/rooh"dolf/, n.
1. Max, born 1902, U.S. orchestra conductor, born in Germany.
2. Lake, former name of Turkana (def. 3).
3. a male given name, form of Rolf.

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born Aug. 21, 1858, Schloss Laxenburg, near Vienna, Austria
died Jan. 30, 1889, Schloss Mayerling, near Vienna

Archduke and crown prince of Austria.

The son of Emperor Francis Joseph, he received a broad education and traveled widely. As heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, he hoped to bring reform to the empire, but his liberal views alienated his father, and he was excluded from the business of government. From 1881 he considered having himself crowned king of Hungary and reviving a kingdom of Poland. He then became despondent and allegedly formed a suicide pact with his mistress, Maria Vetsera; the two were found shot dead in the hunting lodge at Mayerling. Efforts to disguise the facts provoked many rumours, while romantic writers found inspiration in the story.
(as used in expressions)
Bing Sir Rudolf
Bultmann Rudolf Karl
Carnap Rudolf
Diesel Rudolf Christian Karl
Eucken Rudolf Christoph
Friml Charles Rudolf
Frisch Max Rudolf
Hertz Heinrich Rudolf
Hess Walter Richard Rudolf
Hess Walter Rudolf
Jhering Rudolf von
Laban Rudolf von
Nureyev Rudolf Hametovich
Otto Rudolf
Rudolf of Habsburg
Rudolf Lake
Rundstedt Karl Rudolf Gerd von
Serkin Rudolf
Steiner Rudolf
Karl August Rudolf Steinmetz
Virchow Rudolf Carl

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▪ antiking of Germany
also called Rudolf Of Rheinfelden, or Rudolf Of Swabia, German Rudolf Von Rheinfelden, or Rudolf Von Schwaben
died Oct. 15, 1080, Merseburg, Ger.

      German anti-king, opponent of Henry IV.

      Rudolf was granted the duchy of Swabia in 1057 by the dowager empress Agnes of Poitou, regent for her infant son Henry IV. She also appointed him administrator of the kingdom of Burgundy and gave him her daughter Matilda in marriage (1059). Rudolf at first supported Henry IV and was, in fact, largely responsible for Henry's victory over the Saxons at the Unstrut River in 1075. The next year, however, when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry and absolved his subjects from their oaths of allegiance, Rudolf turned against the king. Promising to respect the elective character of the monarchy and to renounce any royal right to the investiture of prelates, he was elected king by an assembly of dissident princes in March 1077 and two months later was crowned at Mainz. The townspeople of Mainz, however, who sympathized with Henry, rioted, and Rudolf was compelled to flee and make his way to Saxony, where he was supported by the majority of the lay and ecclesiastical nobles. After invading Rudolf's duchy of Swabia, Henry, at the end of May 1077, held a diet at Ulm that deprived Rudolf of his duchy on a charge of treason.

      Rudolf's effective power was thereafter confined to Saxony. He fought Henry at the indecisive battle at Mellrichstadt (1078) and, more successfully, at Flarchheim (1080). Recognized at last as king by Pope Gregory, early in 1080, Rudolf on October 15 of that year won a victory over Henry at the Elster River but, in the process, received a mortal wound in the battle.

▪ king of France
died Jan. 14/15, 936, Auxerre, France

      duke of Burgundy (921–936) and later king of the West Franks, or France (923–936), who, after a stormy career typical of the general political instability that characterized the age, succeeded in consolidating his authority shortly before he died.

      Rudolf was the son-in-law of Robert I, briefly king of France, with whom in 922 he led a rebellion that ousted Charles III the Simple, the Carolingian ruler of France. When Robert was killed in battle the following year, Rudolf was elected king and was crowned at Soissons. His reign was little more than an unending series of battles. He was at first not recognized by many of the magnates; in addition, he had to face the attacks of the Northmen and even of the Hungarians. In 926 he lost Lorraine to Henry I of Germany and in 928 was obliged to cede Laon to Herbert, count of Vermandois, who had earlier been a principal supporter but now exploited his possession of the person of Charles the Simple to blackmail the king.

      Rudolf's position improved significantly, however, after the death of Charles in 929 removed a rallying point for the opposition; soon, only Herbert held out against him. Rudolf had just forced his foe's capitulation when he fell ill and died.

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Universalium. 2010.

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