Indian activists, including members of the American Indian Movement, occupied the island again, demanding the deed to the island and refusing to leave until they were forced off by federal marshals in June 1971.

      In 1972 Alcatraz became part of the newly created Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Although no effort has been made to repair the structures on the island—most have suffered general decay and weathering, and the historic lighthouse and four other buildings burned in 1970 (the lighthouse survived, but the other buildings were largely destroyed)—Alcatraz Island is now open to the public and is a popular tourist destination.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alcatraz Island — Alcatraz redirects here. For other uses, see Alcatraz (disambiguation). Alcatraz Island IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) …   Wikipedia

  • Alcatraz Island — Sp Álkatrazo salà Ap Alcatraz Island L San Francisko įl., JAV (Kalifornija) …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Alcatraz Island in popular culture — Depictions of Alcatraz Island in popular culture can be found in many different popular culture media.Film/TVA view of Alcatraz is often used in an establishing shot of films and television shows set in San Francisco, but features explicitly in… …   Wikipedia

  • Alcatraz Island Light — Infobox Lighthouse caption = Alcatraz Island Lighthouse location = Alcatraz Island, California coordinates = coord|37|49|34.44|N|122|25|19.89|W|region:US type:landmark yearlit = 1909 (current tower) yearbuilt = 1854 automated = 1963… …   Wikipedia

  • Alcatraz (disambiguation) — Alcatraz may refer to: People *Alcatraz, a latin american rapper, signed to Ruff Ryders Places and features *Alcatraz Island, an island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, home of Alcatraz Penitentiary **Alcatraz Island Lighthouse *Alcatraz, Cape …   Wikipedia

  • Alcatraz coup — The Alcatraz coup is named after the U.S. Federal penitentiary once located on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. It is not a true coup in the sense of a particularly skillful or spectacular play of the cards; rather, to use the term coup of… …   Wikipedia

  • island — islandish, islandlike, adj. islandless, adj. /uy leuhnd/, n. 1. a tract of land completely surrounded by water, and not large enough to be called a continent. 2. something resembling an island, esp. in being isolated or having little or no direct …   Universalium

  • Alcatraz — noun Alcatraz Island, an island in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA, formerly a famous prison …   Wiktionary

  • Alcatraz — 37°49′37″N 122°25′23″O / 37.82694, 122.42306 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Alcatraz, Cape Verde — Alcatraz (in Cape Verdean Creole, written in ALUPEC: Alkatrás ) is a village in the eastern part of the island of Maio. The village is around 25 km northeast of the island capital of Vila do Maio and around south of Pedro Vaz and it is linked… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”