/kownt/, v.t.
1. to check over (the separate units or groups of a collection) one by one to determine the total number; add up; enumerate: He counted his tickets and found he had ten.
2. to reckon up; calculate; compute.
3. to list or name the numerals up to: Close your eyes and count ten.
4. to include in a reckoning; take into account: There are five of us here, counting me.
5. to reckon to the credit of another; ascribe; impute.
6. to consider or regard: He counted himself lucky to have survived the crash.
7. to count the items of a collection one by one in order to determine the total: She counted three times before she was satisfied that none was missing.
8. to list or name numerals in order: to count to 100 by fives.
9. to reckon numerically.
10. to have a specified numerical value.
11. to be accounted or worth something: That first try didn't count - I was just practicing.
12. to have merit, importance, value, etc.; deserve consideration: Every bit of help counts.
13. to have worth; amount (usually fol. by for): Intelligence counts for something.
14. count coup. See coup1 (def. 4).
15. count down, to count backward, usually by ones, from a given integer to zero.
16. count in, to include: If you're going to the beach, count me in.
17. count off, (often used imperatively, as in the army) to count aloud by turns, as to arrange positions within a group of persons; divide or become divided into groups: Close up ranks and count off from the left by threes.
18. count on or upon, to depend or rely on: You can always count on him to lend you money.
19. count out,
a. Boxing. to declare (a boxer) a loser because of inability to stand up before the referee has counted 10 seconds.
b. to exclude: When it comes to mountain climbing, count me out.
c. to count and apportion or give out: She counted out four cookies to each child.
d. to disqualify (ballots) illegally in counting, in order to control the election.
20. the act of counting; enumeration; reckoning; calculation: A count of hands showed 23 in favor and 16 opposed.
21. the number representing the result of a process of counting; the total number.
22. an accounting.
23. Baseball. the number of balls and strikes, usually designated in that order, that have been called on a batter during a turn at bat: a count of two balls and one strike.
24. Law. a distinct charge or theory of action in a declaration or indictment: He was found guilty on two counts of theft.
25. Textiles.
a. a number representing the size or quality of yarn, esp. the number based on the relation of weight to length of the yarn and indicating its degree of coarseness.
b. the number of warp and filling threads per square inch in woven material, representing the texture of the fabric.
26. Bowling. the number of pins struck down by the first ball rolled by a bowler in the frame following a spare and included in the score for the frame in which the spare was made.
27. Physics.
a. a single ionizing reaction registered by an ionization chamber, as in a Geiger counter.
b. the indication of the total number of ionizing reactions registered by an ionization chamber in a given period of time.
28. Archaic. regard; notice.
29. the count, Boxing. the calling aloud by the referee of the seconds from 1 to 10 while a downed boxer remains off his feet. Completion of the count signifies a knockout, which the referee then declares: A hard right sent the challenger down for the count. Also called the full count.
30. noting a number of items determined by an actual count: The box is labeled 50 count.
[1275-1325; (v.) ME counten < AF c(o)unter, OF conter < L computare to COMPUTE; (n.) ME counte < AF c(o)unte, OF conte < LL computus calculation, reckoning, n. deriv. of computare]
/kownt/, n.
(in some European countries) a nobleman equivalent in rank to an English earl.
[1375-1425; late ME counte < AF c(o)unte, OF conte, comte < LL comitem, acc. of comes honorary title of various imperial functionaries, L: retainer, staff member, lit., companion; see COMES]

* * *

or earl

European title of nobility, ranking in modern times directly below a marquess or (in countries without marquesses) a duke.

In England the title of earl is the equivalent of count and ranks above a viscount. The wife of a count or earl is a countess. The Roman comes ("count") was originally a household companion of the emperor; under the Franks he was a local commander and judge. The counts were later incorporated into the feudal structure, some becoming subordinate to dukes, though a few countships were as great as duchies. As royal authority was reasserted over the feudatories, which took place at different times in the different kingdoms, the counts lost their political authority, though they retained their privileges as members of the nobility.
(as used in expressions)
Aehrenthal Aloys Count Lexa von
Alfieri Vittorio Count
Amadeus the Green Count
Andrássy Gyula Count
Arakcheyev Aleksey Andreyevich Count
Basie Count
Berchtold Leopold count von
Bernadotte af Wisborg Folke Count
Bernstorff Johann Heinrich count von
Beust Friedrich Ferdinand count von
Caprivi Georg Leo count von
Cavour Camillo Benso count di
Chambord Henri Dieudonné d'Artois count de
Ciano Galeazzo count di Cortellazzo
Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Xaver Josef Count
Frontenac Louis de Buade count de Palluau and de
Gama Vasco da 1st count da Vidigueira
Gneisenau August Wilhelm Anton Count Neidhardt von
Gobineau Joseph Arthur count de
Grandi Dino count di Mordano
Ignatyev Nikolay Pavlovich Count
Izvolsky Aleksandr Petrovich Count
Károlyi Mihály Count
count de L'Empire
Bruno count von Egisheim und Dagsburg
Loris Melikov Mikhail Tariyelovich Count
Louis Stanislas Xavier count de Provence
Moltke Helmuth Karl Bernhard count von
Montalembert Charles Forbes René count de
Nesselrode Karl Robert Vasilyevich Count
Orlov Aleksey Grigoryevich Count
Orlov Grigory Grigoryevich Count
Oxenstierna af Södermöre Axel Gustafsson Count
Pico della Mirandola Giovanni conte count di Concordia
Radetzky Joseph Count
Rochambeau Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur count de
Roon Albrecht Theodor Emil count von
Donatien Alphonse François count de Sade
Saxe Hermann Maurice count de
Sforza Carlo Count
Speransky Mikhail Mikhaylovich Count
Suvorov Aleksandr Vasilyevich Count
Széchenyi István Count
Taaffe Eduard count von
Teleki Pál Count
Tilly Johann Tserclaes count von
Tisza István Count
Tolstoy Aleksey Konstantinovich Count
Tolstoy Aleksey Nikolayevich Count
Lev Nikolayevich Count Tolstoy
Uvarov Sergey Semyonovich Count
Vergennes Charles Gravier count de
Vigny Alfred Victor count de
Count of Valor
Don Luchino Visconti count di Modrone
Witte Sergey Yulyevich Count
Yorck von Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig Count
Mac Mahon Marie Edme Patrice Maurice count de
Maurits prince van Oranje count van Nassau
Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti count de
Aberdeen George Hamilton Gordon 4th earl of
Alexander Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl
Asquith Herbert Henry 1st earl of Oxford and Asquith
Attlee Clement Richard 1st Earl Attlee of Walthamstow
Baldwin of Bewdley Stanley Baldwin 1st Earl
Balfour of Whittingehame Arthur James 1st Earl
Birkenhead Frederick Edwin Smith 1st earl of
James Earl Breslin
Browder Earl Russell
Burger Warren Earl
Bute John Stuart 3rd earl of
Cadogan William 1st Earl
Cardigan James Thomas Brudenell 7th earl of
James Earl Carter
Cecil Robert 1st earl of Salisbury
Clarendon Edward Hyde 1st earl of
Clarendon George William Frederick Villiers 4th earl of
Cornwallis Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl
Cromer Evelyn Baring 1st earl of
Cromwell Thomas earl of Essex
Derby Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley 14th earl of
Disraeli Benjamin earl of Beaconsfield
Dodge William Earl
Dongan Thomas 2nd earl of Limerick
Durham John George Lambton 1st earl of
Eden Robert Anthony 1st earl of Avon
Elgin James Bruce 8th earl of
Essex Robert Devereux 2nd earl of
Essex Robert Devereux 3rd earl of
Essex Walter Devereux 1st earl of
French John Denton Pinkstone 1st earl of Ypres
Grey Charles Grey 2nd Earl
Haig Douglas 1st Earl
Halifax Edward Frederick Lindley Wood 1st earl of
Harley Robert 1st earl of Oxford
Henry Tudor earl of Richmond
Hines Earl Kenneth
Howe Richard Howe Earl
Jellicoe John Rushworth Jellicoe 1st Earl
Jones James Earl
Leicester Robert Dudley earl of
Liverpool Robert Banks Jenkinson 2nd earl of
Lloyd George of Dwyfor David Lloyd George Earl
Mansfield William Murray 1st earl of
Earl of Leicester
Montrose James Graham 5th earl and 1st marquess of
Morton James Douglas 4th earl of
earl of Guilford
Northampton Henry Howard earl of
Earl of Kent
Ormonde James Butler 12th earl and 1st duke of
Oxford Edward de Vere 17th earl of
1st earl of Chatham
Earl Powell
Ray James Earl
John Stewart earl of Carrick
Rochester John Wilmot 2nd earl of
Rosse William Parsons 3rd earl of
Russell Bertrand Arthur William 3rd Earl Russell
Russell of Kingston Russell John Russell 1st Earl
Sackville Thomas 1st earl of Dorset
Sandwich John Montagu 4th earl of
Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 1st earl of
Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 3rd earl of
Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 7th earl of
Shrewsbury Charles Talbot duke and 12th earl of
Southampton Thomas Wriothesley 1st earl of
Southampton Henry Wriothesley 3rd earl of
Stanhope James Stanhope 1st Earl
Stanhope Charles Stanhope 3rd Earl
Stirling William Alexander 1st earl of
Strafford Thomas Wentworth 1st earl of
Suffolk Thomas Howard 1st earl of
Sunderland Robert Spencer 2nd earl of
Surrey Henry Howard earl of
Tyrone Hugh O'Neill 2nd earl of
Walpole Horace 4th earl of Orford
Walpole Robert 1st earl of Orford
Warren Earl
Warwick Earl of
Bulwer Lytton Edward George Earl
Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome
Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st earl of Stockton Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden
Mountbatten of Burma Louis Mountbatten 1st Earl
Rosebery Archibald Philip Primrose 5th earl of
Wavell of Eritrea and of Winchester Archibald Percival Wavell 1st Earl

* * *

▪ title of nobility
 European title of nobility, equivalent to a British earl, ranking in modern times after a marquess or, in countries without marquesses, a duke. The Roman comes was originally a household companion of the emperor, while under the Franks he was a local commander and judge. The counts were later slowly incorporated into the feudal structure, some becoming subordinate to dukes, although a few counties (or countships), such as those of Flanders, Toulouse, and Barcelona, were as great as duchies. The reassertion of royal authority over the feudatories, which took place at different times in the different kingdoms and led to the formation of centralized states of the modern type, meant that most counts lost their political authority, though they retained their privileges as members of the nobility.

      French counts became vassals of dukes by 900 at the latest; but, as the process of feudalization continued, the counts tended to lose their official character and to become the hereditary lords of little territories. In France this development is already discernible in the 11th century, and with its devaluation there arose the practice of applying the title of count very loosely. By the 12th century any lord of moderate status might style himself count, no less than the truly great feudatories of Flanders and Toulouse; and even in the 13th century, when the organization of the French kingdom became more stable, the title might mean much or comparatively little.

      The development of the system of royal bailliages from the beginning of the 13th century onward served progressively to restrict the counts' rights of legislation, judiciary, and private war. (Later, in the 16th century, the counts lost their right to mint money.) Moreover, gradually the great fiefs were reunited under the French crown, after which they were granted only in appanage (the territory itself being administered as a province of the kingdom); counts simply retained various privileges. Later countships, under the First Empire and the subsequent monarchies and empire, had no territorial significance but were made hereditary in order of primogeniture.

      Although in Germany the title of count (Graf) had become hereditary in most cases as early as the 10th century, the counts retained something of an official character rather longer than in France. In the 12th century, however, seemingly by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), they were given authority to maintain the public peace in the district under their control—an authority that until 1100 had belonged to the dukes. Thenceforward the term countship signified the territory within which the count had powers of life and death.

      From the beginning of the 12th century, a number of counts appeared in western Germany, taking their titles simply from the castles they held, and having no obvious connection with any official status. In Frederick Barbarossa's time certain freemen of the higher class, such as Vögte, or “advocates,” began to style themselves as counts. In the 13th and 14th centuries there are instances of new countships received as fiefs from dukes.

      Within the Holy Roman Empire there gradually developed distinctions between ordinary counts and counts of the empire (Reichsgrafen), who became members of the college of counts (Grafenkollegium), a component of the Diet of the empire. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the counts of the empire were mediatized—i.e., made subject to the sovereigns of the various German states instead of being “immediate” subjects of the emperor alone. The federal Diet, in 1829, however, recognized their right to the special style of Erlaucht (“Illustrious Highness”).

      With the decay of Carolingian authority, a system of countships based on cities grew up in Italy. Probably none were dependent on dukes, the ducal title being then comparatively rare, especially in northern Italy. The rise of communes meant the end of the countship's former significance, but as a mark of privilege, the title of count was quite liberally bestowed by the popes and other sovereigns of the peninsula well into modern times.

      In Spain the countship developed under Visigothic influence in the kingdom of Asturias-León and under Frankish influence in Catalonia and in the country immediately south of the Pyrenees. By uniting the Catalan countships, the counts of Barcelona made themselves into near sovereign princes, comparable at least to the powerful counts of Flanders and Toulouse; and the Carolingian countship of Aragon was the nucleus of the kingdom of that name. The countship of Castile, on the other hand, from which the kingdom of Castile emerged, was originally a frontier district of the kingdom of Asturias-León. Here the official character of the counts as district administrators appointed by the kings was preserved until the end of the 11th century, when the principle of hereditary lordships of one sort or another emerged and ultimately prevailed. Under the Spanish monarchies of the Renaissance and later, the title of count was infrequently conferred.

Russia and Poland
      In Russia, where the title of count was not introduced until Peter the Great's time, it came to be given usually to officials of a certain rank in the government service. In Poland there were no counts before the partitions of the late 18th century, when the title was introduced by the Russians, Austrians, and Prussians.

England's earls
      The title of earl (the English equivalent of count, from the Danish jarl) was first introduced into England under King Canute of Denmark and of Norway (king of England 1016–35), but prior to this the duties of an earl, the administration of a shire or province on behalf of the king, were performed by ealdormen. Earl is thus the oldest title and rank of English nobles extant today. It was also the highest until as late as 1337, when Edward, the Black Prince, (Edward The Black Prince) was created Duke of Cornwall by his father, Edward III.

      Initially the earls wielded administrative authority over several (modern) counties, but, after the Norman Conquest in 1066, the earl's duties were theoretically restricted to a single county, although some were earls of more than one county. Under the Norman kings earldoms became hereditary, but their representation of the king was lost to the sheriffs, and then in 1328, with the creation of Roger Mortimer as Earl of March, the essential association of earldoms with specific territories was abandoned. From the 18th century the practice developed of simply adding the grantee's surname (imitating a style of the 11th–12th centuries, when, for example, the Earl of Buckingham was styled Earl Giffard), so that the style of the Earl of Place-name was now supplemented by that of Earl Surname.

      The rules of succession to earldoms were originally those for the inheritance of fiefs in feudal law, so that, for example, an earldom might pass to a woman, her husband receiving the title of earl in her right, but from the reign of Richard II earldoms could be created for life (Sir Guichard d'Angle, Earl of Huntingdon in 1377) or with inheritance limited to male heirs. By the 1963 Peerage Act, an earl, in common with other British peers, may, within one year of inheriting his title, renounce it for life; then, during his lifetime, it remains dormant.

Scotland's earls
      While England's shires were ruled for the king by ealdormen, the Pictish provinces in the north of what subsequently became Scotland were ruled by the mormaers, the Great Stewards. At the beginning of the 12th century, in the reign of Alexander I, they became known as earls, seven of whom formed a Carolingian style of peerage known as the Seven Earls of Scotland. With the adoption of the Saxon title of earl (undoubtedly owed to the influence of Alexander's Saxon mother, the sainted Queen Margaret) and its integration with the Celtic mormaer, these powerful men added a personal title of dignity to their territorial title and judicial status. Their successors under Alexander's brother, King David I, were integrated into the Flemish-Norman system of feudalism so that the lands for which they were responsible, and which had been held by the tribes they ruled, now became their own as tenants-in-chief of the crown. More earldoms were created in the following reigns, until there were 13, but the Seven Earls (chosen as needed from the eventual 13) had become a constitutional and privileged body of great power acting as guardians of the realm and principal lay advisers to the king. However, at the end of the 13th century, at the time England's King Edward I was attempting to subdue and conquer Scotland, the political turmoil was such that the power of the earls was reduced to that of those of England.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • count — n: charge; specif: a charge (as in a complaint or indictment) that separately states a cause of action or esp. offense guilty on all count s Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996 …   Law dictionary

  • count — Ⅰ. count [1] ► VERB 1) determine the total number of. 2) recite numbers in ascending order. 3) take into account; include. 4) regard or be regarded as possessing a quality or fulfilling a role: people she had counted as her friends. 5) be… …   English terms dictionary

  • Count — Count, n. [F. conte and compte, with different meanings, fr. L. computus a computation, fr. computare. See {Count}, v. t.] 1. The act of numbering; reckoning; also, the number ascertained by counting. [1913 Webster] Of blessed saints for to… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • count — count1 [kount] vt. [ME counten < OFr conter < L computare,COMPUTE] 1. to name numbers in regular order to (a certain number) [to count five] 2. to add up, one by one, by units or groups, so as to get a total [count the money] 3. to check by …   English World dictionary

  • Count — 〈[ kaʊnt] m. 6; in England〉 1. Titel der nichtengl. Grafen; →a. Earl 2. Inhaber dieses Titels [engl., „Graf“] * * * Count [ka̮unt ], der; s, s [engl. count < frz. comte, ↑ Comte]: 1. <o. Pl.> …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Count — (kount), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Counted}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Counting}.] [OF. conter, and later (etymological spelling) compter, in modern French thus distinguished; conter to relate (cf. {Recount}, {Account}), compter to count; fr. L. computuare to… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Count — ist in England Titel des nichtenglischen Grafen, die englische Entsprechung ist der Earl. Count ist Namensbestandteil von Count Basie, Jazz Musiker Count Basic, Drum ’n’ Bass Band Count Grishnackh, das Pseudonym des Musikers Varg Vikernes Count… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • count — vb 1 Count, tell, enumerate, number are comparable when they mean to ascertain the total of units in a collection by noting one after another or one group after another. Count (see also RELY) implies computation of a total by assigning to each… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Count — Count, v. i. 1. To number or be counted; to possess value or carry weight; hence, to increase or add to the strength or influence of some party or interest; as, every vote counts; accidents count for nothing. [1913 Webster] This excellent man …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Count Me In — may refer to: Count Me In (charity), a charitable organization that provides financial assistance and business coaching and consulting services to woman owned businesses Count Me In (Death Before Dishonor album) Count Me In (Jann Browne album)… …   Wikipedia

  • count — [n] tally; number calculation, computation, enumeration, numbering, outcome, poll, reckoning, result, sum, toll, total, whole; concept 766 Ant. estimate, guess count [v1] add, check in order add up, calculate, cast, cast up, cipher, compute,… …   New thesaurus

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”