/ruy"ting/, n.
1. the act of a person or thing that writes.
2. written form: to commit one's thoughts to writing.
3. that which is written; characters or matter written with a pen or the like: His writing is illegible.
4. such characters or matter with respect to style, kind, quality, etc.
5. an inscription.
6. a letter.
7. any written or printed paper, as a document or deed.
8. literary or musical style, form, quality, technique, etc.: Her writing is stilted.
9. a literary composition or production.
10. the profession of a writer: He turned to writing at an early age.
11. the Writings, Hagiographa.
12. writing on the wall. See handwriting (def. 4).
[1175-1225; ME; see WRITE, -ING1]

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System of human visual communication using signs or symbols associated by convention with units of language
meanings or sounds
and recorded on materials such as paper, stone, or clay.

Its precursor was pictography. Logography, in which symbols stand for individual words, typically develops from pictography. Logography requires thousands of symbols for all possible words and names. In phonographic systems, the symbol associated with a word also stands for similar-or identical-sounding words. Phonographic systems may evolve to the point where symbols represent syllables, constituting a syllabary. An alphabet provides symbols for all the consonants and vowels.
(as used in expressions)
ogum writing
ogam writing

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      form of human communication by means of a set of visible marks that are related, by convention, to some particular structural level of language.

      This definition highlights the fact that writing is in principle the representation of language rather than a direct representation of thought and the fact that spoken language has a number of levels of structure, including sentences, words, syllables, and phonemes (the smallest units of speech used to distinguish one word or morpheme from another), any one of which a writing system can “map onto” or represent. Indeed, the history of writing is in part a matter of the discovery and representation of these structural levels of spoken language in the attempt to construct an efficient, general, and economical writing system capable of serving a range of socially valuable functions. Literacy is a matter of competence with a writing system and with the specialized functions that written language serves in a particular society.

      For discussion of the study of writing as a tool of historical research, see epigraphy and paleography. For more on particular systems not treated below, see hieroglyphic writing and pictography.

Writing as a system of signs
      Languages are systems of symbols; writing is a system for symbolizing these symbols. A writing system may be defined as any conventional system of marks or signs that represents the utterances of a language. Writing renders language visible; while speech is ephemeral, writing is concrete and, by comparison, permanent. Both speaking and writing depend upon the underlying structures of language. Consequently, writing cannot ordinarily be read by someone not familiar with the linguistic structure underlying the oral form of the language. Yet writing is not merely the transcription of speech; writing frequently involves the use of special forms of language, such as those involved in literary and scientific works, that would not be produced orally. In any linguistic community the written language is a distinct and special dialect; usually there is more than one written dialect. Scholars account for these facts by suggesting that writing is related directly to language but not necessarily directly to speech. Consequently, spoken and written language may evolve somewhat distinctive forms and functions. These alternative relations may be depicted as follows:

speaking writing ← language → speaking
See as table:
      It is the fact that writing is an expression of language rather than simply a way of transcribing speech that gives to writing, and hence to written language and to literacy, its special properties. As long as writing was seen merely as transcription, as it was by such pioneering linguists as Ferdinand de Saussure (Saussure, Ferdinand de) and Leonard Bloomfield (Bloomfield, Leonard) earlier in the 20th century, its conceptual significance was seriously underestimated. Once writing was seen as providing a new medium for linguistic expression, its distinctness from speech was more clearly grasped. Scholars such as Milman Parry, Marshall McLuhan (McLuhan, Marshall), Eric Havelock, Jack Goody, and Walter Ong were among the first to analyze the conceptual and social implications of using written as opposed to oral forms of communication.

      Writing is merely one, albeit the most important, means of communicating by visible signs. Gestures—such as a raised hand for greeting or a wink for intimate agreement—are visible signs, but they are not writing in that they do not transcribe a linguistic form. Pictures, similarly, may represent events but do not represent language and hence are not a form of writing.

      But the boundary between pictures and writing becomes less clear when pictures are used conventionally to convey particular meanings. In order to distinguish pictures from pictorial signs, it is necessary to notice that language has two primary levels of structure, which the French linguist André Martinet referred to as the “double articulation” of language: the meaning structures on one hand and the sound patterns on the other. Indeed, linguists define grammar as a system for mapping—establishing a system of relations between—sound and meaning. These levels of structure admit of several subdivisions, any one of which may be captured in a writing system. The basic unit of the meaning system is called a morpheme; one or more morphemes make up a word. Thus, the word boys is composed of two morphemes, boy and plurality. Grammatically related words make up clauses that express larger units of meaning. Still-larger units make up such discourse structures as propositions and less well-defined units of meaning such as prayers, stories, and poems.

      The basic linguistic unit of the sound system is called a phoneme; it is a minimal, contrastive sound unit that distinguishes one utterance from another. Phonemes may be further analyzed in terms of a set of underlying distinctive features, features specifying the ways the sound is physically produced by passing breath through the throat and positioning the tongue and lips. Phonemes may be thought of as roughly equivalent to the sound segments known as consonants and vowels, and combinations of these segments make up syllables.

      Writing systems can serve to represent any of these levels of sound or any of the levels of meaning, and, indeed, examples of all of these levels of structure have been exploited by some writing system or other. Writing systems consequently fall into two large general classes: those that are based on some aspect of meaning structure, such as a word or a morpheme, and those that are based on some aspect of the sound system, such as the syllable or the phoneme.

      The earlier failure to recognize these levels of structure in language led some scholars to believe that some writing systems, so-called ideograms and pictograms, had been invented to express thought directly, bypassing language altogether. The 17th-century German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz (Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm) set out to invent the perfect writing system, which would reflect systems of thought directly and thereby be readable by all human beings regardless of their mother tongues. It is now known that such a scheme is impossible. Thought is too intimately related to language to be represented independently of it.

 More recently there have been attempts to invent forms for communicating explicit messages without assuming a knowledge of any particular language. Such messages are communicated by means of pictorial signs (pictography). Thus, the skirted human figure painted on the door to a toilet, the human figure with an upraised hand on the Pioneer spacecraft, the Amerindian drawing of a horse and rider upside down painted on a rock near a precipitous trail, and the visual patterns branded on range cattle are all attempts to use visual marks to communicate without making any appeal to the structure of any particular language.

      However, such signs function only because they represent a high level of linguistic structure and because they function to express one of a highly restricted range of meanings already known to the reader and not because they express ideas or thoughts directly. The sign on the toilet door is an elliptical way of writing “women's washroom,” just as the word “women” had been earlier. The plaque on the spacecraft can be read as a greeting only if the reader already knows how to express a human greeting symbolically. The inverted horse and rider expressed the message that horses and riders should avoid the trail. And the brand can be read as the name of the owner's ranch.

      Such signs therefore express meanings, not thoughts, and they do so by representing meaning structures larger than can be expressed by a single word. They do so by expressing these meanings elliptically. Such signs are readable because the reader has to consider only a restricted set of possible meanings. While such pictorial signs could not be turned into a general writing system, they can be extremely efficient in serving a restricted set of functions.

      The differences between such pictorial signs and other forms of writing are sufficiently great for some scholars to maintain that they are not legitimate types of writing. These differences are that pictorial signs are “motivated”—that is, they visually suggest their meanings—and that they express whole propositions rather than single words. Other scholars would include such signs as a form of writing because they are a conventional means for expressing a particular linguistic meaning. However, scholars agree that such a collection of signs could express only an extremely limited set of meanings.

 A similar case is the ancient mosaic found at the entrance of a house in Pompeii, depicting a snarling dog on a chain and bearing the inscription “Cave canem” (“Beware of the dog”). Even nonreaders could “read” the message; the picture is therefore a form of writing rather than of picture making. Such pictorial signs, including logotypes, trademarks, and brand names, are so common in modern urban societies that even very young children learn to read them. Such reading ability is described as “environmental” literacy, not associated with books and schooling.

      Similarly, number systems have posed a problem for theorists because such symbols as the Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, etc., which are conventional across many languages, appear to express thought directly without any intermediary linguistic structure. However, it is more useful to think of these numerals as a particular orthography for representing the meaning structure of these numbers rather than their sound structures. The advantages of this orthography are that the orthography permits the user to carry out mathematical operations, such as carrying, borrowing, and the like, and that the same orthography may be assigned different phonological equivalents in different languages using the same number system. Thus, the numeral 2 is named “two” in English, “deux” in French, “zwei” in German, and so on. Yet it represents not a thought but the word, a piece of language.

      It is for these reasons that writing is said to be a system for transcribing language, not for representing thought directly. There are of course other systems for representing thought, including such activities as picture making, dance, and mime. These, however, are not representations of ordinary language; rather, they constitute what the American philosopher Nelson Goodman has called the “languages of art.” These “languages,” or semiotic (semiotics) systems, are systems of signs that are used for expressive and representational purposes. Each of these semiotic systems may in turn be represented by a notational system, a system for representing the semiotic system. Thus, writing can be defined formally as a notational system for representing some level or levels of linguistic form.

      Writing is so pervasive in everyday life that many people take it to be synonymous with language, and this confusion affects their understanding of language. The word word denotes ambiguously both the oral form and the written form, and so people may confuse them. This occurs, for example, when people think that the sounds of language are made up of letters. Even Aristotle used the same word, gramma, to refer to the basic units of both speech and writing. Yet it is important to distinguish them. People may have competence in a language and yet know nothing about its written form. Similarly, writing is so fundamental to a modern, literate society that its significance has often been overestimated. Since the 18th century it has been common to identify literacy with civilization, indeed with all civil virtues. When European countries colonized other regions, they thought it as important to teach “savages” to read and write as to convert them to Christianity. Modern anthropology has helped to revise what now seems a quaint set of priorities by showing not only that there are no genuinely primitive languages but that differing languages mask no unbridgeable differences between human beings. All humans are rational, speak a language of enormous expressive power, and live in, maintain, and transmit to their young a complex social and moral order.

      Scholars of literature have in the past half-century amassed compelling evidence to demonstrate that a complex social order and a rich verbal culture can exist in nonliterate societies. The American scholar Milman Parry, writing in the 1920s, showed that the Homeric epic poems, long regarded as models of literary virtuosity, were in fact the product not of a literate but of an oral tradition. These poems were produced by bards who could not write and were delivered in recitals to audiences who could not read. Writing made possible the recording of these poems, not their composition. The hard and fast dividing line that put civilization and literacy on one side and savagery and irrationality on the other has been abandoned. To be unlettered is no longer confused with being ignorant.

      Similarly, it was once generally held that all writing systems represent some stage in a progression toward the ideal writing system, the alphabet. The accepted view today is that all writing systems represent relatively optimal solutions to a large and unique set of constraints, including the structure of the language represented, the functions that the system serves, and the balance of advantages to the reader as opposed to the writer. Consequently, while there are important differences between speaking and writing and between various forms of writing, these differences vary in importance and in effect from language to language and from society to society.

The functions of writing
      Given that literacy is not a prerequisite of rationality and civilization, it may be asked why writing systems were invented and why, when they were, they so completely displaced preexisting oral traditions. Many accounts have been given of the dramatic impact on an oral culture of the encounter with written text. Isak Dinesen (Dinesen, Isak), in her autobiographical Out of Africa (1937), reported on the response of Kikuyu tribesmen to their first exposures to written texts:

I learned that the effect of a piece of news was many times magnified when it was imparted by writing. The messages that would have been received with doubt and scorn if they had been given by word of mouth were now taken as gospel truth.

      Certainly writing has been observed to displace oral traditions. The American scholar Albert Lord wrote:

When writing is introduced and begins to be used for the same purposes as the oral narrative song, when it is employed for telling stories and is widespread enough to find an audience capable of reading, this audience seeks its entertainment and instruction in books rather than in the living songs of men, and the older art gradually disappears.

      The adoption and use of writing systems depend primarily on their ability to preserve language and information through time and across space. But the use of a writing system for this purpose is shaped in part by the nature of the system and by the cultural practices in the society that has adopted it. These uses therefore tend to be local and specific and characteristic of a particular literate society.

      The Canadian economist Harold Innis classified writing systems into two basic types: those that bind through time, exemplified by Egyptian hieroglyphics (hieroglyphic writing) carved in stone and Akkadian cuneiform incised in clay, and those that bind across space, exemplified by the portable papyri used by the Romans. Writing used to store information for posterity may be considered to serve an archival function. Such writing may be used not only for constructing, accumulating, and preserving records of political, religious, scientific, and literary interest but also for the more mundane purpose of keeping trade accounts and records. Writing used to transmit information across space, as in letters, encyclicals, newspapers, and the like, may be considered to serve a communicative function. Writing used for purely private ends, such as to record notes, diaries, or other personal data, may be considered to serve a mnemonic function.

      Almost any notational form may be used for mnemonic purposes, for only the person who “wrote” the message needs to be able to “read” it. The carved notches in a wooden counting stick or the pebbles in a counting sack corresponding to the number of cattle under the care of a cowherd are a suitable aide-mémoire, since the writer knows what the notches or pebbles represent. But such a system could not be read by others; it would not be clear what the notches represented or even that they represented anything at all. For a writing system to be communicative, the signs must be conventionalized so that the meaning can be grasped by other readers. Such a system may be restricted to a small set of familiar messages that can be read by a limited circle of acquaintances. But for a writing system to serve an archival function, it must be sufficiently conventionalized to permit decoding and interpretation by readers who may know nothing about the writer or the message. It is only with the development of explicit writing systems capable of representing the nuances conveyed in speech that writing can be used archivally or communicatively.

Types of writing systems
      A writing system, technically referred to as a script or an orthography, consists of a set of visible marks, forms, or structures called characters or graphs that are related to some structure in the linguistic system. Roughly speaking, if a character represents a meaningful unit, such as a morpheme or a word, the orthography is called a logographic writing system; if it represents a syllable, it is called a syllabic writing system; if a segment of a syllable, it is called a consonantal writing system or an unvocalized syllabary; and if a phoneme, it is called an alphabetic system. (A phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet devised by the International Phonetic Association, is one designed to transcribe any oral language into a common script.) Finally, a writing system such as Hangul, based upon the articulatory features that underlie the phoneme (such as voicing and place of articulation), is called a featural writing system. These relations may be depicted as follows:

      While relatively pure examples of these different types of script are known, most writing systems that have been used for general purposes combine properties of more than one type.

      Pictorial signs (pictography), such as the informational signs at an international airport (insofar as they can properly be called writing), can bear explicit linguistic messages only because of the extremely limited set of alternatives from which a reader must choose. Such writing is of little use for conveying new messages, since there is no convention for decoding them and to that extent it cannot be a general writing system. It can, however, serve a limited set of purposes efficiently.

      General writing systems all analyze the linguistic form into constituents of meaning or sound. Chinese script is primarily a logographic script; each word or morpheme is represented by a single graph or character. Two words, even if they sound exactly the same, will be represented by entirely dissimilar characters. But, as the number of distinguishable words in a language can run into the tens of thousands (written English has a recorded vocabulary of more than 500,000 words), the number of logographic characters to be memorized is extremely large.

      Syllabaries (syllabary) provide a distinctive symbol for each distinct syllable. A syllable is a unit of speech composed of a vowel sound or a combination of consonant and vowel sounds; the sounds pa, pe, pi, po, pu are different syllables and are easily distinguished in a word. The word paper has two syllables, pa-per. A syllabary such as Linear B (Linear A and Linear B), the Mycenaean script dating from about 1400 BC, would have a graph for each of those syllables. Syllables are the most readily distinguishable units of speech; consequently, the earliest of the sound-based, or phonographic, writing systems are syllabic. The number of syllables in a language, while differing considerably from language to language, is always quite large; hence, some hundreds of graphs may be required to make a functioning syllabary. Even then, such writing systems are far from explicit, for any string of syllabic graphs may be read in a number of different ways. The reading of such a script would rely upon the reader's prior knowledge and ability to work from the context, along with some guesswork.

      Consonantal writing systems, as the name implies, represent the consonantal value of a syllable while ignoring the vocalic element. Such a system, therefore, would represent the syllables pa, pe, pi, po, pu with a single character. Such scripts have graphs for consonant sounds but not for vowel sounds, with the result that a certain amount of guesswork is involved in determining which syllable is being represented. This ambiguity, however, should not be overemphasized. When a consonantal system is used to represent a language like English, in which vowels differentiate root morphemes (in English, pat, pet, pit, pot, put are all different morphemes), discarding the vowel results in a highly ambiguous written expression that can be understood only by a reader who already has a good idea of the content of the written message. But in Semitic languages, such as Hebrew and Arabic, the absence of characters representing vowels is much less serious, because in these languages vowel differences generally do not distinguish morphemes. Vowel differences mark inflections, such as tense and aspect, that, while of some importance to the representation of meaning, are both more readily recovered from context and less likely to change the overall meaning. The failure to notice the intimate relation between the morphophonemic structure of the language and the type of orthography has led some scholars to underestimate the efficiency of consonantal writing systems and, perhaps, to overestimate the centrality of the invention of the alphabet to the evolution of Western culture.

      Alphabetic writing systems represent the phonological structure of the language. The smallest pronounceable segment of speech is a syllable, but a syllable may be analyzed into the distinctive underlying constituents called phonemes. The syllable pa is produced by passing a column of air through the vocal cords, an action that constitutes the vocalic element, bounded at the outset by sudden release of air through the lips, an action that constitutes the consonantal element. The achievement of the alphabet is to analyze the syllable into its underlying consonant and vowel constituents. The economy of representation comes from the fact that a large number of syllables can be generated from a small set of these constituents. An alphabet consisting of 21 consonants and 5 vowels can generate 105 simple consonant-and-vowel syllables and more than 2,000 consonant-vowel-consonant syllables. In short, an alphabet can represent a full range of phonological differences. It is a script particularly suited to representing a language in which morphological differences are marked in phonological differences; it is less useful for a language like Chinese, in which one syllable represents a large number of morphemes. For the Chinese language a logographic system is more efficient.

      Featural writing systems exploit the fact that even phonemes are not the most fundamental units of analysis of speech. Rather, phonemes may be analyzed into sets of distinctive features. The phonemes represented by the letters n and d share the feature of the tongue touching the alveolar ridge above the upper teeth. Featural writing systems analyze the sounds described as consonants and vowels into their shared and distinguishing features. Examples of writing systems that employ a featural approach at least in part are the Korean Hangul script, created, according to tradition, by King Sejong (Sejong) in the 15th century, and Pitman shorthand, a system for rapid writing invented in Britain in the 19th century. In Hangul, vowels are represented by long horizontal or vertical lines distinguished by small marks, while consonants are represented by two-dimensional signs that suggest the articulations involved: pairs of lines representing lips together, tongue touching the roof of the mouth, an open throat, and the like. As the phonological system is organized around some dozen such features, an efficient script can be constructed out of 24 basic graphs. In addition, such a script makes syllables visually discriminable by organizing them into blocks to facilitate rapid reading. Such properties led the British linguist Geoffrey Sampson to say:

Whether or not it is ultimately the best of all conceivable scripts for Korean, Han'gul must unquestionably rank as one of the great intellectual achievements of humankind.

      No orthography is a pure system. The clearest example of logographic writing, Chinese, consists not only of characters representing meanings but also of secondary characters based on sound similarity for representing meanings that were difficult to picture. It therefore relies upon both word-based and sound-based principles. On the other hand, alphabets, which are primarily sound-based, also use fixed letter strings to represent the same meaningful unit even if the pronunciation of that unit varies in different contexts. So, for example, the common spelling for the root photo is preserved in the words photograph and photography even though they are pronounced somewhat differently. Conversely, alphabets often provide different graphic representations for homophones (words that sound identical but have different meanings) the more clearly to distinguish their meanings, as in meat, meet, mete; pain, pane; be, bee. The morphemic unit is so fundamental to the reading process that some linguists have concluded that, for an orthography to be practical and efficient, it is more important to provide an invariant visual form for each meaningful unit than for each sound unit.

      The shaping of a writing system to make it suitable for a wide range of cultural purposes required other developments besides the invention of a system of characters for representing linguistic form. To facilitate fast and accurate recognition, the form of writing was improved by introducing spaces between the words, developing conventions for punctuation and paragraphing, and simplifying graphic forms. This evolution continued through the invention of printing and the invention of type fonts (see history of typography (typography)). And to exploit the aesthetic properties of the writing system, artistic forms of writing were developed (see calligraphy).

History of writing systems
      While spoken or signed language is a more or less universal human competence that has been characteristic of the species from the beginning and that is commonly acquired by human beings without systematic instruction, writing is a technology of relatively recent history that must be taught to each generation of children. Historical accounts of the evolution of writing systems have until recently concentrated on a single aspect, increased efficiency, with the Greek (ancient Greek civilization) invention of the alphabet being regarded as the culmination of a long historical evolution. This efficiency is a product of a limited and manageable set of graphs that can express the full range of meanings in a language. As the British classicist Eric A. Havelock wrote,

At a stroke the Greeks provided a table of elements of linguistic sound not only manageable because of economy, but for the first time in the history of homo sapiens, also accurate.

      The Polish American Assyriologist Ignace Gelb distinguished four stages in this evolution, beginning with picture writing, which expressed ideas directly; followed by word-based writing systems; then by sound-based syllabic writing systems, including unvocalized syllabaries or consonantal systems; and concluding with the Greek invention of the alphabet.

      The invention of the alphabet is a major achievement of Western culture. It is also unique; the alphabet was invented only once, though it has been borrowed by many cultures. It is a model of analytic thinking, breaking down perceptible qualities like syllables into more basic constituents. And because it is capable of conveying subtle differences in meaning, it has come to be used for the expression of a great many of the functions served by speech. The alphabet requires little of the reader beyond familiarity with its orthography. It allows the reader to decipher words newly encountered and permits the invention of spellings for new patterns of sound, including proper names (a problem that is formidable for nonalphabetic systems). Finally, its explicitness permits readers to make a relatively sharp distinction between the tasks of deciphering and interpreting. Less explicit orthographies require the reader first to grasp the meaning of a passage as a whole in order to decide which of several possible word meanings a particular graphic string represents.

      It must be remembered, however, that efficiency depends not only on the nature of the writing system but also on the functions required of it by its users, for orthographies are invented to serve particular cultural purposes. Furthermore, an orthography invented to satisfy one purpose may acquire new applications. For instance, writing systems invented to serve mnemonic purposes were subsequently elaborated and used for communicative and archival purposes. Orthographies were not invented as art forms, but, once invented, they could serve aesthetic functions.

      Notions of explicitness of representation depend on the morphophonemic structure of the language. An alphabet was a notable advance for representing the Greek language but not necessarily for representing a Semitic language. Moreover, for languages such as Chinese and Japanese, which have simple syllabic structures and a great number of homophones, a writing system that depended on phonological structure, such as a syllabary or an alphabet, would be extremely inefficient. It is with such factors in mind that late 20th-century accounts of writing systems stressed how many different orthographies may function efficiently, given the particular language they are used to represent. Just as linguists have abandoned the notion of progressive evolution of languages, with some languages ranking as more primitive than others, so historians of writing have come to treat existing orthographies as appropriate to the languages they represent.

      Nonetheless, all contemporary orthographies have a history of development, and there are many common features in these histories. It is unlikely that writing was invented only once and then borrowed by different cultural groups. While all Western writing systems may be traced back to the beginnings of symbol making in Sumer, there is no reason to believe that Asian writing systems were borrowed from the Sumerian form. Consequently, there are two quite separate histories of writing, that of the writing system developed by the Sumerians and that of the one developed by the Chinese.

Sumerian (Sumerian language) writing
      The outline of the development of the Sumerian writing system has been worked out by paleographers. It has long been known that the earliest writing system in the world was Sumerian script, which in its later stages was known as cuneiform. The earliest stages of development are still a matter of much speculation based on fragmentary evidence. The French American archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat, building on a hypothesis advanced by the Assyriologist Pierre Amiet of the Louvre, demonstrated a series of small steps leading from the use of tokens for simple bookkeeping purposes to the development of written tablets on which graphs of the script stand for morphemes of spoken Sumerian (Sumerian language). Archaeologists have discovered in lower Mesopotamia (now southern Iraq) large numbers of small, distinctively shaped clay objects. These are thought to date back to as early as 8000 BC, about the time that hunter-gatherer societies were giving way to an agricultural way of life. A greatly elaborated set of these clay shapes—some shaped like jars and some like various animals and occasionally inserted in clay envelopes—dates from 3500 BC, about the time of the rise of cities. Some of the envelopes have markings that correspond to the clay shapes inside. Moreover, these markings are more or less similar to the shapes drawn on clay tablets that date back to about 3100 BC and that are unambiguously related to the Sumerian language. These markings are thought to constitute a logographic form of writing consisting of some 1,200 different characters representing numerals, names, and such material objects as cloth and cow.

      The theory advanced by Schmandt-Besserat to explain this transformation is that the clay shapes are tokens representing agricultural goods such as grain, sheep, and cattle and that they were used as a form of bookkeeping. The multiplication of types of tokens could correspond to the increase in the number of kinds of goods that were exchanged with the rise of urbanization in the 4th millennium BC. Tokens placed in an envelope might have constituted a sort of “bill of lading” or a record of indebtedness. To serve as a reminder of the contents of the envelope so that every reader would not need to break open the envelope to read the contents, corresponding shapes were impressed upon the envelope. But if the content was marked on the envelope, there was no need to put the tokens in an envelope at all; the envelope could be flattened into a convenient surface and the shapes impressed on it. Now that there was no need for the tokens at all, their message was simply inscribed into the clay. These shapes, drawn in the wet clay with a reed stylus or a pointed stick, constituted the first writing.

 The historical record is much more explicit after 3200 BC and reveals clearly the stages involved in the evolution from a limited system of notation suitable for recording particular events into a full general-purpose orthography. Archaic Sumerian used mostly graphs representing numerals, names for objects, and names of persons. Graphs for numerals were geometric shapes, while those for objects were often stylized pictures of the things they represented. Yet the system was a genuine logographic writing system generally adequate to economic and administrative purposes. With the substitution of a blunt writing stylus for a pointed one, the symbols become less picturelike and more conventionalized. The writing system takes the name cuneiform from the shape of the strokes that form the symbols (from Latin cuneus, “wedge”).

      The next major stage in the evolution of Sumerian writing was the adoption of the phonographic principle, the use of a sign to represent a common sound rather than a common meaning. For example, the graph representing “water” appears to have been used also to represent the locative suffix “in,” because the latter sounded the same as, or similar to, the word water. It is as if in English a person used the word ball to stand for a person named Bill on the grounds that it is easy to represent the ball with a circular graph while there is no obvious way to represent Bill, and the two words sound similar. The Sumerian script, however, remained primarily logographic and resorted to phonographic signs only when forced to, for representing unpicturable words and for distinguishing ambiguous graphs.

      Sumerian script was adopted in the 3rd millennium BC by the Akkadians (Akkadian language), who greatly expanded the phonographic properties of the script. The Assyrians and the Babylonians, both speaking dialects of the Akkadian language, were responsible for most of the cuneiform writing in a form known today as Akkadian cuneiform.

Alphabetic systems
      While cuneiform had many graphs that represented syllables, many syllables were not represented. The methods used for representing syllables that did not have distinctive graphs were quite unsystematic. The first writing system consistently based on the sound structure of a language was Linear B (Linear A and Linear B), a Mycenaean Greek orthography developed about 1400 BC and deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris (Ventris, Michael), an English architect and cryptographer. The script is strictly syllabic; each consonant-vowel pair is given a distinctive graph. As an example, a set of syllables that an alphabetic system would represent with the consonant p plus a vowel are all represented in Linear B by different graphs. Although the script is highly systematic, it provides a limited representation of the phonology of Mycenaean Greek. Greek (Greek language) contains many syllables that are not simple consonant-vowel combinations, and not all consonantal sounds are followed by vowels. Linear B is thus an incomplete script for representing the phonological structures of the spoken language. Hence, there are usually several ways of reading a series of Linear B graphs, and a correct reading depends upon the reader's knowing what the text is about.

      The final stage in the evolution of writing systems was the discovery of the alphabetic principle, the procedure of breaking the syllable into its constituent consonantal and vowel sounds. (See also alphabet.) According to the British linguist Geoffrey Sampson, “Most, and probably all, ‘alphabetic' scripts derive from a single ancestor: the Semitic alphabet (North Semitic alphabet), created sometime in the 2nd millennium [BC].” The Semitic script was invented by speakers of some Semitic (Semitic languages) language, possibly Phoenician, who lived in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent. Modern versions of Semitic script include the Hebrew script and the Arabic script. Their most prominent characteristic is that they have graphs for consonants but not for vowels.

      The inventors of the Semitic orthography apparently took the acrophonic principle, that of representing sounds by pictures of things whose names begin with that sound, from Egyptian hieroglyphic (hieroglyph), a form of writing not different in principle from Akkadian cuneiform. The hieroglyphic sign

, depicting waves of water, represented the sound /n/, the first sound of the spoken word for water. By means of this principle a 22-graph system was constructed with a memorized order, beginning alef, bet, gimel, that was suitable for representing a full range of meanings. These graphs represented the consonants of the language, vowels remaining unrepresented. This fact has led some scholars, notably Gelb and Havelock, to claim that Semitic scripts are not true alphabets but rather unvocalized syllabaries. Other scholars, noting that the graphs represent consonants rather than syllables—for example, pa, pe, pi, po, and pu would all be represented by the same character—insist that the script is an alphabet. The controversy is circumvented by referring to Semitic scripts, following Sampson, as consonantal writing systems. While such a script would be greatly limited in explicitness or completeness for a language with complex syllable structure such as English, it is relatively complete for Semitic languages in which vowel differences are rarely contrastive.

      To illustrate, the following oral forms have in common the three consonantal phonemes /k/, /t/, and /b/ with different vowel sounds interdigitated. The meanings all contain the root meaning “write,” and the vowel differences mark subject, tense, and aspect: katab ‘he wrote,' katabi ‘I wrote,' katebu ‘they wrote,' ketob ‘write,' koteb ‘writing,' katub ‘being written.' All are written simply ktb.

      Because vowel sounds generally distinguish grammatical rather than lexical meaning, some Semitic writing systems never developed any device for representing them. This is not necessarily a flaw in the orthography. Indicating the vowels could cause some confusion for the reader because, instead of a single root, there would now be a multiplicity of written words, each reflecting a particular grammatical context. Nonetheless, ignoring the vowels does result in an orthography that is far from explicit or complete; many ambiguities in decoding remain. Consequently, some scripts, such as Hebrew, added matres lectionis, literally “mothers of reading,” a pointing system to distinguish the vowel sounds. These were used especially for preserving the precise reading of sacred texts. To this day they are used in books written to be read by beginning readers and in poetry and other writings of which the prior knowledge of the reader may not be sufficient to reduce the residual ambiguity.

      The transition from consonantal writing to alphabetic writing, writing with full representation of both consonants and vowels, occurred when the Semitic script was adapted to the Greek (Greek alphabet) language. This occurred about 1000–900 BC. Scholars have traditionally considered the Greek invention as a stroke of genius. While not minimizing the significance of the Greek invention, it is now recognized that the invention of the alphabet was in fact the rather straightforward consequence of applying a script invented for representing one kind of language to a quite different kind.

      The letters used by the Greeks to represent consonantal sounds were borrowed rather directly from the Semitic script. What was distinctive was that the Greeks used six of the Semitic letters, those that represented sounds that did not occur in Greek, to represent vowel sounds. Greek, like English, is an Indo-European language that uses vowel distinctions to make lexical contrasts. Moreover, words may consist simply of vowels, words may begin with vowels, and words with adjacent vowels are not uncommon. Such forms are rare in Semitic languages in which simple consonant-vowel syllable structures predominate and in which vowel differences usually mark only grammatical inflections. Sampson suggested that in the Semitic language some of the consonants that preceded a vowel sound may have been nonphonemic to the Greeks, who thus in hearing the syllable would have heard only a vowel corresponding to a vowel already prominent in the Greek language.

      The Romans borrowed the Greek alphabet (along with many Greek words and much of Greek culture) to form the Roman, or Latin (Latin alphabet), alphabet. Written “learned” Latin was the language of state and of scholarship in Europe until the end of the Middle Ages. Further developments of the alphabet resulted from changes in the phonology of Latin and of the Romance languages that evolved from it. For English, the differentiation of all the 26 letters was completed only in the 19th century.

      While the invention of logographic writing, the later invention of the principle of phonetization, the analysis of syllables into a consonantal writing system, and the addition of vowels to make a full alphabet do constitute progress toward an efficient, economical, explicit, and complete writing system, this progress was not simply a matter of increasing insight. Advances resulted from attempts to apply a writing system invented for one language to another language for which it was not completely appropriate. Yet the accumulated discoveries yielded an analysis of deeper and deeper levels of linguistic structure of the type associated with discoveries in the natural sciences. For this reason, writing has almost always been the means not only for transcribing speech but also for uncovering its underlying structure. That is, to a large extent, writing is what has made people conscious of the properties of speech.

      Observation of children learning to read and write an alphabetic orthography suggests that children pass through some of the same stages in interpreting the code that the writing system itself passed through in the course of its development. The youngest child's hypothesis about writing is that words must be similar in some way to the objects they represent. Thus, at the earliest stage, children think that the word train must be represented by a long word because it is a long thing. Similarly, they think that two little pigs must be represented by two words, one for each pig, and so on. Later they invent the hypotheses that writing represents words rather than things and that these words are series of sounds. At this point children may write the word with a series of consonants: cat becomes kt. Only later do they recognize the alphabetic principle that words must be written with both consonants and vowels.

      Yet the evolution of the alphabet, an invention of enormous importance for Greek and for all Indo-European languages, was of little use for Semitic languages, in which the vowels played a smaller role than in Greek. And it was of no use at all for Chinese, which is a monosyllabic language with a great many homophones.

Chinese writing and its derivatives
      At about the time the Semitic alphabet was being developed, the Chinese were working on their very different writing system, one that best suited their language. Chinese is a language with clearly distinguished syllables, each of which corresponds to a meaningful unit, a morpheme. As it is an “isolating” language, rather than an inflected language like Latin or, to a lesser degree, English, each morpheme is represented separately by a separate syllable. Whereas in English one word (for example, make) yields, when inflected, a family of related words (make, makes, making, made, etc.), in Chinese one character would represent one morpheme (e.g., make). Because each morpheme is represented by a different character and because the number of morphemes in a language is far larger than the number of syllables, such a writing system needs an extremely large number of characters or graphs. For a more detailed history of writing in Chinese, see Chinese writing.

      As mentioned above (writing), the system that developed for Chinese is logographic: basically, symbols represent meaningful units of the language. As in cuneiform writing, simple signs based on pictures soon gave way to complex signs that included reference to sound. Still, a very large number of characters were needed, and by 1400 BC the script included some 2,500 to 3,000 characters, most of which can be read to this day. To resolve the remaining problem of ambiguity, characters were modified so that sounds and meaning together could differentiate them. Although spoken Chinese continues to include many possible meanings for a given syllable, the written form became unambiguous. The correspondence between morpheme and graph resulted in about 40,000 characters; a literate Chinese person needs to know perhaps 4,000. Attempts at simplification tend to reintroduce ambiguity and make the language more difficult to read; the existing written system has endured intelligibly through many changes in the spoken language. For a more thorough treatment of the relationship between writing and language in Chinese, see Chinese languages: Historical survey of Chinese (Chinese languages).

Japanese writing
      The Japanese (Japanese language) came into contact with Chinese culture during the Chinese Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), and they began to write their own language in the 5th century AD, basing their writing system on the Chinese model. But the two languages are fundamentally different in structure: whereas Chinese words are monosyllables, Japanese words often consist of several syllables, and, whereas Chinese is an isolating language, Japanese is an inflected language. To write such a language, the Japanese developed a mixed system, partly logographic, based on the Chinese system, and partly syllabic, using the same characters in a second way for their sound values. In kun writing Chinese characters were used to represent Japanese words that have a similar meaning, while other characters were adopted to represent sounds.

      In the 8th century the phonographic principle was applied more systematically in a writing system called man'yōgana, a syllabary very similar in form to the Semitic alphabet. However, given the large number of homophones and the fact that man'yōgana was combined with kun writing, it was almost impossible to establish a single correct reading of a text. Indeed, scribes took pride in being able to read the same text in various ways.

      In the 9th or 10th century two sets of syllabic signs evolved: hiragana, or “plain” kana, which consists of simplified outlines, written cursively, of Chinese characters, and katakana, or “partial” kana, which consists of carefully written parts of the original Chinese characters. Writing with the full Chinese characters is called kanji. The two sets of kana characters are limited as are other syllabaries in that they are not unambiguous; kanji are unambiguous but are very complex visually. Consequently, modern Japanese writing uses a combination of characters from all three of these systems. In 1946 a standardizing reform established a limited list of 1,850 kanji (enlarged to 1,945 in 1981) and encouraged the use of kana for all other words. Modern written Japanese uses many more hiragana graphs than kanji in a piece of text.

      Even with modern reforms, written Japanese is difficult to read unambiguously because of the great degree of homophony in the vocabulary. The word kan, for example, is the equivalent of “sweet,” “be affected,” “print,” “be accustomed to,” “view,” “investigate,” “slow,” “tube,” “enjoy,” “a volume,” “Chinese,” and “Korean,” among other meanings. As a result, a reader must know rather precisely what is being discussed in order to read a text accurately. Poetry in particular takes quite a different form in Japanese than in Indo-European languages. (For more on the relationship between the language and the writing, see Japanese language: Linguistic characteristics of modern Japanese (Japanese language).

Korean writing
      Korea too was greatly influenced by Chinese institutions and culture. Until the 20th century the normal medium of written communication was in Chinese, using the Chinese writing system. But beginning about the 6th century, the Chinese script was adapted to write Korean. The application of Chinese script to the Korean language created problems almost identical to those that arose in using Chinese to write the Japanese language. Yet the borrowed kanji script continues to be used for some purposes to this day. The most remarkable development in Korean writing was the invention of Hangul by King Sejong in 1446. It is a featural script consisting of some 24 letters that have a systematic visual structure directly related to the phonetic features of the phonemes. This writing system owes nothing to the Chinese orthography. The development of Korean writing is discussed in more detail in Korean language: Linguistic history and writing systems (Korean language).

      Because the principles employed by various writing systems vary greatly and because the languages they represent are organized so differently, it is difficult to state any general principles of the evolution of writing systems. Yet it appears that they all began with motivated pictorial signs representing objects. To turn such signs into a general orthography required the recognition that the signs must represent sound patterns and the consequent invention of the phonographic principle. Depending on the language, such sound-based systems developed in two directions. Western scripts went farthest in the phonographic direction, representing words by means of syllables and syllables by means of consonantal writing systems and eventually developing a full vocalic alphabet. Eastern scripts preserved the logographic principle even though some of the logographs were sound-based; each word was represented by a distinctive visual character. Only one practical orthography, Korean, adopted a featural system, and that invention bore little or no relation to neighbouring orthographies.

Literacy: the uses of writing

The rise of literacy
      The invention of devices for representing language is inextricably related to issues of literacy—that is, to issues of who can use the script and what it can be used for. Competence with written language, in both reading and writing, is known as literacy. High levels of literacy are required for using scripts for a wide range of somewhat specialized functions. When a large number of individuals in a society are competent in using written language to serve these functions, the whole society may be referred to as a literate society.

      Just as scripts have a history, so too does literacy. This history closely reflects the increasing number of ways in which written materials have been used and the increasing number of readers who have been able to use them. Scripts were elaborated to serve new purposes; more importantly, new kinds of writing systems permitted them to serve a wider range of purposes by a larger number of individuals.

      Although the uses of writing reflect a host of religious, political, and social factors and hence are not determined simply by orthography, two dimensions of the script are important in understanding the growth of literacy: learnability and expressive power. Learnability refers to the ease with which the script can be acquired, and expressive power refers to the script's resources for unambiguously expressing the full range of meanings available in the oral language. These two dimensions are inversely related to each other. Simple restricted scripts are readily learned. Pictographic (pictography) signs such as those used in “environmental writing” and logographic scripts with a limited set of characters are easiest to learn and, indeed, are acquired more or less automatically by children. Syllabaries (syllabary) such as the Cree syllabary are reported to be learnable in a day, while the indigenous Liberian Vai syllabary is learned in a few days. Consonantal scripts and alphabets are difficult to learn and usually require a few years of schooling. Full logographic systems such as Chinese or mixed systems such as Japanese are difficult to acquire because they require the memorization of thousands of distinctive characters. Once learned, however, they appear to function as well as alphabets.

      But pictographic signs and logographic scripts with a limited readily learnable set of graphs are restricted to expressing a limited range of meanings. Syllabaries are highly ambiguous and hence dependent on knowledge not only of the script but also on the likely content of the message. Syllabaries therefore serve a restricted set of functions, primarily personal correspondence. They are of limited use in expressing novel meanings that could be read in the same way by all readers of the script. Consonantal and alphabetic writing systems can express essentially all the lexical and grammatical meanings in the language (but not the intonation) and are thus highly suitable for the expression of original meanings. They constitute an ideal medium for technical, legal, literary, and scientific texts that must be read in the same way by readers dispersed in both time and space. Some scholars have held that the high degree of literacy in the West is a consequence of the optimality of the alphabet in balancing the two dimensions of learnability and expressive power. Such generalizations, however, ignore the fact that the “optimal” balance may differ from language to language. A consonantal writing system is almost as complete for Hebrew as the alphabet is for Greek, but a consonantal writing system would be hopelessly ambiguous for Greek. Similarly, a syllabary or an alphabet would be quite useless for Chinese, a language with a staggering degree of homophony. Logographic systems achieve a comparable level of explicitness by the addition of new characters, but the ease of addition is traded off against the ease of acquisition. Instead of attempting to determine whether one system is better than another, it is perhaps more reasonable to assume that each script is optimal for the language it represents and for the functions it has evolved to serve.

      The ease of acquisition of a script is an important factor in determining whether a script remains the possession of an elite or whether it can be democratized—that is, turned into a possession of ordinary people. Syllabaries are readily learned, but their residual ambiguity tends to restrict their uses. Alphabets have been viewed by many historians as decisive in the democratization of writing; alphabetic writing could become a possession of ordinary people and yet serve a full range of functions. However, democratization of a script appears to have more to do with the availability of reading materials and of instruction in reading and the perceived relevance of literacy skills to the readers. Even in a literate society, most readers learn to read only a narrow range of written materials; specialized materials, such as those pertaining to science or government, remain the domain of elites who have acquired additional education.

      The second factor determining the social breadth of the use of writing is the range of functions that a script serves. The functions served are directly related to the orthography. Early forms of writing served an extremely narrow range of functions and were wholly unsuitable for others. While tokens served for simple record keeping, and early Sumerian writing was useful for a range of administrative purposes, a relatively complete script is required for writing histories, edicts, treaties, and scientific and literary works that, to be useful, must be read in the same way by all readers. Considerable scholarly controversy surrounds the question of the role of the invention of more complete or explicit scripts, such as the alphabet, in the evolution of these more specialized uses of language. If the alphabet were decisive, one could look for the basis of many of the particular features of Western culture in the invention of an alphabetic orthography.

      This question is far from resolved. Historically, the rise of cities coincided with the development of a script suitable for serving bureaucratic purposes. Later, the scientific and philosophical tradition that originated in Classical Greece and that prevails in the West to this day developed along with the alphabet. Many writers, including Eric Havelock, have maintained that the alphabet was a decisive factor in the cultural development of the West. Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan and American scholar Walter J. Ong have claimed that the rise of literacy and the decline of “orality” in the later Middle Ages were fundamental to the cultural flowering known as the Renaissance.

      It is perhaps characteristic of alphabet-based conceptions of literacy to draw a strict distinction between reading and interpreting. As interpretation came to be seen as interpolation into or distortion of the text, the attempt was made to write texts in such a manner as to reduce the possibility of variant interpretations. This resulted in the attempt to write texts with univocal meanings, texts that mean neither more nor less than what they say. To achieve this required the formalization of grammatical structures, the conventionalization of meanings of terms, and the invention of standard punctuation. Such textual developments were especially important for the specialized functions of science and philosophy. The distinction between meaning and interpretation fostered the idea that texts have a literal meaning, that knowledge can be completely expressed by means of such literal meanings, and that texts can be autonomous and objective. In the Western tradition, knowledge is treated as if it were an ideal text, as something that is regarded by most learners as given rather than created. These assumptions about meaning were important to both the literary and the scientific traditions that took form in western Europe in the 17th century and that continue to this day.

      The particular form of writing, whether logographic, syllabic, or alphabetic, is less important than the existence of some form that is general enough to serve a full range of purposes. Literate societies, whether Chinese or Sumerian, have always been esteemed by nonliterate societies, which have borrowed heavily from them. Thus, the Romans borrowed Greek literacy, and the Japanese and Koreans borrowed Chinese literacy. Once adopted and used for administrative, scientific, legal, and literary purposes, literacy altered the society that it was part of in a variety of ways.

      Writing allows exactly repeatable statements to be circulated widely and preserved. It allows readers to scan a text back and forth and to study, compare, and interpret at their leisure. It allows writers to deliberate over word choice and to construct lists, tables, recipes, and indexes. It fosters an objectified sense of time, a linear conception of space. It separates the message from the author and from the context in which it was written, thereby “decontextualizing,” or universalizing the meaning of, language. It allows the creation of new forms of verbal structure, such as the syllogism, and of numerical structures, such as the multiplication table. When writing becomes a predominant institutional and archival form, it has contributed to the replacement of myth by history and the replacement of magic by skepticism and science. Writing has permitted the development of extensive bureaucracy, accounting, and legal systems organized on the basis of explicit rules and procedures. Writing has replaced face-to-face governance with written law and depersonalized administrative procedures. And, on the other hand, it has turned writers from scribes into authors and thereby contributed to the recognition of the importance of the thoughts of individuals and consequently to the development of individualism.

Literacy and schooling
      Whereas oral language is learned quite independently of whether it is taught or not, literacy is largely dependent upon teaching (education). While some local or indigenous scripts are taught relatively informally by parents or someone who knows the script well, widespread or universal literacy is dependent upon schooling. Indeed, in many societies schooling and literacy have been almost synonymous. Schools in such diverse places as Sumer and China developed concurrently with the development of a full writing system and were concerned primarily with teaching first adults and later children to read and write. And it is inconceivable that modern technological societies could survive without schools to develop high levels of literacy.

      Although schooling is critical to the development of literacy, it is not by itself sufficient. Historians have shown that the level of literacy produced by the schools of any society is directly tied to the functions and levels of literacy in the society as a whole. Consequently, it is unrealistic to expect that a modern literate society could be created simply through establishing schools and teaching children to read. Schools tend to reflect the society rather than to change it dramatically. Schooling in Western societies is successful in achieving relatively high levels of literacy in part because of the literacy practices in the larger society. When compulsory schooling was introduced in Britain, Europe, and America in the 19th century, it was nurtured by an environment of “lay” literacy in which as much as 75 percent of the population could use written materials for such informal purposes as keeping diaries, reading and writing notes and letters, and personal record keeping. Such a climate of widespread practical literacy is important to the effectiveness of schooling. The relation between literate practices in the home and the level of literacy achieved by children in the school has been amply documented.

      It is common to think of literacy as the simple ability to read and write. Such thinking is in part a consequence of the naive assumption that alphabetic literacy is a matter simply of decoding graphs into sounds and vice versa. In fact, literacy involves competence in reading, writing, and interpreting texts of various sorts. It involves both skill in decoding and higher levels of comprehension and interpretation. These higher levels depend upon knowledge both of specialized uses of language and of specialized bodies of knowledge. The intimate relations between language, literacy, and specialized bodies of knowledge have contributed to the identification of literacy with schooling.

      As different scripts serve different functions and make different demands upon readers, it is a complex matter to define literacy in universal terms and so to judge the literacy levels of a society at different periods or to compare one society with another. Scripts that, because of incompleteness or inexplicitness, rely heavily upon the prior knowledge of reader and writer remain the domain of a specialized elite, as did cuneiform, or they are used for rather restricted purposes, as is Cree syllabic. Scripts that are relatively explicit and complete permit a reader who is unfamiliar with a text to read it in a reliable way and hence can be used for a much broader range of functions.

      The form of the script may be less crucial than the range of functions a script serves and the breadth of its readership—that is, the degree of literacy of the society. With the growth of readership come increased production of materials to be read, increased number of social functions the script is used for, and the invention of new, more specialized genres of writing. The novel form, by some lights, was invented in Europe only in the 17th century, when there was a broadly based reading public. Other specialized uses of writing developed much earlier. As European societies became more literate during the Middle Ages, writing came to be used for functions that earlier had been performed by oral language and by ritual. Indenture of servants, deeding of property, evidence at trials, and accounts of the lives of saints all came to be functions of written texts. As literacy began to be required for these vital social purposes, oral language came to be seen as loose and unruly and lacking in social authority. And people who could not read and write came to be regarded as rude and ignorant—in short, unlettered.

      Rising levels of literacy in Europe were closely related to great social transformations, notably the Protestant Reformation and the rise of modern science. The right to read the Bible for oneself and to discover its meaning was the fundamental tenet of Protestantism (Protestant Heritage), and the private study and verification of written texts was important to science. Both of these functions were enormously facilitated by the development of printing from movable type and by the translation of important books from scholarly Latin into vernacular languages. With the increase in the uses of writing and the spread of printing, there were more texts to read. Concurrently, European society as a whole became more literate in two ways: more individuals learned to read and write their native tongues, and even those who could not themselves read and write came to rely upon written documents as loci of authority and significance. In the 18th and 19th centuries in western Europe and in America, even before the establishment of compulsory schooling, more than half of the population had some competence in reading and writing. Compulsory schooling had, by the end of the 19th century, spread literacy to most of the population.

      Partly because of the close tie between schooling and literacy, literacy levels are often defined exclusively in terms of the number of years that a person has attended school. Educational institutions usually differentiate a basic, or functional, level of literacy, roughly equivalent to 6 years of schooling, from a high level of literacy, a level of competence roughly equivalent to 10–12 years of schooling. Such categorical distinctions have been criticized because they are insensitive to the diversity of particular uses of literacy in even a literate society and the irrelevance of the school to many of them. Many people incapable of or uninterested in reading continuous texts pertaining to science and literature nonetheless read menus, catalogs, letters, labels, warnings, invoices, and a range of other materials of relevance and interest to them.

      Moreover, literacy levels are judged against a sliding standard. The more literate the society becomes, the higher a standard of literacy is judged as functional. In 17th-century Sweden a person was judged as literate, and allowed to marry, if he could read bits of the catechism and sign the church registry. In the United States at the time of World War II, the army defined a minimal level of literacy for soldiers being screened for military service as that normally achieved in the fifth grade (about 10 years of age). By 1966 the criterion of functional literacy in the United States had been raised to completion of secondary school by the Adult Education Act passed by Congress in that year.

      Using this criterion, some writers have claimed that up to 25 percent of adults in the United States and other developed countries are functionally illiterate. Some commentators see in such figures a social problem of great importance and promote various programs of educational reform intended to produce higher levels of literacy. However, most scholars criticize such statistics as meaningless on two grounds. First, they are based on a questionable identification of competence with success in a single institution, the school, rather than in the relevant contexts of application. Second, they do not adequately reflect the extent to which even those individuals who are classified as functionally illiterate depend upon and participate in literate activities in modern societies. Such persons know how to participate in a great many literacy-based institutions—how to read signs, labels, and letters, how to deal with ballots, how to sign checks and write notes—if not the special literate skills usually acquired in school. More important, even if such persons are not highly skilled in literate activities, they know what it is to be literate, what texts are, how they are written and interpreted, how they accumulate to form a tradition, and how they are consulted and used in multiple ways in a literate society.

      As an alternative to simply identifying levels of literacy with years of schooling, some scholars have distinguished levels of literacy in another way. Environmental literacy or lay literacy is the term used to designate that form of unspecialized competence involved in generally dealing with a literate environment. Such literacy need never be taught. It is a type of literacy that is acquired through participating in a literate environment in which written signs, labels, trademarks, headlines, sports scores, and the like are ubiquitous. Such a general, if low, level of literacy, which stands somewhat apart from the particular skills of reading and writing, first arose in Europe in the later Middle Ages with the development of what the Canadian historian Brian Stock refers to as “textual communities.” A textual community consisted of a band of believers formed around an interpreter who read and interpreted religious texts. Because the authority of the teacher rested in the text rather than in the church, members of the community came to know certain general truths about texts and about writing: that they could be read, understood, studied, consulted; that they were more reliable than hearsay; that they were permanent; and that they possessed authority. Everyone in a literate society is literate in this sense; all know the nature, uses, and functions of writing even if they do not personally practice it.

      A literate society is also dependent upon the development of elite literacy—i.e., a high level of literate competence, possessed by a relatively small percentage of the population, in such specialized fields of endeavour as science, law, or literature. High levels of literate competence involve learning a somewhat specialized vocabulary as well as the nuances of meaning that are relevant to lexical choice. It is estimated that literate people have a reading vocabulary, consisting of words that are encountered only in reading and writing, that may be more than double the size of their ordinary speaking vocabulary. In addition to specialized vocabularies, high levels of literate competence involve knowledge of specialized grammatical constructions that serve to set out explicitly the logical form of an argument and of specialized genres or literary forms such as description, explanation, argument, and instructions that can be used for building complex linguistic structures or genres, such as narrative and expository texts. These specialized skills require for mastery many years of formal schooling. Once such forms are acquired in literate contexts, they can also be used in speech. For this reason, literacy is not tied exclusively to writing; just as one can write in an essentially oral style, so one can speak in a manner characteristic of written language. Literacy makes it possible to speak a written language.

David R. Olson Ed.

Additional Reading
Geoffrey Sampson, Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction (1985), is the first systematic account of the relations between various writing systems and the linguistic structures they represent, with an especially good section on Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Another book that places writing into the context of language is Henry Rogers, Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach (2005). Surveys of the history of writing include Roy Harris, The Origin of Writing (1986, reissued 2002); Albertine Gaur, A History of Writing, rev. ed. (1992); and Ignace J. Gelb, A Study of Writing, rev. ed. (1963, reprinted 1974). Examining a somewhat broader interrelationship between writing and history are David Diringer, The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind, 3rd ed. rev., 2 vol. (1968); and Hans Jensen, Sign, Symbol, and Script: An Account of Man's Efforts to Write, 3rd rev. and enl. ed. (1969; originally published in German, 1935).Two encyclopaedic surveys are Florian Coulmas, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems (1996); and Robert T. Daniels and William Bright (eds.), The World's Writing Systems (1996). Social implications of literacy are addressed in Eric A. Havelock, The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences (1982); and Jack Goody (ed.), Literacy in Traditional Societies (1968, reprinted 1975), which examine the cultural, historical, and psychological dimensions of alphabetic writing systems. Essays on the same subject are included in Harvey J. Graff (ed.), Literacy and Social Development in the West: A Reader (1981). Jacques Derrida, Of Grammatology, corrected ed. (1998; originally published in French, 1967), examines the conceptual implications of writing.Brian Stock, The Implications of Literacy: Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (1983), sets out the increasing uses of writing in the Middle Ages that presaged the Reformation. Good introductions to writing and its uses are provided by Robert Pattison, On Literacy: The Politics of the Word from Homer to the Age of Rock (1982); Donald Jackson, The Story of Writing (1981); and, notable for its generous illustration, Andrew Robinson, The Story of Writing, new ed. (2007).Insup Taylor and M. Martin Taylor, The Psychology of Reading (1983), discusses the relation between various writing systems and the psychological processes involved in learning to read and write them. David R. Olson, Nancy Torrance, and Angela Hildyard (eds.), Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing (1985), gives a sampling of the interdisciplinary nature of recent work on literacy. Also worthwhile is the section on writing and orthography in Linguistic Bibliography (annual).Several useful works reproduce historical writing. These include British and Foreign Bible Society, The Gospel in Many Tongues: Specimens of 872 Languages in Which the British and Foreign Bible Society Has Published or Circulated Some Portion of the Bible, new ed. (1965); Richard Lepsius, Standard Alphabet for Reducing Unwritten Languages and Foreign Graphic Systems to a Uniform Orthography in European Letters, 2nd ed. (1863, reprinted 1981; originally published in German, 1855); and Akira Nakanishi, Writing Systems of the World: Alphabets, Syllabaries, Pictograms (1982, reissued 1990; originally published in Japanese, 1975).David R. Olson Ed.

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