solidly, adv.solidness, n.
/sol"id/, adj.
1. having three dimensions (length, breadth, and thickness), as a geometrical body or figure.
2. of or pertaining to bodies or figures of three dimensions.
3. having the interior completely filled up, free from cavities, or not hollow: a solid piece of chocolate.
4. without openings or breaks: a solid wall.
5. firm, hard, or compact in substance: solid ground.
6. having relative firmness, coherence of particles, or persistence of form, as matter that is not liquid or gaseous: solid particles suspended in a liquid.
7. pertaining to such matter: Water in a solid state is ice.
8. dense, thick, or heavy in nature or appearance: solid masses of cloud.
9. not flimsy, slight, or light, as buildings, furniture, fabrics, or food; substantial.
10. of a substantial character; not superficial, trifling, or frivolous: a solid work of scientific scholarship.
11. without separation or division; continuous: a solid row of buildings.
12. whole or entire: one solid hour.
13. forming the whole; consisting entirely of one substance or material: solid gold.
14. uniform in tone or shades, as a color: a solid blue dress.
15. real or genuine: solid comfort.
16. sound or reliable, as reasons or arguments: solid facts.
17. sober-minded; fully reliable or sensible: a solid citizen.
18. financially sound or strong: Our company is solid.
19. cubic: A solid foot contains 1728 solid inches.
20. written without a hyphen, as a compound word.
21. having the lines not separated by leads, or having few open spaces, as type or printing.
22. thorough, vigorous, great, big, etc. (with emphatic force, often after good): a good solid blow.
23. firmly united or consolidated: a solid combination.
24. united or unanimous in opinion, policy, etc.
25. on a friendly, favorable, or advantageous footing (often prec. by in): He was in solid with her parents.
26. Slang. excellent, esp. musically.
27. a body or object having three dimensions (length, breadth, and thickness).
28. a solid substance or body; a substance exhibiting rigidity.
[1350-1400; ME < L solidus]
Syn. 1. cubic. 5. dense. See firm1. 6. cohesive, firm. 9. sound. 11. unbroken. 18. solvent. 22. strong.
Ant. 1. flat. 6. loose. 11, 24. divided.

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One of the three basic states of matter.

A solid forms from either a liquid or a gas (the other two states of matter) because, as the energy of the atoms decreases, they coalesce in the relatively ordered, three-dimensional structure of a solid. All solids have the ability to support loads applied either perpendicular (normal) or parallel (shear) to a surface. Solids can be crystalline (as in metals), amorphous (as in glass), or quasicrystalline (as in certain metal alloys), depending on the degree of order in the arrangement of the atoms.
(as used in expressions)
solid state device
solid state physics

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▪ state of matter
      one of the three basic states of matter, the others being liquid and gas. (Sometimes plasmas, or ionized gases, are considered a fourth state of matter.) A solid forms from liquid or gas because the energy of atoms decreases when the atoms take up a relatively ordered, three-dimensional structure.

      Solids exhibit certain characteristics that distinguish them from liquids and gases. All solids have, for example, the ability to resist forces applied either perpendicular or parallel to a surface (i.e., normal or shear loads, respectively). Such properties depend on the properties of the atoms that form the solid, on the way those atoms are arranged, and on the forces between them.

      Solids are generally divided into three broad classes—crystalline, noncrystalline (amorphous (amorphous solid)), and quasicrystalline. Crystalline (crystal) solids have a very high degree of order in a periodic atomic arrangement. Practically all metals and many other minerals, such as common table salt (sodium chloride), belong to this class. Noncrystalline solids are those in which atoms and molecules are not organized in a definite lattice pattern. They include glasses, plastics, and gels. Quasicrystalline (quasicrystal) solids display novel symmetries in which the atoms are arranged in quasiperiodic fashion—i.e., in patterns that do not repeat at regular intervals. They exhibit symmetries, such as fivefold symmetry, that are forbidden in ordinary crystals. Quasicrystal structures are common in alloys in which aluminum is combined with another metal, such as iron, cobalt, or nickel.

      Some molecules may exist in the liquid crystal state, which is intermediate to the crystalline solid and liquid states. Liquid crystals flow like liquids yet display a certain degree of the symmetry characteristic of crystalline solids.

      Four principal types of atomic bonds are found in crystalline solids: metallic (metal), ionic, covalent, and molecular. Metals and their alloys are characterized in the main by their high electrical and thermal conductivity, which arise from the migration of free electrons; free electrons also influence how the atoms bond. Ionic crystals are aggregates of charged ions. These salts commonly exhibit ionic conductivity, which increases with temperature. Covalent crystals are hard, frequently brittle materials such as diamond, silicon, and silicon carbide. In the simpler, monatomic types (e.g., diamond), each atom is surrounded by a number of atoms equal to its valence. Molecular crystals are substances that have relatively weak intermolecular binding, such as Dry Ice (solidified carbon dioxide), solid forms of the rare gases (e.g., argon, krypton, and xenon), and crystals of numerous organic compounds.

      Various alloys, salts, covalent crystals, and molecular crystals that are good electrical insulators at low temperature become conductors at elevated temperatures, conductivity increasing rapidly with temperature. Materials of this type are called semiconductors. Their electrical conductivity is generally low when compared with that of such metals as copper, silver, or aluminum (see semiconductor).

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Universalium. 2010.

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