Hampton

Hampton
/hamp"teuhn/, n.
1. Lionel, born 1913, U.S. jazz vibraphonist.
2. Wade /wayd/, 1818-1902, Confederate general: U.S. senator 1879-91.
3. a city in SE Virginia, on Chesapeake Bay. 122,617.
4. a town in SE New Hampshire. 10,493.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 146,437), southeastern Virginia, U.S. Located on Chesapeake Bay and the northern shore of Hampton Roads, it forms part of a metropolitan complex that includes Newport News, Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, and Portsmouth.

It originated around a fort built by the British in 1609 on the site of an Indian village. Permanent settlement dates from 1610–11, making it the country's oldest continuously settled community of English origin. In 1861, during the American Civil War, it was burned by its Confederate residents to prevent it from being occupied by Union troops; it was rebuilt after the war. Military installations and tourism are important to the economy. Hampton University (1868) was established there by the Freedmen's Bureau to educate former slaves.
II
(as used in expressions)
Hampton Lionel
Hampton Wade

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      independent city, southeastern Virginia, U.S. It lies on the Chesapeake Bay and the north shore of Hampton Roads (natural roadstead), opposite Norfolk, to which it is linked by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel. The city forms part of a metropolitan complex, including Newport News, Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, and Portsmouth.

      Hampton originated around Fort Algernourne (now Fort Monroe), built in 1609 on the site of the village of Kecoughtan, named for the tribe that inhabited it, to protect the area from Spanish raiders. Permanent settlement dates from 1610, which makes it the nation's oldest continuously settled community of English origin. It became part of Elizabeth City (later reorganized as Elizabeth City county) in 1620. St. John's Church was established in 1610; the present structure, dating from 1728, has been restored. Hampton, named in the late 1600s for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd earl of Southampton (Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd earl of, Baron Wriothesley of Titchfield), was organized as a town in 1705. It grew as a seaport, being surpassed later by Norfolk. Attacked by pirates (notably Blackbeard) in the early 1700s, and again during the American Revolution and the War of 1812, it was burned by Confederates in 1861 at the beginning of the American Civil War to prevent its capture by Union forces occupying nearby Old Point Comfort and Fort Monroe. It was rebuilt after the war and later flourished with the arrival of the railroad in the 1880s. Fishing and seafood-processing industries subsequently developed.

      Military installations and tourism are important to the economy. Fort Monroe (headquarters for the U.S. Continental Army Command), Langley Air Force Base, and the Langley Research Center for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are in the city. The Syms-Eaton Museum commemorates Benjamin Syms and Thomas Eaton, who founded the first free schools (1634 and 1659, respectively) in America; the two schools merged in 1805 as Hampton Academy, which was later absorbed into the city's public school system. Hampton University (1868) was established by General Samuel Chapman Armstrong (Armstrong, Samuel Chapman), an agent of the Freedmen's Bureau, to educate former slaves. Thomas Nelson Community College opened there in 1968. Incorporated as a town in 1849 and as a city in 1908, Hampton merged with Elizabeth City county and the town of Phoebus in 1952. Pop. (1990) 133,793; (2000) 146,437.

      county, southern South Carolina, U.S. It consists of a low-lying, largely flat region on the Coastal Plain. The Salkehatchie River and its extension, the Combahee, form the county's eastern border, and Georgia and the Savannah River form the southwestern border. The county is also drained by the Coosawhatchie River. Lake Warren State Park and the James W. Webb Wildlife Center and Game Management Area lie within the county's boundaries. Fishing and hunting enthusiasts are attracted to the area, much of which is swampy (especially along the rivers) and most of which is wooded. Hampton county was established in 1878 and named for politician and Confederate general Wade Hampton (Hampton, Wade).

      Agriculture (watermelons, legumes, grains, and hogs) and lumbering are the basis of the economy. Hampton, the county seat, and Varnville are the largest towns. Area 560 square miles (1,450 square km). Pop. (2000) 21,386; (2007 est.) 21,210.

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Universalium. 2010.

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