typhonic /tuy fon"ik/, adj.
/tuy foohn"/, n.
1. a tropical cyclone or hurricane of the western Pacific area and the China seas.
2. a violent storm or tempest of India.
3. (cap.) Mil.
a. a single-engine British ground attack aircraft of World War II.
b. NATO's name for a class of nuclear-powered Soviet ballistic missile submarine carrying 20 multiwarhead missiles.
[1580-90; < dial. Chin, akin to Chin dàfeng great wind, altered by association with Gk typhôn violent wind]

* * *

▪ British aircraft
in full  Hawker Typhoon 
 British fighter and ground-attack aircraft used in the latter half of World War II.

 Conceived as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane, the Typhoon was a low-wing monoplane designed to a January 1938 specification. Powered by a liquid-cooled, 24-cylinder, 2,200-horsepower Napier Sabre engine, it first flew in early 1940. Intended to be an interceptor, the Typhoon was the first British fighter to exceed 400 miles (650 km) per hour, but its thick wings caused compressibility problems that sharply restricted its performance at high altitudes. In addition, the Sabre's enormous power posed problems that required extensive redesign, so that the Typhoon did not enter production until May 1941. Typhoons were committed to combat that September to counter the German Fw 190 at low and medium altitudes, but the deployment was premature. Engine unreliability and catastrophic tail structure failures forced additional redesign, and the problems were not fully ironed out until late 1942. Now armed with four wing-mounted 0.8-inch (20-mm) cannons in place of the original 12 0.303-inch (7.7-mm) machine guns, the Typhoon proved to be an excellent low-level fighter-bomber, especially when equipped with underwing launching rails for eight 60-pound (27.5-kg) rockets and shackles for a pair of 500- or 1,000-pound (225- or 450-kg) bombs. It had a maximum speed of 417 miles (670 km) per hour and a range of about 1,000 miles (1,600 km).

      The Typhoon was used extensively in preparations for the D-Day landings of June 6, 1944. It earned a reputation as a formidable destroyer of tanks and motorized transport in the Normandy campaign (Normandy Invasion) and in the subsequent pursuit of German forces across France and the Low Countries. Typhoons were also effective in shooting down German V-1 (V-1 missile) “buzz bombs (V-1 missile).” Some 3,000 were manufactured, most of them by Gloster Aircraft Company.

      While resolving the Typhoon's design problems, Hawker obtained approval for an extensively redesigned version, the Tempest, that first flew in September 1942 and entered squadron service in the spring of 1944. The Tempest, with a larger wing of much thinner section, was the fastest piston-engined fighter of World War II at low altitudes, capable of 435 miles (700 km) per hour in level flight and over 500 miles (800 km) per hour in a shallow dive. Despite initial problems, it was an excellent low- and medium-altitude fighter and, like the Typhoon, was effective in intercepting buzz bombs. Some 800 Tempests were produced before the war in Europe ended in May 1945.

      The Typhoon was retired from service at war's end, but later versions of the Tempest—including the Tempest II, powered by a 2,400-horsepower, 18-cylinder, air-cooled Bristol Centaurus radial engine—served with the Royal Air Force (Royal Air Force, The) into the early 1950s. The naval version of the Tempest II, the Sea Fury, entered service as a carrier-fighter with the Royal Navy (Royal Navy, The) in 1948 and saw combat in the Korean War (1950–53). Export Sea Furies served in air forces of less-developed countries well into the 1960s; a Cuban Sea Fury played a significant role in repelling the April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion by a U.S.-supported force of anticommunist émigrés.

John F. Guilmartin, Jr.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Typhoon 2 — was a Robot in the UK television series Robot Wars, noteworthy for being the final champion of the show before it was cancelled. It was a full body spinner with cutting claws. In two battles in series 7, which it competed in, it knocked out the… …   Wikipedia

  • Typhoon — ist das englische Wort für den pazifischen Wirbelsturm Taifun. Es wird verwendet für: Name des heutigen Militärflugzeuges Eurofighter Typhoon (die deutschen Luftstreitkräfte verwenden lediglich die Bezeichnung Eurofighter) Name des früheren… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Typhoon — Ty*phoon , n. [Earlier tuffoon, tuffon, Pg. tuf[ a]o, Ar. tuf[=a]n a violent storm; probably fr. Gr. tyfw^n, tyfw^s, a violent whirlwind, that rushes upward from the earth, whirling clouds of dust (cf. {Typhus}); or perhaps from Chin. t ai fung a …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • typhoon — Tiphon violent storm, whirlwind, tornado, 1550s, from Gk. typhon whirlwind, personified as a giant, father of the winds, perhaps from typhein to smoke (Cf. TYPHUS (Cf. typhus)). The meaning cyclone, violent hurricane of India or the China Seas… …   Etymology dictionary

  • typhoon — *whirlwind, cyclone, hurricane, tornado, waterspout, twister …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • typhoon — ► NOUN ▪ a tropical storm in the region of the Indian or western Pacific oceans. ORIGIN partly from Arabic, partly from a Chinese dialect word meaning big wind …   English terms dictionary

  • typhoon — [tī fo͞on′] n. [< Chin dial. tai fung, lit., great wind (or < ? Tai, Formosa: hence, Formosa wind); merged with earlier tuphan, tufan < Port tufão < Ar tūfān < Gr typhōn, hurricane, akin to typhos: see TYPHUS] any violent tropical… …   English World dictionary

  • typhoon — noun TYPHOON + VERB ▪ hit sth, strike sth ▪ The town was hit by a typhoon. ▪ damage sth, destroy sth, devastate sth ▪ The plantation was devastated by a typ …   Collocations dictionary

  • Typhoon — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Typhoon est la traduction anglaise de typhon. Ce nom est employé sous sa forme anglaise généralement pour des appellations : Hawker Typhoon : un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • typhoon — n. the typhoon hit/struck (several islands) * * * the typhoon hit/struck (several islands) …   Combinatory dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”