—nirvanic, adj./nir vah"neuh, -van"euh, neuhr-/, n.1. (often cap.) Pali, nibbana. Buddhism. freedom from the endless cycle of personal reincarnations, with their consequent suffering, as a result of the extinction of individual passion, hatred, and delusion: attained by the Arhat as his goal but postponed by the Bodhisattva.2. (often cap.) Hinduism. salvation through the union of Atman with Brahma; moksha.3. a place or state characterized by freedom from or oblivion to pain, worry, and the external world.[1830-40; < Skt nirvana]
* * *(Sanskrit: "Extinction") In Indian religious thought, the transcendent state of freedom achieved by the extinction of desire and of individual consciousness.Nirvana is the supreme goal of the disciplines of meditation, particularly in Buddhism. Release from desire (and consequent suffering) and the continuous round of rebirths constitutes enlightenment, or the experience of nirvana. Theravada Buddhism conceives of nirvana as tranquillity and peace; Mahayana Buddhism equates it with sunyata (emptiness), dharma-kaya (the essence of the Buddha), and dharma-datu (ultimate reality).
* * *▪ American rock groupIntroductionAmerican alternative rock group whose breakthrough album, Nevermind (1991), announced a new musical style ( grunge) and gave voice to the post-baby boom young adults known as Generation X. The members were Kurt Cobain (b. February 20, 1967, Aberdeen, Washington, U.S.—d. April 5, 1994, Seattle), Krist Novoselic (b. May 16, 1965, Compton, California), and Dave Grohl (b. January 14, 1969, Warren, Ohio, U.S.).From Aberdeen, near Seattle, Nirvana was part of the postpunk underground scene that centred on K Records of Olympia, Washington, before they recorded their first single, "Love Buzz," and album, Bleach, for Sub Pop, an independent record company in Seattle. They refined this mix of 1960s-style pop and 1970s heavy metal–hard rock on their first album for a major label, Geffen; Nevermind, featuring the anthemic hit "Smells Like Teen Spirit," was the first full expression of punk concerns to achieve mass market success in the United States.Nirvana used extreme changes of tempo and volume to express anger and alienation: a quiet, tuneful verse switched into a ferocious, distorted chorus. In the fashion of many 1970s punk groups, guitarist-singer-songwriter Cobain set powerful rock against sarcastic, allusive lyrics that explored hopelessness, surrender, and male abjection (“As a defense I'm neutered and spayed,” he sang in "On a Plain" ). Imbued with the punk ethic that to succeed was to fail, Nirvana abhorred the media onslaught that accompanied their rapid ascent. Success brought celebrity, and Cobain, typecast as a self-destructive rock star, courted controversy both with his advocacy of feminism and gay rights and with his embroilment in a sequence of drug- and gun-related escapades—a number of which involved his wife, Courtney Love (Love, Courtney), leader of the band Hole.Like Nevermind, the band's third album, In Utero (1993)—which contained clear articulations of Cobain's psyche in songs such as "All Apologies" and "Rape Me" —reached number one on the U.S. album charts. By this point, however, Cobain's heroin use was out of control. After a reputed suicide attempt in Rome in March 1994, he entered a Los Angeles treatment centre. In a mysterious sequence of events, he returned to Seattle, where he shot and killed himself in his lakeside home. Subsequent concert releases, notably Unplugged in New York (1994) and From the Muddy Banks of the Wishkah (1996), only added to Nirvana's legend. In 2002 the greatest-hits album Nirvana appeared and included the previously unreleased single "You Know You're Right." That year a collection of Cobain's journals was also published.Jon SavageRepresentative Works● Nevermind (1991)● Incesticide (1992)● In Utero (1993)Additional ReadingMichael Azerrad, Come As You Are: The Story of Nirvana (1993), includes a discography.
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