Rudolf I

Rudolf I
/rooh"dolf/; Ger. /rddooh"dawlf/
1218-91, king of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1273-91: founder of the Hapsburg dynasty.
Also, Rudolph I. Also called Rudolph I of Hapsburg.

* * *

or Rudolf of Habsburg

born May 1, 1218, Limburg-im-Breisgau
died July 15, 1291, Speyer

First German king (1273–91) of the Habsburg dynasty.

He inherited lands in Alsace, the Aargau, and Breisgau and extended his territory by marriage and through negotiation. Crowned king in 1273, he was recognized by Pope Gregory X only after promising to lead a new Crusade and to renounce imperial rights in Rome, the papal territories, and Italy. Rudolf defeated his rival Otakar II (1276, 1278) and gained lands in Austria, which he granted to his sons. He worked to combat the expansionist policies of France, but French influence at the papal court kept him from being crowned Holy Roman emperor. Although he created the core of later Habsburg territorial power, Rudolf was unable to make the throne a hereditary possession of his family, because the German electors would not raise his son to the kingship.

* * *

▪ king of Burgundy

died Oct. 25, 912

      first king of Juran (Upper) Burgundy (888–912).

      The son of Conrad, count of Auxerre of the powerful German Welf (Guelf) family, Rudolf succeeded to the duchy of Burgundy in 885 or 886. In January 888 he was crowned king at the abbey of St. Maurice d'Agaune and quickly extended his rule over much of Lorraine and Alsace. Attacked by Arnulf of Germany, Rudolf was unable to hold his new territory, and in late 888 he relinquished his claims in exchange for Arnulf's recognition of the kingdom of Burgundy.

▪ king of Germany
also called Rudolf Of Habsburg
born May 1, 1218, Limburg-im-Breisgau [Germany]
died July 15, 1291, Speyer
 first German king of the Habsburg dynasty.

      A son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Rudolf on the occasion of his father's death (c. 1239) inherited lands in upper Alsace, the Aargau, and Breisgau. A partisan of the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman emperor Frederick II and his son Conrad IV, he increased his territories largely at the expense of his uncle, Count Hartmann of Kyburg, and his cousin, Count Hartmann the Younger, who supported the papal cause against the Hohenstaufens. Rudolf's first marriage (c. 1245), to Gertrude of Zollern-Hohenberg-Haigerloch, also added considerable property to his domains. In 1254 he assisted the Knights of the Teutonic Order by participating in a crusade in Prussia.

      Rudolf 's election as German king at Frankfurt was hastened by the desire of the electors to exclude an increasingly powerful rival candidate of non-German birth, Otakar II of Bohemia. Crowned at Aachen on Oct. 24, 1273, Rudolf was recognized by Pope Gregory X in September 1274 on the condition that he would renounce all imperial rights in Rome, in the papal territories, and in Italy and to lead a new crusade. In 1275 the pope managed to persuade Alfonso X of Castile (whom some of the German electors had chosen king in April 1257) to abandon his claim to the German crown.

      Meanwhile Otakar II of Bohemia had been gaining control of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. When in 1274 Otakar refused to appear before an imperial diet to show cause for his actions, Rudolf placed him under the ban of the empire and led an army into Austria, where he defeated Otakar in 1276. In 1278 Otakar, attempting to reconquer the territories he had lost to Rudolf, invaded Austria; he was again defeated and killed at the Battle of Dürnkrut (August 26).

      In 1282 Rudolf received permission from the German princes to grant to his sons the territories recovered from Otakar, and in December of that year he granted Austria and Styria to his sons Albert and Rudolf, thus constituting the territorial nucleus of the future Habsburg power.

      Rudolf combated the expansionist policy of France on his western frontier by marrying (his first wife having died in 1281) Isabella, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, and by compelling Otto IV, Count Palatine of Franche-Comté, to pay homage (1289). French influence at the papal court, however, prevented Rudolf from being crowned Holy Roman emperor by the pope.

      Rudolf made great efforts, in concert with the territorial princes, to enforce the public peace (Landfriede) in Germany, and in 1274 he reasserted the right of the monarchy to impose taxation on the cities. He was, however, unsuccessful in his efforts, between 1287 and 1291, to secure the election of his elder son Albert as German king or king of the Romans. The German electors were determined that the crown should not become a hereditary possession of the House of Habsburg, and thus the electors' freedom of action remained intact at the time of Rudolf's death.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rudolf — ist ein deutscher männlicher Vorname. Davon abgeleitet tritt er auch als Familienname auf. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Verbreitung 3 Namenstag 4 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf I. — Rudolf hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Rudolf I. 2 Rudolf II. 3 Rudolf III. 4 Rudolf IV. 5 Rudolf V. 6 Rudolf VI. / VII …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf II. — Rudolf hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Rudolf I. 2 Rudolf II. 3 Rudolf III. 4 Rudolf IV. 5 Rudolf V. 6 Rudolf VI. / VII …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf IV. — Rudolf hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Rudolf I. 2 Rudolf II. 3 Rudolf III. 4 Rudolf IV. 5 Rudolf V. 6 Rudolf VI. / VII …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Rudolf hace referencia a: Rudolf Clausius, matemático y físico alemán; Rudolf Diesel, ingeniero alemán; Rudolf Eucken, filósofo alemán, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1908; Rudolf Hess, militar alemán y líder nazi;… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Rudolf — Rudolf, deutscher Vorname, bedeutet der mit Rath Helfende, der Rathgeber. I. Deutsche Kaiser: 1) R. von Schwaben, Sohn des Grafen Kuno von Rheinfelden, erhielt 1058, nach dem Tode Otto s von Schweinfurt, von seinem Schwager, dem Kaiser Heinrich… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • RUDOLF I° — (of Hapsburg), king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor, 1273–91. In 1275 Rudolf confirmed a papal bull against blood libels , adding that Christian and Jewish witnesses were necessary for sentencing a Jew. In 1286 Rudolph supported the archbishop… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RUDOLF II° — (of Hapsburg; 1552–1612), Holy Roman emperor and king of Bohemia from 1576. His reign was a period of growth for the Jewry of his dominions, particularly the community of prague (where he resided most of the time). He was in constant touch with… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Rudolf — m German, Dutch, Scandinavian, Polish, Czech, and English: from a Latinized version, Rudolphus, of the Germanic name Hrōdwulf (see ROLF (SEE Rolf)). It was introduced to the English speaking world from Germany in the 19th century. Rudolf was a… …   First names dictionary

  • Rudolf — (altdeutsch Hruodulf, »Ruhmwolf«, soviel wie Ruhmgieriger), deutscher Vorname: Deutsche Kaiser und Könige: 1) R. von Schwaben, Gegenkönig Heinrichs IV., Sohn des Grafen Kuno von Rheinfelden, erhielt 1057 von der Kaiserin Agnes das Herzogtum… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rudolf — Rùdolf DEFINICIJA 1. v. 2. ime dvojice burgundskih kraljeva (10. st.), jednog francuskog kralja (10. st.) i dvojice njemačko rimskih kraljeva (13. i 16 17. st.) 3. I (1218 1291), prvi njemački kralj Habsburške dinastije koji je zavladao i… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”