/kownt/, v.t.1. to check over (the separate units or groups of a collection) one by one to determine the total number; add up; enumerate: He counted his tickets and found he had ten.2. to reckon up; calculate; compute.3. to list or name the numerals up to: Close your eyes and count ten.4. to include in a reckoning; take into account: There are five of us here, counting me.5. to reckon to the credit of another; ascribe; impute.6. to consider or regard: He counted himself lucky to have survived the crash.v.i.7. to count the items of a collection one by one in order to determine the total: She counted three times before she was satisfied that none was missing.8. to list or name numerals in order: to count to 100 by fives.9. to reckon numerically.10. to have a specified numerical value.11. to be accounted or worth something: That first try didn't count - I was just practicing.12. to have merit, importance, value, etc.; deserve consideration: Every bit of help counts.13. to have worth; amount (usually fol. by for): Intelligence counts for something.15. count down, to count backward, usually by ones, from a given integer to zero.16. count in, to include: If you're going to the beach, count me in.17. count off, (often used imperatively, as in the army) to count aloud by turns, as to arrange positions within a group of persons; divide or become divided into groups: Close up ranks and count off from the left by threes.18. count on or upon, to depend or rely on: You can always count on him to lend you money.19. count out,a. Boxing. to declare (a boxer) a loser because of inability to stand up before the referee has counted 10 seconds.b. to exclude: When it comes to mountain climbing, count me out.c. to count and apportion or give out: She counted out four cookies to each child.d. to disqualify (ballots) illegally in counting, in order to control the election.n.20. the act of counting; enumeration; reckoning; calculation: A count of hands showed 23 in favor and 16 opposed.21. the number representing the result of a process of counting; the total number.22. an accounting.23. Baseball. the number of balls and strikes, usually designated in that order, that have been called on a batter during a turn at bat: a count of two balls and one strike.24. Law. a distinct charge or theory of action in a declaration or indictment: He was found guilty on two counts of theft.25. Textiles.a. a number representing the size or quality of yarn, esp. the number based on the relation of weight to length of the yarn and indicating its degree of coarseness.b. the number of warp and filling threads per square inch in woven material, representing the texture of the fabric.26. Bowling. the number of pins struck down by the first ball rolled by a bowler in the frame following a spare and included in the score for the frame in which the spare was made.27. Physics.a. a single ionizing reaction registered by an ionization chamber, as in a Geiger counter.b. the indication of the total number of ionizing reactions registered by an ionization chamber in a given period of time.28. Archaic. regard; notice.29. the count, Boxing. the calling aloud by the referee of the seconds from 1 to 10 while a downed boxer remains off his feet. Completion of the count signifies a knockout, which the referee then declares: A hard right sent the challenger down for the count. Also called the full count.adj.30. noting a number of items determined by an actual count: The box is labeled 50 count.[1275-1325; (v.) ME counten < AF c(o)unter, OF conter < L computare to COMPUTE; (n.) ME counte < AF c(o)unte, OF conte < LL computus calculation, reckoning, n. deriv. of computare]count2/kownt/, n.(in some European countries) a nobleman equivalent in rank to an English earl.[1375-1425; late ME counte < AF c(o)unte, OF conte, comte < LL comitem, acc. of comes honorary title of various imperial functionaries, L: retainer, staff member, lit., companion; see COMES]
* * *Ior earlEuropean title of nobility, ranking in modern times directly below a marquess or (in countries without marquesses) a duke.In England the title of earl is the equivalent of count and ranks above a viscount. The wife of a count or earl is a countess. The Roman comes ("count") was originally a household companion of the emperor; under the Franks he was a local commander and judge. The counts were later incorporated into the feudal structure, some becoming subordinate to dukes, though a few countships were as great as duchies. As royal authority was reasserted over the feudatories, which took place at different times in the different kingdoms, the counts lost their political authority, though they retained their privileges as members of the nobility.II(as used in expressions)Aehrenthal Aloys Count Lexa vonAlfieri Vittorio CountAmadeus the Green CountAndrássy Gyula CountArakcheyev Aleksey Andreyevich CountBasie CountBerchtold Leopold count vonBernadotte af Wisborg Folke CountBernstorff Johann Heinrich count vonBeust Friedrich Ferdinand count vonCaprivi Georg Leo count vonCavour Camillo Benso count diChambord Henri Dieudonné d'Artois count deCiano Galeazzo count di CortellazzoConrad von Hötzendorf Franz Xaver Josef CountFrontenac Louis de Buade count de Palluau and deGama Vasco da 1st count da VidigueiraGneisenau August Wilhelm Anton Count Neidhardt vonGobineau Joseph Arthur count deGrandi Dino count di MordanoIgnatyev Nikolay Pavlovich CountIzvolsky Aleksandr Petrovich CountKárolyi Mihály Countcount de L'EmpireBruno count von Egisheim und DagsburgLoris Melikov Mikhail Tariyelovich CountLouis Stanislas Xavier count de ProvenceMoltke Helmuth Karl Bernhard count vonMontalembert Charles Forbes René count deNesselrode Karl Robert Vasilyevich CountOrlov Aleksey Grigoryevich CountOrlov Grigory Grigoryevich CountOxenstierna af Södermöre Axel Gustafsson CountPico della Mirandola Giovanni conte count di ConcordiaRadetzky Joseph CountRochambeau Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur count deRoon Albrecht Theodor Emil count vonDonatien Alphonse François count de SadeSaxe Hermann Maurice count deSforza Carlo CountSperansky Mikhail Mikhaylovich CountSuvorov Aleksandr Vasilyevich CountSzéchenyi István CountTaaffe Eduard count vonTeleki Pál CountTilly Johann Tserclaes count vonTisza István CountTolstoy Aleksey Konstantinovich CountTolstoy Aleksey Nikolayevich CountLev Nikolayevich Count TolstoyUvarov Sergey Semyonovich CountVergennes Charles Gravier count deVigny Alfred Victor count deCount of ValorDon Luchino Visconti count di ModroneWitte Sergey Yulyevich CountYorck von Wartenburg Johann David Ludwig CountMac Mahon Marie Edme Patrice Maurice count deMaurits prince van Oranje count van NassauMirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti count deAberdeen George Hamilton Gordon 4th earl ofAlexander Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st EarlAsquith Herbert Henry 1st earl of Oxford and AsquithAttlee Clement Richard 1st Earl Attlee of WalthamstowBaldwin of Bewdley Stanley Baldwin 1st EarlBalfour of Whittingehame Arthur James 1st EarlBirkenhead Frederick Edwin Smith 1st earl ofJames Earl BreslinBrowder Earl RussellBurger Warren EarlBute John Stuart 3rd earl ofCadogan William 1st EarlCardigan James Thomas Brudenell 7th earl ofJames Earl CarterCecil Robert 1st earl of SalisburyClarendon Edward Hyde 1st earl ofClarendon George William Frederick Villiers 4th earl ofCornwallis Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess and 2nd EarlCromer Evelyn Baring 1st earl ofCromwell Thomas earl of EssexDerby Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley 14th earl ofDisraeli Benjamin earl of BeaconsfieldDodge William EarlDongan Thomas 2nd earl of LimerickDurham John George Lambton 1st earl ofEden Robert Anthony 1st earl of AvonElgin James Bruce 8th earl ofEssex Robert Devereux 2nd earl ofEssex Robert Devereux 3rd earl ofEssex Walter Devereux 1st earl ofFrench John Denton Pinkstone 1st earl of YpresGrey Charles Grey 2nd EarlHaig Douglas 1st EarlHalifax Edward Frederick Lindley Wood 1st earl ofHarley Robert 1st earl of OxfordHenry Tudor earl of RichmondHines Earl KennethHowe Richard Howe EarlJellicoe John Rushworth Jellicoe 1st EarlJones James EarlLeicester Robert Dudley earl ofLiverpool Robert Banks Jenkinson 2nd earl ofLloyd George of Dwyfor David Lloyd George EarlMansfield William Murray 1st earl ofEarl of LeicesterMontrose James Graham 5th earl and 1st marquess ofMorton James Douglas 4th earl ofearl of GuilfordNorthampton Henry Howard earl ofEarl of KentOrmonde James Butler 12th earl and 1st duke ofOxford Edward de Vere 17th earl of1st earl of ChathamEarl PowellRay James EarlJohn Stewart earl of CarrickRochester John Wilmot 2nd earl ofRosse William Parsons 3rd earl ofRussell Bertrand Arthur William 3rd Earl RussellRussell of Kingston Russell John Russell 1st EarlSackville Thomas 1st earl of DorsetSandwich John Montagu 4th earl ofShaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 1st earl ofShaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 3rd earl ofShaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 7th earl ofShrewsbury Charles Talbot duke and 12th earl ofSouthampton Thomas Wriothesley 1st earl ofSouthampton Henry Wriothesley 3rd earl ofStanhope James Stanhope 1st EarlStanhope Charles Stanhope 3rd EarlStirling William Alexander 1st earl ofStrafford Thomas Wentworth 1st earl ofSuffolk Thomas Howard 1st earl ofSunderland Robert Spencer 2nd earl ofSurrey Henry Howard earl ofTyrone Hugh O'Neill 2nd earl ofWalpole Horace 4th earl of OrfordWalpole Robert 1st earl of OrfordWarren EarlWarwick Earl ofBulwer Lytton Edward George EarlEarl Kitchener of Khartoum and of BroomeMaurice Harold Macmillan 1st earl of Stockton Viscount Macmillan of OvendenMountbatten of Burma Louis Mountbatten 1st EarlRosebery Archibald Philip Primrose 5th earl ofWavell of Eritrea and of Winchester Archibald Percival Wavell 1st Earl
* * *▪ title of nobilityIntroductionEuropean title of nobility, equivalent to a British earl, ranking in modern times after a marquess or, in countries without marquesses, a duke. The Roman comes was originally a household companion of the emperor, while under the Franks he was a local commander and judge. The counts were later slowly incorporated into the feudal structure, some becoming subordinate to dukes, although a few counties (or countships), such as those of Flanders, Toulouse, and Barcelona, were as great as duchies. The reassertion of royal authority over the feudatories, which took place at different times in the different kingdoms and led to the formation of centralized states of the modern type, meant that most counts lost their political authority, though they retained their privileges as members of the nobility.FranceFrench counts became vassals of dukes by 900 at the latest; but, as the process of feudalization continued, the counts tended to lose their official character and to become the hereditary lords of little territories. In France this development is already discernible in the 11th century, and with its devaluation there arose the practice of applying the title of count very loosely. By the 12th century any lord of moderate status might style himself count, no less than the truly great feudatories of Flanders and Toulouse; and even in the 13th century, when the organization of the French kingdom became more stable, the title might mean much or comparatively little.The development of the system of royal bailliages from the beginning of the 13th century onward served progressively to restrict the counts' rights of legislation, judiciary, and private war. (Later, in the 16th century, the counts lost their right to mint money.) Moreover, gradually the great fiefs were reunited under the French crown, after which they were granted only in appanage (the territory itself being administered as a province of the kingdom); counts simply retained various privileges. Later countships, under the First Empire and the subsequent monarchies and empire, had no territorial significance but were made hereditary in order of primogeniture.GermanyAlthough in Germany the title of count (Graf) had become hereditary in most cases as early as the 10th century, the counts retained something of an official character rather longer than in France. In the 12th century, however, seemingly by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), they were given authority to maintain the public peace in the district under their control—an authority that until 1100 had belonged to the dukes. Thenceforward the term countship signified the territory within which the count had powers of life and death.From the beginning of the 12th century, a number of counts appeared in western Germany, taking their titles simply from the castles they held, and having no obvious connection with any official status. In Frederick Barbarossa's time certain freemen of the higher class, such as Vögte, or “advocates,” began to style themselves as counts. In the 13th and 14th centuries there are instances of new countships received as fiefs from dukes.Within the Holy Roman Empire there gradually developed distinctions between ordinary counts and counts of the empire (Reichsgrafen), who became members of the college of counts (Grafenkollegium), a component of the Diet of the empire. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the counts of the empire were mediatized—i.e., made subject to the sovereigns of the various German states instead of being “immediate” subjects of the emperor alone. The federal Diet, in 1829, however, recognized their right to the special style of Erlaucht (“Illustrious Highness”).ItalyWith the decay of Carolingian authority, a system of countships based on cities grew up in Italy. Probably none were dependent on dukes, the ducal title being then comparatively rare, especially in northern Italy. The rise of communes meant the end of the countship's former significance, but as a mark of privilege, the title of count was quite liberally bestowed by the popes and other sovereigns of the peninsula well into modern times.SpainIn Spain the countship developed under Visigothic influence in the kingdom of Asturias-León and under Frankish influence in Catalonia and in the country immediately south of the Pyrenees. By uniting the Catalan countships, the counts of Barcelona made themselves into near sovereign princes, comparable at least to the powerful counts of Flanders and Toulouse; and the Carolingian countship of Aragon was the nucleus of the kingdom of that name. The countship of Castile, on the other hand, from which the kingdom of Castile emerged, was originally a frontier district of the kingdom of Asturias-León. Here the official character of the counts as district administrators appointed by the kings was preserved until the end of the 11th century, when the principle of hereditary lordships of one sort or another emerged and ultimately prevailed. Under the Spanish monarchies of the Renaissance and later, the title of count was infrequently conferred.Russia and PolandIn Russia, where the title of count was not introduced until Peter the Great's time, it came to be given usually to officials of a certain rank in the government service. In Poland there were no counts before the partitions of the late 18th century, when the title was introduced by the Russians, Austrians, and Prussians.England's earlsThe title of earl (the English equivalent of count, from the Danish jarl) was first introduced into England under King Canute of Denmark and of Norway (king of England 1016–35), but prior to this the duties of an earl, the administration of a shire or province on behalf of the king, were performed by ealdormen. Earl is thus the oldest title and rank of English nobles extant today. It was also the highest until as late as 1337, when Edward, the Black Prince, (Edward The Black Prince) was created Duke of Cornwall by his father, Edward III.Initially the earls wielded administrative authority over several (modern) counties, but, after the Norman Conquest in 1066, the earl's duties were theoretically restricted to a single county, although some were earls of more than one county. Under the Norman kings earldoms became hereditary, but their representation of the king was lost to the sheriffs, and then in 1328, with the creation of Roger Mortimer as Earl of March, the essential association of earldoms with specific territories was abandoned. From the 18th century the practice developed of simply adding the grantee's surname (imitating a style of the 11th–12th centuries, when, for example, the Earl of Buckingham was styled Earl Giffard), so that the style of the Earl of Place-name was now supplemented by that of Earl Surname.The rules of succession to earldoms were originally those for the inheritance of fiefs in feudal law, so that, for example, an earldom might pass to a woman, her husband receiving the title of earl in her right, but from the reign of Richard II earldoms could be created for life (Sir Guichard d'Angle, Earl of Huntingdon in 1377) or with inheritance limited to male heirs. By the 1963 Peerage Act, an earl, in common with other British peers, may, within one year of inheriting his title, renounce it for life; then, during his lifetime, it remains dormant.Scotland's earlsWhile England's shires were ruled for the king by ealdormen, the Pictish provinces in the north of what subsequently became Scotland were ruled by the mormaers, the Great Stewards. At the beginning of the 12th century, in the reign of Alexander I, they became known as earls, seven of whom formed a Carolingian style of peerage known as the Seven Earls of Scotland. With the adoption of the Saxon title of earl (undoubtedly owed to the influence of Alexander's Saxon mother, the sainted Queen Margaret) and its integration with the Celtic mormaer, these powerful men added a personal title of dignity to their territorial title and judicial status. Their successors under Alexander's brother, King David I, were integrated into the Flemish-Norman system of feudalism so that the lands for which they were responsible, and which had been held by the tribes they ruled, now became their own as tenants-in-chief of the crown. More earldoms were created in the following reigns, until there were 13, but the Seven Earls (chosen as needed from the eventual 13) had become a constitutional and privileged body of great power acting as guardians of the realm and principal lay advisers to the king. However, at the end of the 13th century, at the time England's King Edward I was attempting to subdue and conquer Scotland, the political turmoil was such that the power of the earls was reduced to that of those of England.
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