/trans'peuhr tay"sheuhn/, n.1. the act of transporting.2. the state of being transported.3. the means of transport or conveyance.4. the business of conveying people, goods, etc.5. price of travel or transport by public conveyance; fare.6. tickets or permits for transport or travel.7. banishment, as of a criminal to a penal colony; deportation.[1530-40; TRANSPORT + -ATION]
* * *▪ 1999IntroductionOverviewThe upheaval in financial markets, together with currency failure in a number of countries, had a marked effect on transportation in 1998. Many infrastructure projects were canceled or deferred, and operations were placed under severe scrutiny.Governments throughout the world were increasingly focused on issues of integration, attempting to achieve an effective, seamless system for both passengers and freight. The main thrust of development shifted to rehabilitation and extension of existing networks and to improvement of the vehicles and ancillary systems. The short-term goals of transportation authorities were to employ existing technology effectively so as to achieve acceptable safety and environmental standards.With the growing reliance within transport on the integration of services, there was increasing concern about possible disruption caused by the year 2000 problem (Y2K) in computer systems. (See Sidebar. (Millennium Bug )) All sectors of transportation were planning for the significant amount of work needed to avoid the severe adverse impacts of Y2K.JOHN H. EARPAVIATIONNotable Civil Engineering Projects (For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects ).)The world airline industry had a successful financial year in 1997, due mainly to continuing efforts to reduce costs, the advantages stemming from an increasing number of alliances, and low fuel prices. According to the UN's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), scheduled carriers returned an operating profit of 5.7% of operating revenues, with income at $291 billion and expenses at $274 billion. This marked the fifth year in a row that the industry had shown a positive outcome.Pierre Jeanniot, director general of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the airlines' own trade body with more than 250 members, warned against too much optimism, however, pointing out that when the 1997 profit was added to those made in 1994-96, it still left the airlines $800 million short of recovering their losses from earlier in the decade. The figures also disguised a far from homogeneous regional profitability picture, he added. Preliminary 1998 figures, moreover, confirmed a substantial slowing in the industry.Asia/Pacific airlines, traditionally among the best performers, began to suffer from the economic downturn in that part of the world. Their 1997 results were "collectively probably their worst-ever," according to Jeanniot, and a survey of the opinions of chief executive officers of carriers in the region caused IATA to revise downward its 1997-2001 growth forecasts from 7.7% per year to 4.4% for passengers and from 9% to 6.5% for cargo. Airlines operating to, from, and within the region were expected to make $2 billion less net profit and to carry 30 million fewer passengers and one million tons less freight in 2001 than had been previously forecast.Airlines in Europe, Africa, and North America showed growth close to the world average. The performance of those in the Middle East was below average. Overall, IATA airlines carried 1,273,000,000 passengers and 26 million tons of cargo during 1997, up, respectively, 6.8% and 7.8% from 1996. Chicago's O'Hare International Airport was the world's busiest in 1997, with a throughput of 70.3 million passengers, while Memphis (Tenn.) Airport handled the most air freight, at 2.2 million tons, according to Airports Council International figures.North American and European carriers owed much of their success to strong economic conditions, and in Europe the major airlines were able to shrug off the impact of a number of small newcomers whose start-up had been facilitated by European Union aviation liberalization. In both regions airlines continued to pursue with vigour "code-share" alliances, which enabled them to sell seats on one another's aircraft. IATA estimated that by the end of 1997 there were some 600 such alliances throughout the airline world. It was a trend that increasingly worried fair-trading and antimonopolistic bodies. The airlines' worries included the growing burden of taxation, charges rising for using navigation and airport facilities, growing pressure from environmental lobbies, and the year 2000 computer bug.Carriers claimed that many governments were devising new ways of tapping the industry as a source of revenues for general treasuries. IATA gave examples—a tax equivalent to $17 per seat on departing international flights in Norway, with the intention, according to IATA, "of reducing demand for air transport," and a 7.5% tax in the U.S. on mileage awards for frequent flyers.International airlines paid $7.3 billion in airport landing and related charges and $5.9 billion in navigation charges in 1997, increases, respectively, of $800 million and $700 million over 1996. Together, these charges represented 9.6% of the airlines' international operating costs, compared with 8.9% the previous year.In September 1997 an aircraft emissions surcharge went into effect at Zürich, Switz., the first time that emissions had been reflected in the structure for user charges. Jeanniot commented, "Ultimately, no airline, whatever its region, will be able to stand aloof from environmental matters, as pressure for energy taxes mounts, and serious efforts to cut oil consumption begin to bite. The environmental debate has more to do with politics and public sympathy than with technology and scientific fact." Massive users of computers, airlines, air traffic control organizations, and airports, backed by both ICAO and IATA, initiated a campaign to ensure that the advanced technology on which they rely would recognize the year 2000. IATA member airlines spent a total of $1.6 billion to ensure that their information technology would be up to date when the new century arrived. (See Sidebar. (Millennium Bug ))From the safety point of view the year was an improvement over 1996, with a total of 864 fatalities in 23 accidents, compared with 1,418 in 25 accidents. There were 17,777 airliners on the world register (12,384 jets, 5,393 turboprops) compared with 17,019 (11,798 jets, 5,221 turboprops) in 1996. Both major civil aircraft manufacturers—the Boeing Co. of the U.S. and the European consortium, Airbus Industrie—stepped up production rates to meet rising airline industry orders, though late in the year the lack of orders from Asia caused Boeing to lay off several thousand workers.ARTHUR REEDSHIPPING AND PORTSAccording to figures released by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, during 1997 the world fleet of merchant ships grew by 2.8% to 522.2 million gt (gross tons), an increase of 14.3 million gt over the previous year. The tanker fleet grew by only 0.5%, and general cargo ships, under strong competition from containerships, increased by only 0.1%. In contrast, as the bulk carriers ordered in the strong freight market of 1995 were delivered, the bulk carrier fleet increased by 3.1%. The most startling gain was registered by the containership fleet, which grew by 13.5%.July 1, 1998, was a key date for shipping because major International Maritime Organization (IMO) initiatives entered into force at that time. A new Chapter IX of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) made the International Safety Management Code mandatory, and a new version of Chapter III of SOLAS dealing with lifesaving appliances and arrangements came into force. A proposal for a harmonized Code of Safety for Ships in Polar Waters was submitted to the IMO D41 meeting (subcommittee on design and machinery). This was an attempt to agree on a common approach by the major classification societies and national administrations, which had their own rules for ships operating in polar waters.Closely allied to shipping industry trends was the enormous scale of investment in world port and harbour projects. Optimism was clearly the dominant factor in 1997-98, a time when terminal operators were faced with a new challenge—an 8,000-TEU (20-ft equivalent units) containership of over 100,000 deadweight tons. China and India had huge port projects under way during the year, with Shanghai forecast to become the world's fifth largest container port by 2020. Even a medium-sized maritime country such as Spain planned to invest $472 million on its ports in 1999 through state-owned Puertos del Estado.The world's largest independent port operator, Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH), was involved in the opening in The Bahamas of the $78 million Freeport Container Port, a joint venture between HPH and the Grand Bahama Development Co. Port Raysut, a new container terminal at Salalah in southern Oman, opened in November. The privately-owned facility would cut Europe-Asia transit times by as much as three and a half days. Port Raysut was expected to rank among the world's top 20 container ports within a year. Another large investment was taking place at Mina Zayed, the main port of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. In 1993 Abu Dhabi had embarked on an ambitious $765 million 20-year plan that would enable the port to handle 600,000 TEU and 4.5 million metric tons of cargo by 2013.EDWARD CROWLEYFREIGHT AND PIPELINESFreight operators experienced a difficult year in 1998, especially in East Asia. The economic crisis in that region sapped business confidence in markets that already were reeling from the impact of globalization and consolidation. Among the less-developed countries investment in infrastructure concentrated on efficiencies within and access to ports. In the U.S. the $2 billion Alameda Corridor project to link the ports of Long Beach, Calif., and Los Angeles to transcontinental rail yards nearby the latter city—a project made necessary by the strong growth of the U.S. Pacific ports—was scheduled to begin construction shortly. Mexican ports, in the wake of their 1993 privatization, were emerging as profitable gateways.Bright spots in Asia included a new port link to Colombo, Sri Lanka, and sustained growth of trade into China. Singapore and Hong Kong continued to vie for the title of busiest container port. Hong Kong planned to open a new container terminal in 2001 and two more on Lantau Island thereafter. The Port of Singapore Authority signed a long-term service agreement with China Ocean Shipping Co., which was expected to help maintain the Authority's volume throughput and underlined the importance of the Chinese market.Driven by an unprecedented demand for energy, pipeline construction increased. In the U.S. construction was at the highest level since the early 1980s, and in the rest of the world construction was up 8% over 1997. One-third of all the new projects were in the U.S., a result of an increase in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Onshore projects included the 3,055-km (1,900-mi) Alliance pipeline from western Canada to Chicago; the 730-km (455-mi) Lakehead pipeline from Superior, Wis., to Mokena, Ill.; and the 644-km (400-mi) pipeline from Lake Erie to White Plains, N.Y.Russia and Turkey agreed to join in building a 1,200-km (745-mi) $3.3 billion pipeline across the Black Sea. In Central Asia new projects included a 1,509-km (940-mi) $1.6 billion pipeline from Turkmenistan through Iran to Turkey and a 3,200-km (2,000-mi) line from Kazakstan to Iran. (See Central Asian Oil Disputes. (Central Asian Oil Conflicts )) Farther east, plans for a trans-Asian gas pipeline network linking India to Myanmar (Burma) were disrupted by terrorist bombs and technical difficulties. In South America the success of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, which took 20 years to come to fruition, generated the need for a second line.JOHN H. EARPROADS AND TRAFFICNotable Civil Engineering Projects (For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects ).)Notwithstanding the economic difficulties of 1998 and the increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of car emissions, the aspirations to own and use a car continued unabated. Roads and their traffic provided the backbone of transportation in both the developed and less-developed countries.Although the scale of national road programs was being cut back, key links in strategic networks continued to be constructed. The Trans-Kalahari Highway was completed during the year (see Sidebar (Trans-Kalahari Highway )), as was the Tokyo Bay crossing that included a 4.4-km bridge and 9.4-km of tunnel (1 km = 0.62 mi). Under construction were the 2.3-km Selatin twin tunnel as part of the Izmir-Aydin expressway in Turkey, and the 1.9-km Molldiete tunnel as part of the 3.2-km bypass to Ravensburg in Germany. In Australia projects included a 1.6-km long tunnel to ease congestion in Perth's city centre at a cost of $197 million and construction in Melbourne to provide a missing link between the city's four radial freeways at a cost of $82.5 million.Traffic in urban areas was likely to become more controlled, as three projects that opened during the year demonstrated. In Milan, to encourage the use of public transportation, automobiles were almost completely banned from the city centre. Marseille, France, embarked on a traffic control scheme to divert cars around its urban area, and Paris planned to organize an annual clean transport day with restrictions on automobiles. During the year Paris and New York City forged an agreement to pool experiences regarding the control of motor vehicles. This extended to traffic management by intelligent systems, parking control, enhancement of facilities for pedestrians and cyclists, and priority for public transportation. The U.K. government was committed to changing the balance of car use in favour of more environmentally friendly systems of transportation.JOHN H. EARPINTERCITY RAILNotable Civil Engineering Projects (For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects ).)The dominant goals of intercity rail service during recent years, high-speed trains and privatization, expanded in 1998 to include objectives based on providing convenient, modernized, and value-for-the-money services. The high-speed network was being extended, but its rate of expansion in core European services slowed during the year. A rail crash at Eschede, Ger., in June that killed 98 passengers focused thoughts on safety issues.Sweden began planning a high-speed rail line on its east coast, and Germany planned to link Hannover and Berlin. Japan announced a $10 billion development plan to extend its Shinkansen high-speed network to link Kagoshima with Sapporo. In the U.S., where passengers accounted for only 1% of railroad traffic, Amtrak, the government-supported operator of almost all of the nation's intercity passenger trains, planned a $3.5 billion network radiating out from Chicago. The construction of the 517-km (1 km = 0.62 mi) Boston-New York City line was scheduled to be completed in 1999. High-speed projects in Asia suffered a setback during the year because of the region's economic difficulties. The Milan-Genoa link in Italy was canceled because the train was likely to generate extremely loud noise in the narrow valleys through which it would pass.The emphasis on improving rolling stock meant that during the next four years 10 or more major railways in Europe would rely on tilting trains for their main line services. In the Philippines the government sought BOT/BLT (build-operate-transfer/build-lease-transfer) arrangements in order to restore its railway to profitability. Kansas City/Southern expanded a 2,750-km regional network to a 16,000-km system, and Canadian National expanded its operations by a $2.4 billion merger in order to reach the Gulf of Mexico. In Peru there were plans to build three new railways totaling 1,300 km. A Brazilian iron ore company, Cia. Vale do Rio Doce, which was privatized in 1997, demonstrated that its two heavy-haul railways could be profitable.The number of rail-airport links continued to grow with Brussels, Oslo, London Heathrow, and Hong Kong—all opening in 1998. An emphasis on interchange facilities and customer-oriented stations was exemplified by the new plans for the principal railway stations in Zürich, Switz., and Berlin.JOHN H. EARPURBAN MASS TRANSITNotable Civil Engineering Projects (For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects ).)As cities in 1998 faced up to planning for the new millennium, there was a growing awareness that urban mass transit played a critical role in the quality of urban life. Policy statements from civic and public transportation authorities had a common theme: investment in their cities could be stimulated by mass transit networks. Developing such facilities generally demanded both public and private participation, although Rio de Janeiro; Montevideo, Uruguay; and São Paulo, Braz., privatized their urban transport during 1998.New systems opened in Ankara, Turkey; Sofia, Bulg.; Warsaw; and Taegu, the third city in South Korea to have mass transit. Tehran opened its rehabilitated system, and Lisbon added a new line. The new Meteor Line in Paris was driverless. Other cities with newly opened links included Madrid; Munich, Ger.; Tokyo; and Los Angeles (the Red Line to Hollywood). Cities that were constructing and/or extending their metro systems included Cairo, Singapore, and St. Louis, Mo.; and Paris planned to build a second Meteor Line. Ottawa; Vienna; Casablanca, Mor.; Seattle, Wash.; and Novosibirsk, Russia, had well-advanced plans.Equally impressive was the extent of commitment to light rail systems. Karachi, Pak.; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Munich opened new lines in 1998. Cities with projects under construction included Sacramento, Calif.; Sydney, Australia; and Stockholm (which was to be privately operated). Cities planning light rail systems included Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.; Brisbane, Australia; Krakow, Pol.; Málaga, Spain; and Salt Lake City, Utah. Much effort was being put into devising low-floor vehicles for both light rail and subway systems, and the industry was attempting to standardize its approach. New designs were introduced in Göteborg, Swed.; Vevey, Switz.; and Düsseldorf, Ger.; principally to enhance the passenger appeal of the vehicle.Buses remained the backbone of urban systems. Advances during the year included new light vehicle designs; compressed natural gas engines in Sacramento, Calif.; and on-street priority that included reversible lanes in Adelaide, Australia. Ann Arbor, Mich., pioneered a new operating system that included AVL (automatic vehicle location), computerized dispatching, smart cards for ticketing, and automated vehicle component monitoring.People-mover systems and monorails were becoming less expensive to develop but were more likely to be used for resorts or links to systems rather than as primary urban transportation. Boston opened a new $2.9 million shuttle to the MBTA Orange Line, and Las Vegas, Nev., linked its downtown hotels with a monorail.JOHN H. EARP▪ 1998IntroductionOverviewTwo significant transportation policy shifts were discernible in 1997. The first was that simple outright privatization was not necessarily the only solution for reviving rail systems and that "concessioning"—the purchase of operating rights—had as much to offer. Financial restructuring and further advances in technology were moving the railway industry into a new era of sustained and sustainable growth. The second was that governments were recognizing not only that the integration of services was the most economical organizational structure but also that it provided the proper framework for the development of public transportation and intermodal freight services. These policy directions, with ever-increasing emphasis on environmentally friendly systems and vehicles and service improvements ranging from new safety measures to quicker point-to-point journeys, were expected to contribute significantly to reducing congestion in urban areas and reducing atmospheric pollution.JOHN H. EARPThis article updates transportation, history of.AviationAlthough the world airline industry in 1996 experienced both its highest-ever load factor (the proportion of seats offered that were sold) and a decline in net interest charges on purchase or lease of aircraft, the record profitability of 1995 was not sustained. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), profitability in 1996 on international scheduled services was $3 billion, compared with $5.2 billion the previous year. This drop reflected increasing cost pressures, notably from higher aviation fuel prices and the higher value of the U.S. dollar in relation to other world currencies. Pierre Jeanniot, IATA director general, commented, "The airlines will need to do much better than that during 1997 in order to complete their recovery from the losses of 1990-93. In theory, the prospects for this are good. Traffic growth remains buoyant, driven by fundamentally favourable economic conditions. Record load factors are being achieved. Indications are that unit costs continue to fall." The IATA projected that future profitability depended on moderation in adding capacity and on success in controlling unit costs.IATA airlines carried some 1,185,000,000 passengers in 1996 on their scheduled services, 8.4% over 1995 on international flights and 4.4% higher in the domestic sector. Overall freight tonnage grew by 4.6% to almost 24 million.At the end of 1996, 11,711 Western-built jet aircraft and 5,221 turbo-prop aircraft were in commercial service. The jets, operated by 650 airlines, during the year flew 30 million hours. By mid-1997 rapidly rising orders for new aircraft were placing an immense strain on the production capacity of the two remaining major Western aerospace companies, Boeing-McDonnell Douglas (now officially known as the Boeing Co.) and the European consortium Airbus Industrie, with Boeing struggling to meet what it termed "the steepest production increases since the dawn of the jet age." The Seattle, Wash.-based manufacturer increased its staff by 14,000 over 1996-97 in its attempt to increase deliveries by mid-1998 to 43 airliners a month, compared with about 18 a month in 1996.Air safety continued to be a prime concern. A total of 19 jet aircraft losses occurred during 1996, a loss rate of 0.63 per million hours. This compared with 1995 figures of 17 losses and a rate of 0.65 per million hours. Although the number of aircraft losses was similar, 1996 was a worse year for fatalities, with 1,189 passenger and 97 crew deaths, compared with 383 passengers and 39 crew members in 1995. Also, 21 acts of unlawful interference, including hijackings, were committed against civil aviation during 1996, four more than in 1995 but considerably down from 1994 and 1993, when the figures were 42 and 49, respectively.Overall, airlines continued to enjoy bullish conditions. Most forecasters saw an annual increase in number of passengers of about 6% per year during the 1997-2001 period, with highest average passenger growth rates in Asia (7.4%), the South Pacific (7.3%), Latin America and Africa (6.6%), Europe (6.2%), North America (6.1%), and the Middle East (5.1%).Any euphoria was, however, tempered by a number of worries. The U.S. air traffic control system suffered a series of freak accidents at several facilities in the fall, including "impossible" power failures at National Airport in Washington, D.C., and the air traffic control centre in Kansas. As skies became increasingly crowded, the industry accelerated progress to implement fully FANS (Future Air Navigation System), a global network of satellites aimed at making use of airspace capacity more efficient by improving communication systems and achieving greater accuracy in navigation and air traffic surveillance.In 1996 airport landing and related charges, at $6.5 billion, and air navigation charges, at $5.2 billion, were each $300 million higher than in 1995. Together they amounted to 8.9% of the industry's worldwide international operating costs—but for some airlines they were as much as 25%. In addition, the industry, the IATA warned, faced "new threats of environmental and value-added taxes, both of which are often discriminatory and can distort competition."Airlines continued to forge marketing mergers with one another in an effort to stem the rise in costs, although activity in this sector became less frenetic than in previous years. In an effort to maximize profits, many carriers improved their business- and first-class sections, and the IATA established a multidisciplinary task force to study the possible future effects of European monetary union on airline costs and revenues.ARTHUR REEDShipping and PortsAccording to figures released by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the world fleet at the end of 1996 stood at a new high of 507.9 million gt (gross tons), an increase of 17.2 million gt over the previous year. This confirmed the steady growth of the world fleet during the past 30 years. The oil tanker component of the fleet grew by 2.1 million gt to 146.4 million gt, and the bulk carrier fleet increased by 5 million gt to a total of 151 million gt.A significant increase was in the containership fleet, which, boosted by deliveries of large vessels, increased by 11% to 43.1 million gt. Because there was little scrapping of containerships, the fleet was growing at a rate some considered alarming. Unless traffic volumes became greater than expected, as some industry observers had predicted, the market appeared to be in danger of chronic overcapacity.Concern about the ability of a substantial part of the world fleet to meet the July 1998 International Safety Management Code deadline was voiced by William O'Neil of the International Maritime Organization and seconded by ship classification societies. O'Neil warned the industry that the deadline would not be altered, even though only a small percentage of the 19,000 ships required to be certified had achieved that status. Failure to comply would place owners in breach of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea and cause ships to be detained by a number of important maritime countries, with serious consequences for international trade.Because the world's ports mirrored shipping industry trends, there was an increasing need for the large container ports to become hubs that would be able to serve the newly formed liner consortia. In the Asia-Pacific region, Hong Kong and Singapore were the main exponents of this role, but the same was also true of such European ports as Hamburg, Ger., Rotterdam, Neth., Antwerp, Belg., and Felixstowe, Eng., and, in the U.S., New York City.The level of scrapping decreased by about 1.7 million gt to 7.8 million gt. India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan remained the most active areas for ship demolition.EDWARD CROWLEYFreight and PipelinesThe inland collection and distribution of containerized freight was dominated in 1997 by road transportation, although there were signs in Europe that rail and barge traffic was making inroads as a result of environmental considerations. Worldwide, freight moved most often from Asian ports, which accounted for two-thirds of the movement in the top 20 ports. Hong Kong and Singapore continued to lead the world, each handling nearly 14 million TEU (20-ft equivalent units). Within the area Japan's eight leading containerports handled nearly 10 million TEU, and in Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City opened a new container-handling facility and announced a $1.4 billion master plan for its ports. In Europe, Italian ports benefited from the privatization of terminal operations, and the strong growth of U.S. Pacific ports led to a new $2 billion project in the Alameda corridor serving Los Angeles.Growth in pipeline construction was modest, up 8% from 28,165 km (1 km = 0.62 mi) in 1996 to an expected 30,250 km in 1997. Continued concern with economic risks, together with increased competition and regulatory changes, accounted for some caution in an otherwise positive outlook. In Europe the focus remained on the North Sea, particularly the NorFra (Norway-France) 830-km pipeline project with its terminal at Dunkirk, France.Farther east a trans-Eurasian pipeline network was planned to link Turkmenistan to China and Japan. Myanmar (Burma) joined Malaysia and Thailand with major pipeline proposals to meet internal needs. Australia began a 1,500-km gas line project to link into fields in Western Australia. In China construction began on a $1,750,000,000 crude oil line from Korla to Luoyang and a $724 million products line linking Guangdong province to Hainan Island.In August a 465-km-long, 61-cm (24-in)-diameter pipeline linking Argentina to Chile was completed. A 3,020-km gas line to link Bolivia to Brazil was projected. There were plans for a $200 million fuel pipeline to link the Texas Gulf Coast to Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado, extending an existing 1,450-km line by more than 640 km.Roads and TrafficThe remorseless growth of traffic was in 1997 yielding ever-greater congestion in urban areas and ever-growing concern for air quality and the environment. Vehicle emissions were estimated to contribute nearly half of the carbon dioxide that was considered to be the primary cause of global warming. In deciding whether they should encourage the expansion of urbanization, governments were torn between quality-of-life issues, such as increased pollution and congestion, and wealth creation, which is linked to improved distribution networks. Paris experimented with banning cars with odd/even registration numbers on alternate days, a practice already common in Athens. In London an expressway section to the airport was designated for bus/coaches only, and San Diego, Calif., experimented with an automated traffic-management system on its freeways. Traffic control measures seemed likely to have a greater future than new expressways in major cities, although some limited construction of underground routes and major bridge links continued.The opening in March-April of the 1.6-km (1-mi) dual three-lane Cheung Ching tunnel and the Tsing Ma bridge, the longest dual-deck bridge in the world, provided key links in the access to the new Chek Lap Kok airport on Lantau Island in Hong Kong. The project was part of the strategic network of transport development in China that also included the $200 million Jiangyin Bridge across the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). South Korea reopened the Songsu Bridge in Seoul, which had collapsed in 1994. In Portugal the second crossing of the Tagus River, the 18-km Vasco da Gama Bridge, was the biggest private-sector infrastructure project under construction in Europe. It was taking place a short distance upstream from the Tagus bridge, which was undergoing a complex strengthening exercise. The Melbourne (Australia) Citylink, including twin 1.6-km tunnels, was a 34-year project devised under a build-own-operate-transfer arrangement; it reflected the twin ambitions of private-sector involvement and environmental concern. The worldwide squeeze on funding for new roads was typified by the slow progress on the main highway on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.Intercity RailThe revival of intercity rail service continued in 1997, although achieving financial viability remained a difficult goal. World expenditure on track and rolling stock during the year totaled more than $20 billion. Much railway development was being financed by privatization, but no single approach prevailed. Both Swiss and German railways chose to restructure their companies so as to retain state control. Less- wealthy countries, including Peru, Pakistan, Mozambique, and the Czech Republic, opted for direct privatization.Japan introduced 300-km/h service on its 554-km line from Shin Osaka to Hakata and thereby regained the world's fastest timetabled service (1 km = 0.62 mi). Japan also began testing a 550-km/h prototype train and planned to develop a 320-km/h service that would produce less noise and require less maintenance than its other lines. Belgian National Railways completed its high-speed Thalys line from Antoing to Brussels. Italy and Germany continued to plan extensions to their networks, the latter allocating funds for a 280-km magnetically levitated line linking Hamburg and Berlin. China planned to introduce 180-km/h intercity services on four routes from Beijing, which would enable journeys up to 1,500 km to be undertaken without overnight travel.By 1997 tilting trains were no longer a novelty. Almost 1,400 were in service, and an additional 1,200 were on order. Other advances in services included special facilities for disabled persons on Spanish trains and electronic way-finding facilities for blind passengers in London.Switzerland planned to increase the rolling motorway services of its Lötschberg Tunnel in order to meet its constitutional commitment for rail rather than road to carry freight across the nation by 2004. Increasing rapprochement between Argentina and Chile led to a feasibility study of a 25-km railway tunnel through the Andes Mountains. The United Arab Emirates were examining the possibility of a rail link from Dubayy to Abu Dhabi for reasons of pollution reduction. Russia was seeking to encourage the development of a 3,100-km section from Baikal to Amur, to parallel the Trans-Siberian railway. It also completed a new 100-km link between Zarubino, Russia, and Hunchun, China.Urban Mass TransitAs a counter to continued public unease arising from growth in car ownership, urban congestion, and air pollution, urban mass transit systems continued to proliferate and expand in 1997. An estimated $6.5 billion was being invested in mass transit systems in major cities throughout the world.New light-rail lines (lines usually powered by electricity) were opened or extended in Amsterdam; La Coruña, Spain; Dallas, Texas; Jena, Ger.; Rouen, France; Sydney, Australia; and Toronto. New openings did not, however, reflect the significant numbers of systems under construction. In the Pacific Rim, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, planned to have three integrated lines open by 2000, and Inchon, S.Kor., was on track to have a fully automated system by 1999. Manila, Hong Kong, and Singapore were also working on extensions of their systems. In Europe lines were under construction in Bratislava, Slovakia; Croydon and Docklands (London); Cagliari, Italy; Dublin; Izmir, Tur.; Montpellier, France; Turin, Italy; Utrecht, Neth.; and Valencia, Spain. Many more light-rail systems were in the planning stage, including those in Cali, Colom.; Bordeaux, France; and Denver, Colo. In Vancouver, B.C., the skytrain system was being extended.Many cities, including Stockholm, Toronto, and New York, were refurbishing stations and/or rolling stock. New or extended lines opened in Bilbao, Spain; Belo Horizonte, Braz.; Madrid; Shanghai; Taipei, Taiwan; and Tokyo. New lines were planned for Budapest; Puerto Rico; Istanbul; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Lima, Peru; and Alexandria, Egypt. New light-rail service was established for airports in Oslo; Hong Kong; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Kyoto, Japan. As with intercity rail, the private sector was funding many of these developments.Buses remained the backbone of urban services. The year saw significant progress in the development of buses with low floors for handicapped riders and in the use of commercial hydrogen fuel cells.JOHN H. EARPSee also Architecture and Civil Engineering ; Business and Industry Review: Aerospace (Business and Industry Review ); Automobiles (Business and Industry Review ); Energy (Business and Industry Review ); The Environment (Environment ).▪ 1997IntroductionOverviewIn the wake of the continued but slow recovery in world trade, governments were cautious in committing themselves to increased investments in the improvement of transportation facilities. Faced with serious budget difficulties, governments were regarding privatization augmented by deregulation and/ or contracting out as important ways of providing both infrastructure and services.Against this background, technical innovations were seen as the best avenues for offering improved service without reducing safety standards. Automakers were looking to technology to develop automated vehicles or "smart" buses that could use "intelligent" highways, while expressway administrators continued to search for ways of introducing and extending politically acceptable mechanisms for collecting tolls. One common theme for those planning transportation facilities was the need to improve the quality of life in urban areas by adopting and conforming to better environmental standards. (JOHN H. EARP)AVIATIONThe economic recovery of the world airline industry from its worst-ever period of losses continued, with the 250-member International Air Transport Association (IATA), the airlines' trade organization, reporting a record net profit for 1995 of $5.2 billion, 4% of revenue, and forecasting a repeat performance for 1996. IATA airlines carried 1,107,000,000 passengers on scheduled services in 1995, up 3.8%, and 20.2 million metric tons of freight, up 6.7%. For 1996, increases of 7% and 5.9%, respectively, were predicted. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the UN aviation body, forecast a 6% growth in passenger numbers for 1996, 7% in 1997, and 6.5% in 1998, with airlines in the Asia-Pacific region continuing to have the highest rate of expansion.While the overall situation for civil aviation appeared to be positive, several factors continued to cast a cloud over the industry. Pierre Jeanniot, the director general of IATA, agreed that a third year of net profits would allow many airlines to expand their markets, issue stock, and borrow on favourable terms, but he warned that the profitability of the industry was not broadly based and that for many members it remained only "fragile.""Government policies toward our industry, which supports in all its facets at least 24 million jobs in the world economy, remain ambiguous as ever," Jeanniot said. "Desired for its wealth generation, but frequently discriminated against in the fields of taxation, user charges, environmental policy, and commercial regulation, the industry is becoming accustomed to fighting for every dollar of net revenue."Many governments were using the industry's partial recovery as an excuse for the continued imposition of "discriminatory, unjustified, and excessive" taxes on airlines. "Of all the problems facing the industry, unjustified taxation is the least likely to go away," Jeanniot stated.Airlines also worried about the rising cost of airport landing and parking charges, estimated at $6,120,000,000 for 1995, and air navigation charges, at $4.9 billion. These two together represented over 9% of the industry's total operating costs. Some carriers believed that in the rush to modernize, there was an overexpansion of expensive aviation infrastructure facilities—16 airport-development projects were under way in the Asia-Pacific region.Fuel charges, which in 1995 represented 10.9% of the industry's operating costs and which had remained relatively low since the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War, underwent a steady rise in 1996, reaching their highest levels in five years as 1996 ended. The causes were a stronger oil market and low levels of reserve stocks, and the result was that airlines had to raise fares.There were 19 total losses of Western-built jet airliners in 1995, with the deaths of 383 passengers and 39 crew. The loss rate had remained steady for 10 years, but the industry's safety record received a severe jolt in 1996, when there were three major crashes—to a Turkish-registered aircraft carrying German passengers, to ValuJet, and to Trans World. (See Disasters .)A general tightening of airline safety and security measures took place in the U.S. and in Europe. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) rated seven countries in the Latin-American/Caribbean region Category 3, which meant that their carriers were banned from serving the U.S. In December the major U.S. airlines voluntarily agreed to install fire detectors in cargo compartments of airplanes that did not already have them. The ValuJet accident caused the FAA to focus on its regulation of the operating procedures of the new low-fare, no-frills airlines.During the year there were moves toward redrafting the industry's passenger injury liability system. This was based on the Warsaw Convention, signed in 1929, and limited compensation to an unrealistic $25,000. Led by IATA, many of the major airlines agreed to abolish liability limits altogether.The introduction of navigation via satellite in the Asia-Pacific region continued to help the industry make more efficient use of airspace, but in Europe a 7% increase in traffic put air traffic controllers under increasing strain, and an increase in flight delays caused concern. In Europe, also, EU airlines prepared for the final stage of liberalization, scheduled for spring 1997. With the former Aeroflot now split into more than 150 airlines, civil aviation in the former Soviet Union continued to experience severe problems, including unpaid bills, aging fleets, and lack of investment.A trend toward alliances between airlines accelerated, but governments became increasingly concerned about the monopolies that might result from such accords and about whether consumers were fully informed about the details, including which carrier actually operated a given flight and which was responsible in case of problems. (ARTHUR REED)SHIPPING AND PORTSAccording to figures released by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the world fleet in 1995 increased by 14.8 million gt (gross tons) to a new high of 490.7 million gt. The bulk carrier fleet increased by 6.4 million gt to 145.5 million gt, the largest increase in 10 years. The general cargo and container fleet expanded by 4.9 million gt to 123.8 million gt, mainly owing to completions of large containerships. In the tanker fleet, however, for the first time since 1987, there was a decrease of one million to 143.5 million gt.The high level of vessel usage in some sectors during the year affected the level of scrapping, which decreased for all types of ships by 28% to 7.5 million gt. Vessels in layup continued to decrease, by 7% in number and 15% in tonnage.In regard to maritime trade, the Baltic Freight Index at the end of September 1996 fell below 1,000 for the first time in nine years. The first significant victim of the falling market was Maritime and Trading Asia, which went out of business at the end of May. By the end of October, however, the index had recovered to 1,311.The 1989 International Convention on Salvage came into force on July 14. The new convention provided for an enhanced salvage award, taking into account the skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing damage to the environment. It further introduced a "special compensation" to be paid to salvors who had failed to earn a reward in the normal way (that is, by salvaging the ship and cargo).On July 27 the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) celebrated 100 years of effort to improve the working conditions of transport workers worldwide. The most important maritime issue for the ITF, however, continued to be its campaign against flags of convenience, the practice of registering merchant ships under a foreign flag in order to profit from less-restrictive regulations.In the continuing drive to outlaw substandard ships, the U.S. Coast Guard added Algerian and Kuwaiti vessels to a blacklist of 24 countries that it believed did not meet international standards.Among important port initiatives, 17 Japanese companies expressed interest in developing the Russian Pacific port of Zarubino to establish a foothold for trade between Japan and Central Asian countries. The European Union (EU) planned to help Panama develop areas of the former Canal Zone when it reverted to Panamanian control. The EU was to take part in the conference on the future of the canal in 1997 and would draft a study on the environmental impact of widening it.In April 1996 Greek shipping mogul Stavros Niarchos, a pioneer of the supertanker, died at age 86. (See OBITUARIES (Niarchos, Stavros Spyros ).) (EDWARD CROWLEY)FREIGHT AND PIPELINESSea freight, as reflected by container movements, continued in 1996 to have the greatest activity in the Far East Pacific region. Hong Kong, with an estimated 13.2 million TEU (20-ft equivalent units) throughput for 1996, and Singapore remained the dominant ports, though both were experiencing a slowdown in growth. Hong Kong was linking itself to China's Pearl River delta ports, in readiness for the 1997 handover to China, while Singapore was planning to privatize much of its operations. Kao-hsiung, Taiwan, with 5 million TEU, was poised to become a transshipment centre for China, and other ports were expanding to accommodate trade in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand growth triangle.In Europe increased oil and TEU transshipments were taking place between Rotterdam, Neth., and Antwerp, Belg., Europe's largest "dry port" for containers. Barcelona, Spain, continued to press its claim as an intermodal port (involving more than one form of carrier).South America was seeking to develop its container ports, with the Caribbean ports expecting to attract transshipment business. The year saw the introduction of a 6,000-TEU container vessel. Further U.S. expansion of the automatic vehicle identification (AVI) tags on intermodal freight trucks was a notable trend.Although total worldwide construction of pipelines declined slightly in 1996, at less than 22,550 km (14,000 mi), global prospects remained buoyant. Regulatory challenges in the U.S. accounted for the reduced activity. Canada planned to expand its Northern Border Pipeline to boost gas exports to the U.S.Privatization of energy industries was stimulating development in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela. Colombia's Ocensa $240 million crude-oil line from the Cusiana and Cupiagua fields and the 1,200-km (750-mi) gas line from Argentina to Chile were typical examples. The Far East—notably Malaysia's Phase II gas field—ranked among the leading construction areas. The 918-km (570-mi), $400 million Gas Pipeline in Australia, 350 mm (14 in) in diameter, was completed during the year.India planned a national liquids grid costing $925 million over 10 years, while two projects in Russia—a 1,900-km (1,200-mi) gas line from Lake Tengiz to Grozny and a 32,000-km (20,000-mi) line from Yamburg to Kiev—were on the drawing board. In Europe the focus was on Spain and Portugal, with a further extension of the Maghreb-Europe gas line, and on the North Sea 854-km (534-mi) gas line from the 16/11 platform to Dunkirk.ROADS AND TRAFFICGlobal concerns for roads and traffic were focused on two areas in 1996: providing key network links and managing traffic congestion, particularly in urban areas. Constraints on government spending emphasized the need for funds from the private sector. From the U.S. to China, governments were seeking solutions to this problem, ranging from "innovative financing" to a build, own/operate, transfer framework aimed at attracting foreign investors.The 1.9-km (1 km = 0.62 mi) Piet Hein tunnel in Amsterdam and the 2-km Western Harbour Crossing in Hong Kong were completed. The latter was one of 10 interlinked projects including the Tsing Ma Bridge. A 2.3-km underwater tunnel linking Preveza-Aktio and the building of the Rio-Antirio Bridge across the Gulf of Corinth were notable projects in Greece. Slovenia completed 66 km of expressways, and Hungary opened a 43-km section of its east-west highway. Both contributed to the Trans European Road Network, which also included the planning for two new Danube River bridges in Bulgaria. In Japan the main highway connecting Kobe and Osaka was reopened in September, 20 months after an elevated portion in Kobe was destroyed by an earthquake.Latin America was undergoing a collective drive toward improving its highway infrastructure. The first phase of a $3 billion 2,100-km link from São Paulo, Brazil, to Buenos Aires included the Argentine-Uruguay Bridge across the Río de la Plata. A highway linking Santos, Brazil, to Arica, Chile, was also being planned. A private enterprise planned to invest $717 million into the 407-km Presidente Dutra highway in Brazil, and other major projects included $90 million to refurbish 9,900 km of dirt roads in Peru, $130 million for building more than 300 km of trunk road in Mexico, and the first stage of a $214 million Caracas-La Guaira highway in Venezuela.A worldwide increase in charging tolls on highways took place during the year, some of it linked to efforts to combat urban pollution. Tunneling was assisting this process of improving the quality of urban life, and The Netherlands introduced a park-and-ride scheme alongside the A2 national highway at Sittard to induce car passengers to switch to intercity rail services to Utrecht and The Hague.INTERCITY RAILWith investment in new facilities not increasing, intercity rail faced three issues in 1996: expansion of networks, increased use of high-speed trains, and private funding of these developments. Privatization schemes were progressing in many parts of the world. Although Germany and Japan were having second thoughts about it, the majority of nations were actively promoting privatization. They included Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Estonia, India, Malawi, Mexico, Pakistan, Sweden, and Switzerland. In Pakistan privatization included freight services, while in Chile it was seen as an aid to lowering pollution levels in Santiago.Europe, which pioneered high-speed rail, witnessed the construction of new 300-km/h (185-mph) lines in Germany, while Belgium also introduced new 300-km/h services between Brussels and Paris. In Asia Japanese high-speed rolling stock was to be sold to China, and South Korea was building a 425-km (265-mi) line.Major network expansions were reported in China, the most impressive being the Jing-Jiu Railway, which provided a link to Hong Kong. In South America a new line between São Paulo, Brazil, and Chile was being supported by Inter-American Development Bank funding, while the Scandinavian countries were planning a new triangle service linking Malmö, Swed., Oslo, and Stockholm. Bangladesh planned to improve its rail services with a link using the newly opened bridge across the Jamuna (Brahmaputra) River. Colombia was to build a coal line linking isolated provinces to Lake Maracaibo, while Panama was considering an extension of its line outward from Panama City. Nicaragua was planning a 370-km (230-mi) train service that would connect deep seaports at Monkey Point to the Pacific Ocean.Notable technical developments included the introduction of tilting trains, which provide enhanced performance, in Switzerland and Italy and double-decker coaches and new high-speed trains in Germany. Efforts to reduce the cost of coach construction to 50% of existing levels were the focus of research of a European Union committee. In the U.S., research was continuing to develop a maglev (magnetically levitated) train that would not be too expensive to operate and maintain.On the environmental front both Swiss and Japanese railways took steps to reduce the impact of trackside noise levels. Safety issues were being scrutinized following a serious undersea fire in November in the Channel Tunnel (Eurotunnel) that interrupted passenger service for 16 days.URBAN MASS TRANSITAlmost without exception in 1996, in both developed and less-developed countries, city governments were pinning their hopes on public transportation as the backbone of urban regeneration, solving congestion problems and addressing issues of environmental degradation. Privatization was becoming increasingly important in this effort. In France 70% of all urban transit networks had private participation. Italy was supporting a similar extensive program, and European Union funds were helping Lisbon and Oporto, Port. In the U.S., federal funding was recognized as a vital element for new systems.During 1996 new subway lines and systems were opened in Bilbao, Spain; Madras, India; Naples; Oslo; Taipei, Taiwan; and Tokyo. Extensions to existing lines were introduced in Atlanta, Ga.; Berlin; Cairo; Lyon, Fr.; Madrid; San Diego, Calif.; San Francisco; and Los Angeles.Agreements on construction of new subways were reported from Prague; Surabaya, Indon.; Shanghai; and Istanbul, while projects to expand existing networks were taking shape in Hong Kong, Boston, Singapore, and New York City. Amsterdam sought public approval by referendum for its subway extension, following in the footsteps of Zürich, Switz., the European city most oriented toward public transportation.A similar buoyant situation existed for light rail and streetcar systems. New systems opened in Oberhausen, Ger.; Calgary, Alta.; Cleveland, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; and Lucerne, Switz. An automated system was developed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Construction was under way in an equally impressive list of cities, including Karachi, Pak., and Singapore. Links to airports were being made in Hong Kong, Manila, New York City, and Sydney, Australia.Technological developments included driverless subway systems (in France), smart cards for fare collection, and passenger advisory systems in stations. People-mover systems were being used as feeder links in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, and Moscow was examining a monorail system to augment the services of its subway lines.(JOHN H. EARP)See also Architecture and Civil Engineering ; Business and Industry Review: Aerospace (Business and Industry Review ); Automobiles (Business and Industry Review ); Energy (Business and Industry Review ); The Environment (Environment ).This article updates transportation, history of.▪ 1996IntroductionAs the world economy continued to lift slowly out of recession in 1995, transport issues focused on how to provide better and more efficient transport as a means of improving the quality of urban life. This focus reflected several underlying social concerns ranging from the environment to health and personal security. A drive continued for more affordable and cost-effective public transport services, with governments using approaches ranging from automation to privatization. Privatization continued to be a widespread means of raising necessary investment capital through private finance initiatives and served to sustain the renaissance in rail systems begun in the early 1990s. Rail transport operators, among others, desired a "level playing field" in the debate over efficiency for road and rail in both freight and passenger transport accompanied by a move away from road dominance. (JOHN H. EARP)AVIATIONNotable Civil Engineering Projects(For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects).)World airline traffic, both passenger and freight, took off in 1995 to such an extent that a few of the bigger carriers, while awaiting the arrival of a new generation of high-capacity aircraft, had to turn away some business. The first major airport to be completed in the U.S. in 21 years—Denver (Colo.) International Airport—opened in February, late and over budget. Macau's new airport was expected to open by year-end. The French authorities reopened Paris' Orly airport to additional international competition in January and announced that a site was being sought for a third airport in the Paris area.According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the UN aviation body, total scheduled passenger traffic rose 6% in 1995 and was projected to go up by a further 7% in both 1996 and 1997. Airlines in the Asia-Pacific area, spurred by high economic growth, were expected to show the largest gains, although below the impressive 12% that they recorded in 1994.Passenger traffic of African and North American airlines showed rising trends, but the total volume was expected to be below the world average throughout the forecast period. European airlines showed steadily improving growth as a result of increasingly competitive market conditions within the European Union and the stabilization of aviation markets in the Commonwealth of Independent States. The ICAO projected that Latin-American and Caribbean airlines would improve their traffic growth and approach the world average. Growth among airlines in the Middle East was expected to remain close to the world average. Estimates from the airlines' trade body, the International Air Transport Association, generally confirmed the ICAO's projections.Boeing's new 400-plus-seat, twin-engine 777 airliner entered service during 1995. The 777, together with the wide-bodied A330 and A340, the newest models from the European Airbus Industrie consortium began to relieve some traffic pressure on airlines. As jet engines became increasingly reliable, flights became longer, with 12-hour sectors now commonplace between Europe and the Far East and between the east coast of North America and Asia.The problem of how to occupy their customers (and how to expand revenues) on such lengthy flights came close to solution for the airlines with the advent of a new generation of electronic in-flight entertainment. Using small video screens in the seat backs, passengers were able to view (and pay for) movies, shop for items on display, or play gambling games such as poker, roulette, and dice. Vendors promised the airlines that income from each wide-bodied airliner so equipped could be as high as $2 million a year.Looking beyond the new 400-seat aircraft, airlines continued to study the future economic, financial, and logistic implications of a proposed "super-jumbo" family of double-deck airliners with 600, 700, and even 1,000 seats. Such a project between the U.S. and four European nations was put on hold during 1995 on the grounds that although technically feasible, there was insufficient interest among the airlines. Nonetheless, Airbus Industrie continued with designs for its 600-seat project, the A3XX. At the same time, the major world aircraft manufacturers were exploring the possibility of developing a 250-seat supersonic airliner to succeed the Concorde sometime in the first decade of the 21st century.In other technological developments, the first operational use of navigation via satellite took place in the South Pacific in 1995. "Free flight," a concept that would allow crews of individual aircraft to select the most economic flight paths with minimal contact with air traffic control, was under intense review.Increasing freedom in the air was not matched on the ground. The industry complained bitterly about skyrocketing ticket and airport taxes at 1,000 facilities—double the number in 1989. Total charges paid by airlines for using airports and navigation facilities increased to $9.9 billion—9% of operating costs—and constituted the second largest expense after fuel. (ARTHUR REED)SHIPPING AND PORTSThe world shipping fleet continued to show a steady growth. In 1994 total size stood at 475.9 million gross tons (gt), an annual increase of 17.9 million gt—the largest in at least 10 years. Traffic increased as well, and in January 1995, partly because of an overhaul of the locks, Panama Canal officials reported the worst bottleneck in the canal's history, with delays in transit averaging a week. Normally 35 ships could pass through the facility in a day.Much concern continued over the increasing age of the world fleet. At the start of 1995, about 58.4% (49.8% of total deadweight tons [dwt]) was over 14 years old, and the average age of the world fleet was 17.3 years. Important new measures from the UN's International Maritime Organization (IMO) to improve the safety of existing oil tankers came into operation on July 6. These included an enhanced program of inspections applying to all oil tankers aged five years and older and changes to the construction requirements of tankers aged 25 years and older, including mandatory fitting of double hulls or an equivalent design. The IMO also set up a panel of experts after the sinking of the "roll-on, roll-off" ferry Estonia in the Baltic Sea in September 1994, but the London-based organization received criticism from many quarters throughout 1995 for moving too timidly and too slowly on the issue of ferry safety. Following the June council meeting of the International Association of Classification Societies, details were released of a program to reinforce member societies' increasingly tough stance on safety compliance. The program included further tightening of the Transfer of Class Agreement, greater transparency of class and statutory information, and automatic suspension of class under specific circumstances.The first ship bearing Green Award certification, the 254,000-dwt Ambon, owned by ICB Shipping of Sweden, called at the port of Rotterdam, Neth. The Green Award scheme was an initiative of the Rotterdam Municipal Port Management in conjunction with the Dutch Ministry of Transport to promote safe and environmentally friendly ship and crew management. Aimed at oil tankers larger than 50,000 dwt, the scheme rewarded certificated ships with a reduction in port fees.In Russia a change of port-construction priorities halted plans to build three new ports on the Baltic until the port of St. Petersburg had been completely rebuilt. Handling capacity of the modernized port was planned to increase from 21 million to 40 million tons. The three new ports were to have been built on the Gulf of Finland at Ust-Luga, Batareynaya, and Primorsk. The Russians' goal was to have northwestern ports with an annual capacity of 70 million tons.In The Bahamas an $80 million deal for a container transshipment facility in Freeport Harbour was signed between Grand Bahama Development Co. and Hutchinson International Holdings. It was the largest investment in Freeport since the building of an oil refinery in 1960. In August the government of Sri Lanka awarded a $720 million contract to a U.K.-Chinese consortium to build a new port at Galle, 112 km (70 mi) south of Colombo. In the same month, Vietnam approved in principle plans for a $560 million deep-sea port and industrial zone near Haiphong, in the north of the country. (EDWARD CROWLEY)FREIGHT AND PIPELINESWorldwide freight volumes, as reflected by container movements, showed modest rises in 1995, while the busiest activity continued to be in the Pacific Rim. Singapore, which began restructuring for outright privatization, and Hong Kong retained their status as the busiest ports. Both ports were above the level of 10 million TEU (20-ft equivalent units) per annum. Linked to this was growth in China of container crane and container manufacturing. Penang, Malaysia, embarked on a major capital expenditure to cope with an annual growth of 16% over the previous eight years, and Manila developed new intermodal freight services. Intermodalism, which was pioneered in Europe, continued to gather strength. A Pan-European Transport System initiative was promoted by the European Union to facilitate trade and economic development, with a focus on maintaining the balance of road, rail, and waterway traffic in Eastern Europe and avoiding domination by road transport. In the U.S., rapid growth in intermodal trade had put a great strain on service reliability. This led to plans for the development of new "mega terminals" in six U.S. West Coast ports and might prompt a decline in medium-sized container ports.Pipeline construction was down by 5% in 1995. Decline in the U.S. was linked to the cost of meeting environmental, safety, and regulatory mandates, while Russian recession and political upheaval reduced activity. Nonetheless, in Europe and especially the Far East, new long-distance natural gas networks spurred ambitious new programs. In the U.S. natural gas schemes prevailed. Of significance were expansions in California, with 1,489 km (1 km=0.62 mi) of pipeline laid, and a 604-km line from Malin, Ore., to Reno, Nev. In Europe the focus of gas-line construction was in the North Sea and Spain. Plans were made to lay dual 122-cm (48-in) pipes across the Baydarata Bay as part of the development of the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia. Oman planned a 1,135-km crossing of the Arabian Sea, while Australia went ahead with a 1,400-km 20.3-cm (8-in) ethane line from Moomba to Botany. Other major developments included a start on phase three of the 645-km line extension to Bukit Ketei, Malaysia, and major gas lines in South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and China. In South America there were plans to link Bolivia with Brazil and to construct a 1,200-km main line from Argentina to Chile.ROADS AND TRAFFICNotable Civil Engineering Projects(For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects).)Priority for improvement and extension of road networks varied considerably around the world in 1995, depending largely upon degrees of motorization, urbanization, and economic development. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development were concerned with the dominance of road transport, which threatened environmental gains made by improved emission standards. The use of unleaded gasoline (petrol) in the European Union rose to 60% in 1994, with Austria, Finland, and Sweden recording 99%. Emissions from diesel engines were recognized as a health hazard.In Stockholm 12 km of a 14-km ring road were constructed as a tunnel for environmental reasons, although urban tunneling projects were usually used to overcome key natural obstacles. The $500 million immersed tube linking Kobe, Japan, with Port Island, the $32 million Preveza-Aktio tunnel in Greece, and the $554 million Elbe Tunnel in Hamburg, Germany, all began construction during 1995. In the U.K. local authorities sought to provide a second crossing to the River Tyne, and authorities in Sydney, Australia, planned a $120 million double-decked tunnel in the downtown area. In Seoul, South Korea, the twin 1.8-km pilot tunnels for the Bukak road project were completed.Development of key national links were typified by plans to build a 6.8-km tunnel to connect Magerøy, an island off of Norway, to the mainland. In the U.S. plans were in place to expand the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, which at 28 km was still one of the longest crossings in the world. Funding was in hand for the $67 million, 33-km Lakhdaria-Bouria section of the trans-Algerian motorway, while in Bolivia there were plans for a 50-km Cotapata-Santa Barbara road link to the Pacific. The most ambitious project was a 30-year, 35,000-km motorway network in China, which included a section of the "Silk Road" project that would connect the Middle East and Europe.Authorities in Germany were reviewing plans to enhance urban pedestrian movement with the construction of a people mover system to link metro stations in Düsseldorf, Germany, while Singapore examined similar schemes for improving access to its metro.INTERCITY RAILNotable Civil Engineering Projects(For Notable Civil Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects).)In addition to privatization initiatives, many of the world's railways underwent significant restructuring as part of a search for increased productivity in 1995. In the U.S. this took the form of cooperation between rail operators, while in Europe the movement was toward a divestment of responsibilities from governments to private operators and greater access to networks. Automation, BOT (build, own/operate, transfer) schemes, and privatization were thought to open the way for sustaining investment in railways. Some 30 countries had privatization programs, ranging from total sell-off (Brazil, Britain, the Czech Republic, and New Zealand) to more modest goals involving commercial operations (Austria, Finland) or maintenance services (Mexico). Overnight services were reintroduced, and security became an important issue with the derailment by sabotage of an Amtrak passenger train in Arizona. High speed trains (HST) remained the flagship service of many operators. Sweden introduced 250-km/h trains from Södertälje to Stockholm, and an extension of the European network was spearheaded by the new Thalys system linking Paris, Brussels, and Cologne, Germany. Italy started a Rome-to-Naples service, and both Russia and South Korea began studying high-speed systems with private investment. China opened two sections of a 1,300-km rail link from Beijing to Kowloon, Hong Kong, which was intended eventually to utilize HST units.Increased speed was the main concern for both a new express diesel TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse) and a new 360 km/h prototype in France. Gas turbine vehicles were reconsidered in the U.S. in order for emissions standards to be met. Tilting trains, which provided enhanced performance, were introduced in New South Wales and Brisbane, Australia; Finland; and Switzerland. Extra capacity was provided by double-decked rolling stock in Russia, The Netherlands, and Italy. In the U.S., triple loading of containers was tested, while automation of train-control networks scaled new heights with a 37,350-route kilometre system controlled from Fort Worth, Texas.Iran opened the 635-km link from Bandar Abbas to Bafq, and the 248-km line for grain shipments in Brazil reached Cascavel. South Africa proposed a major rehabilitation of its Metro Rail system. The opening of the Sarnia Tunnel under the St. Clair River in Canada, the 6.5-km Karbube Kowkan tunnel in India, and the 6.3-km Grauholz Tunnel for Swiss Federal Railways were other noteworthy achievements during 1995.URBAN MASS TRANSITNotable Civil Engineering Projects(For Notable Engineering Projects, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects).)Cities showed an ever-greater interest in efficient, affordable, and environmentally acceptable mass transit systems in 1995, which continued to open the way for profound changes in urban mobility. Many rail lines were converted to metros (as in Oslo, Norway), and metro networks were upgraded or extended in many areas. Almost without exception, new metros were more likely to be based on light rail transit (LRT) and to include elements of automation in train control or ticketing. Smartcard ticketing systems were on trial in London, Paris, and Sydney, Australia.New metro systems opened during the year in Lima, Peru; Bilbao, Spain; Shanghai; Sheffield, England; and Mexico City, where the fastest-growing metro in the world opened a 10th line. Extensions to metros were opened in Madrid; San Diego, Calif.; and Prague. Many other cities were planning and building metro extensions, including Boston; Cairo; Istanbul; Nagoya, Japan; Nantes, France; Rio de Janeiro; and Toronto. The bulk of urban transit expansion was provided through LRT schemes in both less developed countries and traditional locations, however. Of note were the automated schemes proposed for Turin, Italy, a privatized system for Auckland, N.Z., and a dual-mode (heavy rail/LRT) system in Saarbrücken, Germany.Urban transit connections to airports continued to proliferate, with structures either under construction or planned in Berlin; Bangkok, Thailand; Hong Kong; Madrid; Pusan, South Korea; Osaka, Japan; San Francisco; and Sydney. The Arlanda Airport at Stockholm was a BOM (build, operate, and maintain) project. Improvements in buses, which provided the backbone for most urban services, were mainly expansions of fleets to meet higher environmental standards or the restructuring of services to link existing lines to new LRT services. (JOHN H. EARP)See also Architecture and Civil Engineering ; Business and Industry Review: Aerospace (Business and Industry Review ); Automobiles (Business and Industry Review ); Energy (Business and Industry Review ); The Environment (Environment ).This updates the article transportation, history of.▪ 1995IntroductionAs a result of subdued world trade, global passenger and freight traffic showed patchy growth in 1994. Key infrastructure projects continued to be promoted, most notably the much-delayed opening of the Channel Tunnel (Eurotunnel) to passengers on November 14. The most significant underlying trend, the change in emphasis from road to rail or public transport, was linked to both financial and environmental concerns. Russia was the only country with a significant reverse switch from rail to road transport.Privatization of transport entities continued apace, although the nature, scale, and urgency of the timetable varied quite markedly. One common feature in transport operations was the increasing use of electronic means to provide better operational control and efficiency. The first world congress on intelligent transportation systems took place in Paris in December. (JOHN H. EARP)AVIATIONNotable Engineering Projects(For Notable Engineering Projects in work, see Table (Notable Engineering Projects).)Helped by low jet-fuel prices, the world airline industry began in 1994 to emerge from the longest and most damaging period of financial losses in its 75-year history. A trend that began in July 1993 for traffic to grow faster than capacity continued strongly into the following year, and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) forecast a profit of $1 billion for its members as 1994 closed.This was modest when viewed against the industry's future needs to finance debt, build reserves, and sustain investments in new aircraft and advanced technologies, such as satellite-based navigation systems. It was, however, a significant improvement over the disastrous record of $15.6 billion in losses on international scheduled services over the years 1990-93. These losses represented nearly 4% of revenue, whereas the airlines should have been making net profits of between 5% and 6% of revenue if they were to face their future commitments with confidence.Pierre Jeanniot, IATA director-general, denied that the industry's malaise was a sign of decline or decadence, declaring that air transport was simply "reinventing itself." Jeanniot warned that the need for profitability was paramount. Without it, air transport would either die (as did maritime passenger transport) or become a political football in a game of subsidies (as with railroads). In the search for profitability, the attitude of governments was crucial. The industry was putting its own house in order, but the inaction, or wrong actions, of some governments was undermining its efforts, Jeanniot said, criticizing "inadequate infrastructure and misguided taxation, user charges, and environmental policies."The airlines were certainly not short of advice on how to put their house in order. Committees of inquiry in the U.S., Europe, and Japan examined the industry and then advised it to liberalize, modernize, and become more consumer-conscious. In the U.S. a threat to the newly won profitability of the major airlines appeared in the shape of a rash of start-up companies offering cheap-fare, minimal-service, no-frills flights, while in Europe the big state-owned carriers continued to lay off thousands of employees as they pursued an often-painful course toward privatization.In Europe a two-tiered airline industry began to emerge. One group was privately owned and financially successful, while the other was state-owned, relying on massive government handouts that were controversially sanctioned by the European Union (EU). Some major European airports—notably Heathrow, near London, and Frankfurt (Germany)—began to run out of takeoff and landing slots, making it difficult for new airlines spawned by EU liberalization to operate there. Modernization of the European air traffic control system continued on a national basis, with a campaign to have the system federalized within the EU gaining pace.East Asia continued to outstrip the rest of the world in increases in numbers of passengers and tons of freight carried. New airlines emerging in the countries of the former Soviet bloc, as the previously monolithic civil aviation structure was dismantled and rebuilt, also did well—although from a much lower base and with worries in some cases over safety standards.Overall, the world airline system carried almost 1.2 billion passengers in 1993 and nearly 18 million metric tons of cargo, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization, the UN aviation body. Within that total IATA airlines' international scheduled passenger traffic rose 6.4%, and freight traffic was up 7.3%. The IATA forecast annual growth of 6.6% for the years 1994-98 and predicted that northeastern Asia would overtake Western Europe in air traffic by 1998, with comparative growth rates of 12.1% and 6.7%, respectively.Air safety came to the fore in the U.S. in 1994 as the airline industry had its worst year for accidents since 1988. In all, more than 250 people were killed in six crashes on major and regional carriers. Crashes and other incidents involving the turboprop ATR-72 led the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to impose a ban on the planes in icy weather. (ARTHUR REED)SHIPPING AND PORTSTwo main problems continued to bedevil world shipping in 1994. The first was the increasing age of the world fleet, which promised to result in many more substandard ships unable to meet current shipping regulations. The second was the surplus of ships, which depressed freight rates below the point at which investment in new tonnage was a worthwhile option for shipowners.The world fleet continued to increase, rising from 399 million gross tons (gt) in 1988 to 458 million gt in 1993. The world fleet expanded for the sixth consecutive year, although the expansion was a small one of 8.3 million gt. At the end of 1993, it consisted of 80,655 ships of 458 million gt, with an average age of 18 years. During 1993, 1,505 ships of 20 million gt were completed.The 22.7 million gt of new ship orders received in 1993 represented the second highest level of annual new ordering in 10 years. The reason for the increased number of new orders was not clear-cut. It probably owed more to economic factors within the shipping industry, such as lower building costs and the increased average age of the world fleet, than to any dramatic improvement in world trade. Also highest since 1988 was the 1993 scrapping of 10.5 million gt. This was just over half the completion figure of 20 million gt.The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA '90) continued to command the attention of shipowners who wanted to trade with the U.S. OPA '90 was applicable to vessels that stored, handled, or transported oil. The act was a direct result of the Exxon Valdez oil-spill disaster and imposed unlimited liability on shipowners trading with the U.S. for any oil-pollution incidents. During the year, $5 billion in punitive damages was assessed against Exxon for the disaster, in addition to the $3 billion already spent by the company on cleanup operations and settling court cases. This made shipping-industry calculations of the need for liability coverage of $2 billion per vessel look far too low.On September 28 the "roll-on, roll-off" ferry Estonia sank in the Baltic Sea after a loading door was apparently ripped off by pounding waves. (See Figure.) The accident, in which more than 900 people died, raised questions about the safety of all such oceangoing ferries. Concerns over safety at sea were also an issue after the December 2 sinking of the cruise ship Achille Lauro in the Indian Ocean, although only two lives were lost.Hong Kong remained the top container port, with a throughput in 1993 of 9,620,000 TEU (20-ft equivalent units). Singapore was next with 9,040,000 TEU; third was Kao-hsiung, Taiwan, with 4,249,250 TEU. An annual shipping review concluded that world seaborne trade would continue to benefit from Chinese industrialization. (EDWARD CROWLEY)FREIGHT AND PIPELINESDespite the conclusion of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, overall expansion of worldwide trade movements was not significant in 1994. The Pacific Rim continued to move ahead in terms of container activity, with container ships on order with capacities nudging the 5,000-TEU (20-ft equivalent units) mark. Ten of the 20 biggest container-carrying liners were Asian, offering over 50% of the slots. There was a similar pattern for container port traffic, with Hong Kong and Singapore outperforming all other ports in both absolute and percentage growth. Each handled more than 9 million TEU in 1993 and were headed toward 10 million in 1994. Kao-hsiung, Taiwan, which handled more than 4 million TEU, overtook Rotterdam, Neth., as the third busiest container port.The use of special and/or non-International Organization for Standardization containers and the drive toward intermodalism were issues in 1994. Upsizing of containers was resisted in Japan through maximum-vehicle-weight legislation. In Europe increasing concern led to stronger legislation covering the use of hydrofluorocarbons in refrigerated containers. The new European Intermodal Association, in common with U.S. operators, placed greater emphasis on intermodal services to extract maximum flexibility.New gas- and oil- pipeline development showed a decline from the 1992 high of 25,830 km (16,050 mi) to an estimated 23,650 km (14,700 mi) in 1994. The U.S. accounted for one-third of all new developments, although the gas-pipeline network expansion was held back pending clarification of federal and state regulatory procedures. Worldwide there was a new emphasis on long-term-storage facilities.In Europe development centred on the $1.5 billion North Sea Europipe gas-line project. In the former U.S.S.R., after a number of years of underinvestment, the focus shifted to maintenance and rehabilitation, especially following the oil spill at Usinsk, Russia, in October, which was the third largest in history. The gas line connecting the China Sea Yacheng Field to Hong Kong was nearly complete, and the Maghreb-Europe line was begun. Major pipeline networks were under consideration in Oman, China, and South America.ROADS AND TRAFFICNotable Engineering Projects(For Notable Engineering Projects in work, see Table (Notable Engineering Projects).)Governments in 1994 faced with continued road-traffic demand, a lack of investment funding, and concern for the environment looked to traffic restraint and public transport in urban areas and to private funding and/or privatization for key interurban tolled facilities. California led the way in zero-emission legislation. The International Bridge, Tunnel, and Turnpike Association showed that some 45,000 km (27,960 mi) of toll roads were planned around the world. Poland planned 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of tollways, and Hungary was planning an M5 motorway similar to its successful M1-M15 project. Other tollroads included State Route 91 in Orange county, Calif.; the new expressway to Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C.; the 58-km (36-mi) six-lane route in Toronto; and the Guangzhou (Canton)-Shenzhen (Shenchen) tolled superhighway in China. Mexico had a program for more than 6,000 km (3,730 mi) of toll roads.Priority was generally given to water crossings or other natural barriers. The Danes made progress on the fixed-link road/rail system traversing The Sound: 3,750 m (12,300 ft) of immersed tunnel, the 7,470-m (24,500-ft) Flinterenden bridge, and 4,210 m (13,810 ft) of connecting bridges. In Hong Kong the express highway being constructed from the Chinese border to the new Chek Lap Kok airport included the clear-span Tsing Ma suspension bridge, the cable-stay Kap Shiu Min bridge, and an immersed-tube tunnel. China was investigating the world's longest sea-crossing project: a $6.9 billion bridge/tunnel crossing of Bohai Haixia between Shandong (Shan-tung) and Liaoning. Pakistan, with help from Sweden, was reexamining the Lowari road-tunnel link to Tajikistan. Turkey was considering a third Bosphorus crossing comprising a twin-tube tunnel for road and rail traffic to supplement the existing suspension bridges.INTERCITY RAILNotable Engineering Projects(For Notable Engineering Projects in work, see Table (Notable Engineering Projects).)Most countries throughout the world were placing an ever greater emphasis on rail travel for passengers and freight movement in 1994. The use of rail in the countries of the former Soviet Union eclipsed the rest of the world, accounting for about half of all rail freight and, with over 400 billion passenger-kilometres, twice the total of passenger traffic in the U.K., France, Germany, and Italy combined. These countries, however, had a desperate need for economic restructuring and upgrading of rail maintenance and operations.The most important rail development continued to be high-speed passenger trains. By 1994 Brussels, London, and Paris were linked by high-speed trains. With the inauguration of the Channel Tunnel (Eurotunnel) in May, followed by vehicle-carrying and passenger services later in the year, England's land link to the continent finally came into being. (See Special Report (Seafaring and History in the English Channel ).) The next step would be to extend through services in an ever widening network in Europe. The Belgian, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and Spanish railways all had active plans for network extension, with possible European Union funding of up to ECU 12 billion per year. Swiss and Austrian rail plans focused on new trans-Alpine tunnels. In October an agreement for funding Amtrak cleared the way for inviting bids for a 240-km/h (150-mph) train for the northeast corridor in the U.S. Russia made a start on its high-speed line linking St. Petersburg and Novgorod. China was planning a 1,300-km (800-mi) high-speed route linking Beijing (Peking) and Shanghai and was also to add 20,000 km (12,425 mi) to its overall rail network in the next decade.Construction resumed on the 800-km (500-mi) privately financed line from Baikal to Yakutsk, Siberia. In South America, Ecuador and Colombia had ambitious plans to rehabilitate major positions of their rail networks, while in Argentina, despite the change in emphasis brought on by privatization, improved passenger services in the Pampas and Atlantic corridors achieved self-sufficient operations. New Zealand Rail also achieved operating profits (without receiving a subsidy except for commuter services to Wellington).URBAN MASS TRANSITNotable Engineering Projects(For Notable Engineering Projects in work, see Table (Notable Engineering Projects).)Development of urban transport systems continued its unprecedented growth. The main constraint lay in differing viewpoints of how to achieve the best overall result: economic viability against reduced congestion and pollution. Berlin, Paris, and Vienna led the way in providing strategic frameworks for totally integrated services. With more than 100 cities operating rapid transit systems around the world and planning to invest $13.8 billion during the year, unsatiated development looked certain.A new metro system opened in Brasilia, Brazil, as did extensions to existing systems in Calcutta; Madrid; Munich, Germany; Nagoya, Japan; Paris; Pusan, South Korea; and Washington, D.C. Metro construction was under way in Hanover, Germany; Kao-hsiung, Taiwan; Pasadena, Calif.; Santiago, Chile; and Toronto, with a go-ahead for planning systems in many locations, including three Chinese cities; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and a fourth line in São Paulo, Brazil. Metro extensions to airports were planned for Stockholm, Hong Kong, San Francisco, and Berlin.Light transit systems were even more extensive. New schemes were opened in Denver, Colo.; Guadalajara, Mexico; Rouen and Strasbourg, France; Sheffield, England; and Valencia, Spain. Extensions were made in many other cities, including the Docklands Light Railway in London. Construction was authorized in numerous cities, including Izmir, Turkey; Saarbrucken, Germany; and San Juan, P.R., with detailed studies and planning being undertaken for Brisbane, Australia; Copenhagen; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Salt Lake City, Utah.City authorities were also looking for solutions to connecting problems—especially using park-and-ride facilities—with a range of technologies from conventional rail (Chicago) to automated rail (Skytrain in Vancouver, B.C., and a second VAL line in Toulouse, France). They were also most interested in dual-mode vehicles (e.g., in Paris) and nonpolluting buses in a determined effort to combat vehicle-generated atmospheric pollution, which was increasingly being related to lung and heart diseases. (JOHN H. EARP)See also Aerospace (Business and Industry Review ); Automobiles (Business and Industry Review ); Energy ; Engineering Projects ; Environment .This updates the article transportation, history of.▪ 1994IntroductionDespite the introduction of the single European market on January 1 and the progress on the North American Free Trade Agreement, the ongoing uncertainty over the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and continuing world recession in 1993 resulted in subdued levels of both passenger and freight movements. The lack of financial performance in some transport sectors led to a revised interest by many governments in the privatization of state-owned transport assets.Major infrastructure projects, many involving water crossings, continued to progress. Interest in and demand for well-integrated and interconnecting services were driven by increasing congestion on highways and at airports, as well as growing concern about the quality of the air and the environment in general. The European Community (EC) issued a White Paper highlighting the dilemma in balancing accessibility with environmental standards and addressing the need for sustainable mobility. (JOHN H. EARP)AVIATIONAnother exceptionally tough trading year for the world airline industry saw passenger numbers rise an average of 5.7% but the profit made per seat—the yield—decline as wild discounting took place in vicious fare wars between some of the big carriers and as businesses traded down from first class to executive class and from executive to economy class in their efforts to save corporate costs.As a result, the airlines within the International Air Transport Association (IATA) lost a record $4.8 billion in 1992, bringing their total loss in the three years to the end of 1992 to $11.5 billion—a sum greater than all the profits made since international scheduled services began.At the same time that it continued to fly through turbulent economic weather, the industry was assailed by fresh demands for taxes by governments. The airlines were fined considerable sums for bringing in inadmissable passengers and were faced in the U.S. with the need to carry out random drug and alcohol testing (at a cost of several million dollars a year) and with a fuel tax on domestic air transportation set to begin in 1995.The trend toward increased taxation was one of the problems recognized by the U.S. Presidential Commission To Insure a Strong, Competitive Airline Industry, which reported in August 1993 after hearing evidence on the industry's ills from the airlines and many other interested parties. The commission also recommended that the U.S. move quickly to set up a satellite-based national air traffic control and communications system and that the airlines' international liability regime be modernized. A similar inquiry was established in Brussels by the European Commission and was due to issue its report as the year ended.For 1993 the airlines' losses were tentatively forecast at about $2 billion—still disastrous but a considerable improvement on 1992 as world business moved painfully out of recession and as deep cost cutting began to produce a fitter, leaner industry. Since the crisis hit, the airlines had reduced direct employment by some 80,000, canceled or deferred 1,000 new aircraft deliveries, cut out many marginal routes, concentrated on their core business through subcontracting, reduced the number of first-class seats while enhancing conditions for travelers in business class, and looked for critical mass through mergers and alliances.As the year ended, the increasingly wide range of intercarrier agreements included deals between Northwest and KLM, Continental and Air Canada, Air France and Continental, USAir and British Airways (BA), Delta and Swissair, American and Canadian International, and Lufthansa and United—all with the aim of producing "seamless" air transport globally. These accords forced the U.S. and other governments to confront key issues, such as ownership, control, and competition law.In Europe, where KLM, Scandinavian Airlines System, Swissair, and Austrian Airlines engaged in difficult—and eventually fruitless—negotiations toward a joint airline, the third and final EC liberalization package was introduced as 1993 began. By the close of the year, the package had had little real impact on reducing fares, although there had been an increase in competition on some trunk routes between capital cities as airlines took up the freedoms offered by the package to start services against the established national carriers. Merger talks collapsed in November when the four airlines failed to agree on a U.S. partner.In January the two-year legal battle between BA and Virgin Atlantic appeared to be over when BA agreed to pay more than £600,000 in libel damages to Virgin plus court costs of up to £ 3 million. In October, however, Virgin founder Richard Branson filed an antitrust suit against BA in U.S. federal court.Labour unions at the two largest U.S. carriers led the news at year's end. A short-lived strike by flight attendants at American just before Thanksgiving disrupted hundreds of flights and sent thousands of passengers scrambling to find alternatives. Less than a month later United agreed to an employee-buyout plan. Also at year's end, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration announced new regulations that would specify procedures for pilots of commuter aircraft and large private airplanes to follow in order to be certain that the wings of their craft were completely ice-free before takeoff.In the aerospace sector Boeing, Airbus Industrie, and all the other big manufacturers engaged in extensive staff layoffs and lower production rates to reflect the belt-tightening among the airlines. However, planning continued for the next generation of airliners, including an 800-seat subsonic and a 350-seat supersonic. At least one carrier, Singapore Airlines, one of the leading airlines in the Southeast Asian region (where passenger growth was expected to be up to 10.5% a year), urged them to get on with the job.IATA, too, took a more sanguine view, forecasting an average annual growth in passenger traffic of 6.6% and in air freight of 7.2% between 1993 and 1997 and predicting that the world jet fleet would rise from 8,000 aircraft to 10,800 by the year 2000. Worries remained over where the money would come from, however. (ARTHUR REED)SHIPPING AND PORTSIt seemed that much of the attention of the shipping industry in 1993 was focused on two major events, both insurance related. In April officers at Lloyd's of London presented a new business plan for the recovery of the troubled insurance market, which had lost nearly £3 billion during the 1990 year of account. The business plan addressed past problems and proposed plans for the future. One of the proposals was that limited-liability companies should be admitted to membership, bringing corporate capital to the market.The other insurance-related event was the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA '90), which came into force on Feb. 18, 1993, and which was applicable to vessels that stored, handled, or transported oil. The act was a direct result of the Exxon Valdez oil-spill disaster, for which the Exxon Corp. paid a settlement of some $1 billion. OPA '90 imposed unlimited liability on shipowners trading to the U.S. for any oil-pollution incidents, and the insurance coverage available came nowhere near the Exxon Valdez total.The safety of bulk carriers remained another important issue, and John Parker, chairman of the U.K.'s Harland and Wolff shipyard, proposed that large bulk carriers have their cargo capacity reduced as a safety measure rather than rely on age-based limits. The Commission of the European Community was working on a plan to make port state control inspections mandatory outside European waters and earmarked funding from its 1994 budget to help finance the initiative.Port developments included plans to build the largest container terminal in the U.S., costing around $300 million, for American President Lines in Los Angeles. In Vietnam a large new container port was to be built on the Saigon River near Ho Chi Minh City by a partnership that included Singapore's Neptune Orient Lines and Mitsui of Japan.The total tonnage of the world fleet stood at 457.8 million gross tonnage (gt), an increase of 13.5 million gt over 1992. The tonnage in the total order book for registration other than in the country of build rose by 690,979 gt in the June quarter of 1993 to a figure of 25,899,219 gt (73.9% of the total world order book), including 7,579,925 gt for Liberia, 6,835,520 gt for Panama, 1,636,766 gt for Norway, and 886,500 gt for The Bahamas. (EDWARD CROWLEY)FREIGHT AND PIPELINESWorld recession and reduced global trading resulted in record losses in many of the largest container ship operators in 1993, causing consolidation within the industry. Although growth rates for total movements slackened, other changes included faster rates of annual growth in specials, notably in reefers (refrigerated trailers) at 25.2% and high cubes (27.9%). The Pacific Rim ports accounted for more than 40% of the world share of container traffic. Singapore, with 7,970,000 20-ft equivalent units (TEU), and Hong Kong, with 7,560,000 TEU in 1992, continued to outperform all other ports, the latter assisted by CITOS (computer integrated terminal operations system). In July 1993, Singapore recorded an all-time monthly record of 796,500 TEU, beating the previous record of 773,000 set by Hong Kong in August 1992.Rotterdam, Neth., remained Europe's busiest container port, with over four million TEU, and it was stimulating the development of specialist freight villages and other transport facilities, including "piggyback" rail transport. In the U.S. double stacking played a large role in freight transport, with over 1.6 million TEU of double stack container traffic originating in the U.S.Projections for 1993 showed a slight increase in pipeline construction over 1992, with 26,466 km (16,449 mi) of facilities being installed worldwide. The U.S. continued to dominate the field, with over 40% of new construction and more than 3,060,000 km (1.9 million mi) of long-distance pipelines and gas-distribution lines. In the former U.S.S.R., lack of spending was holding back domestic consumption and pipeline exports to Eastern Europe.In the Middle East, Aramco remained on a five-year gas-pipeline expansion plan, and other major constructions continued in Iran-Turkey, with a study of a 6,500-km (4,000-mi) gas-line link to Greece. Engineering work was under way on the Algerian section of the 1,400-km (870-mi) Maghreb-Europe gas line, which included dual lines across the Strait of Gibraltar. In South America the $2 billion gas pipeline linking Santa Cruz, Bolivia, to São Paulo, Brazil, received top priority.ROADS AND TRAFFICAlthough worldwide figures for car manufacturing showed declines for yet another year (European figures showed a drop of two million in sales), the total ownership of vehicles and the total vehicle mileage continued to grow against a background of highway congestion and increasing evidence of environmental pollution. Despite the continuing interest and investment in urban public-transport systems, the sheer convenience and benefit of using an automobile meant that efforts by most governments to stem car use were having little effect in urban areas.Road pricing was slowly gaining ground as a means of both raising revenue on intercity roads and controlling congestion in urban areas. The technology for this continued to be developed in both the European DRIVE project and the U.S. intelligent vehicle highway system (IVHS) schemes. The boost that the planning of U.S. cities received from the government was somewhat muted by the lack of the promised fuel tax increases.Urban and interurban facilities continued to be provided, although their provision was targeted at key links in the highway network, especially bridges and tunnels for water crossings. In Europe, as the Channel Tunnel and Store Bælt projects moved toward completion, attention turned toward the planning of a road and rail link between Copenhagen and Malmö, Sweden, under the Øresund Sound and a bridge and tunnel link across the Fehmarn Belt linking Denmark to Germany. The French authorities commenced work on the Somport Tunnel linking France to Spain.In urban areas tunneling of roads was also being pursued for purely environmental reasons. Six road tunnels forming part of the Boston Central Artery Project and using new jacking methods that would save $60 million and one year of construction time were proposed.BOOT (build, own, operate, transfer) schemes were much in evidence, especially in Australia following the successful completion of the Sydney Harbour Tunnel. The approach was extended to provide an underground car park for the Sydney Opera House, with a 50-year concession agreement.INTERCITY RAILAlthough 1993 rail freight volumes were down, increasing passenger traffic continued to sustain worldwide confidence in the growth and development of railways. Greater emphasis was being placed on technical compatibility of systems and provision of third-party access to national systems. There was renewed interest in privatization of rail networks in such widespread locations as New Zealand, Argentina, Pakistan, Germany, and the U.K. Japan temporarily shelved its privatization efforts.High-speed trains and networks were being planned or extended in many countries. In France the Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV) extended to La Rochelle, and the new TGV Nord line opened to traffic. The TGV Est and Méditerranée lines were to go ahead, and a high-speed line from Lille to Brussels was under construction. There were plans for high-speed link eastward both in Germany and in Poland and one in China to link Beijing (Peking) to Shanghai. European railways in Sweden, Denmark, and Germany agreed upon a common technical basis for further development. Japan and Germany continued to experiment with the use of maglev (magnetic levitation) vehicles for intercity transport.The Japanese railways successfully tested their WIN train at over 350 km/h (220 mph) and were testing the STAR 21 to 400 km/h (250 mph). They were also developing a tilting train. Germany developed its first double-decker passenger coach stock.Freight services also made advances. The Rotterdam (Neth.)-Milan shuttle was one of four trains acting as guinea pigs for transit monitoring using the Argos satellite system. Germany was expanding its premium Inter Cargo freight service to serve its industrial heartland, and a European "Qualitynet" service introduced the hub-and-spoke concept to freight operations. China completed the second stage of its Dagin heavy long-haul coal line. Studies in France confirmed the feasibility of an ambitious plan for truck motorways on rails.URBAN MASS TRANSITThe keynote address to the 50th International Union of Public Transport world congress, held in Sydney, Australia, in May 1993, highlighted the role that public transport had in providing sustainable development and balancing urban mobility and environmental standards. It also underlined the need to shift resources into urban transit at a time when France, for example, was considering suppressing its pioneering versement transport (transport payroll tax) for urban areas.Worldwide metro and light rail transit (LRT) systems continued to abound. Los Angeles opened its new Metro Red Line at the end of January and its Metrolink commuter line to Riverside in June and planned to open the fully automated minimetro Green Line in 1995. Metro extensions opened in 1993 were reported from as far afield as Berlin, Calcutta, Lisbon, Naples, Shanghai, and Tokyo. A host of other cities, including Amsterdam, Cairo, Mexico City, and Omsk, Russia, were constructing new LRT or metro extensions, while other cities planned new or further lines to existing networks. The New York (City) Metropolitan Transportation Authority announced a plan to introduce its first braille subway map for the visually impaired.Trams were also making a revival. Brussels, Strasbourg, France, and Leiden, Neth., reintroduced them to combat congestion, while Guangzhou (Canton), China, was studying how to convert an old air-raid shelter into a 5-km (3.1-mi) underground tramway. Brazil still led the way with innovative approaches to bus use, exemplified by its six-door buses carrying 270 passengers on its "direct route tube" system. Germany introduced an H-Bahn (Hangesbahn; suspended railway), an automated transit system, in Dortmund. In downtown Hong Kong the world's longest escalator system, measuring 800 m (2,625 ft) and comprising 20 escalators and three moving sidewalks, operated at a cost of some HK$208 million. (JOHN H. EARP)See also Energy ; Engineering Projects ; Environment ; Industrial Review: Aerospace (Industrial Review ); Automobiles (Industrial Review ).This updates the article transportation, history of.
* * *the movement of goods and persons from place to place and the various means by which such movement is accomplished. The growth of the ability—and need—to transport large quantities of goods or numbers of people over long distances at high speeds in comfort and safety has been an index of civilization and in particular of technological progress.Transportation is treated in a number of articles. For the major types of propulsion used in modern forms of transportation, see energy conversion. For forms of transportation for military applications, see military technology. For the engineering infrastructure on which transportation systems depend, see roads and highways; bridge; canals and inland waterways; harbours and sea works; lighthouse; tunnels and underground excavations. For the place of transportation in law, see air law; carriage of goods; maritime law.
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