/keuh rej"oh, -rej"ee oh'/; It. /kawrdd rdded"jaw/, n.Antonio Allegri da /ahn taw"nyaw ahl le"grddee dah/, 1494-1534, Italian painter.
* * *orig. Antonio Allegridied March 5, 1534, CorreggioItalian painter.He studied the work of Andrea Mantegna in Mantua and was influenced by Leonardo da Vinci. On a visit to Rome he was inspired by the Vatican frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael. By 1518 he was in Parma, the scene of his greatest activity. His first large-scale commission there was the ceiling decoration of the Camera di San Paolo, in the convent of St. Paul (с 1518–19). His fresco in the dome of Parma Cathedral (с 1525–30) features the dramatic illusionistic style that influenced dome painting in the Baroque period. His use of bold foreshortening, his brilliant, highly original approach to colour and light, and the exquisite grace of his figures established him as one of the most inventive artists of the High Renaissance.Jupiter and Io, oil on canvas by Correggio, с 1530; in the ...By courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
* * *▪ Italian artistIntroductionbyname of Antonio Allegriborn August 1494, Correggio, Modenadied March 5, 1534, Correggiomost important Renaissance painter of the school of Parma, whose late works influenced the style of many Baroque and Rococo artists. His first important works are the convent ceiling of S. Paolo (c. 1519), Parma, depicting allegories on Humanist themes, and the frescoes in S. Giovanni Evangelista, Parma (1520–23), and the cathedral of Parma (1526–30). The “Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine” (c. 1526) is among the finest of his poetic late oil paintings.Early life and career.His father was Pellegrino Allegri, a tradesman living at Correggio, the small city in which Antonio was born and died, and whose name he took as his own. He was not, as it is often alleged, a self-taught artist. His early work refutes the theory, for it shows an educated knowledge of optics, perspective, architecture, sculpture, and anatomy. His initial instruction probably came from his uncle, Lorenzo Allegri, a painter of moderate ability, at Correggio. About 1503 he probably studied in Modena and then went to Mantua, arriving before the death in 1506 of the famed early Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna, Andrea). It has traditionally been said that he completed the decoration of Mantegna's family chapel in the church of S. Andrea at Mantua after the artist's death. It seems certain the two round paintings, or tondi, of the “Entombment of Christ” and “Madonna and Saints” are by the young Correggio. Although his early works are pervaded with his knowledge of Mantegna's art, his artistic temperament was more akin to that of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), who had a commanding influence upon almost all of the Renaissance painters of northern Italy. Where Mantegna uses tightly controlled line to define form, Correggio, like Leonardo, prefers chiaroscuro, or a subtle manipulation of light and shade creating softness of contour and an atmospheric effect. It is also fairly certain that early in his career he visited Rome and came under the influence of the Vatican frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael.Leaving Mantua, Correggio's time was divided between Parma and his hometown. His first documented painting, an altarpiece of the “Madonna of St. Francis,” was commissioned for S. Francesco at Correggio in 1514. The best known works of his youth are a group of devotional pictures that became increasingly luscious in colour. They include the “Nativity” (Brera, Milan), “Adoration of the Kings,” and “Christ Taking Leave of His Mother.”Mature works.Correggio's mature style emerged with his first commission for Parma, the ceiling of the abbess' parlour in the convent of S. Paolo, which was probably executed about 1518–19. Although there are echoes in this work of Mantegna's murals in the Castello at Mantua (1494), it was wholly original in conception. The abbess Giovanna de Piacenza secured for Correggio another important appointment, to decorate the dome of the church of S. Giovanni Evangelista at Parma. The dome fresco of the “Ascension of Christ” (1520–23) was followed by the decoration of the apse of the same church, of which only the segment entitled “Coronation of the Virgin” survives (Galleria Nazionale, Parma), the remainder having been destroyed in 1587. This work was still in the High Renaissance tradition and owed much to Michelangelo.The fresco of the “Assumption of the Virgin” in the dome of the cathedral of Parma marks the culmination of Correggio's career as a mural painter. This fresco (a painting in plaster with water-soluble pigments) anticipates the Baroque style of dramatically illusionistic ceiling painting. The entire architectural surface is treated as a single pictorial unit of vast proportions, equating the dome of the church with the vault of heaven. The realistic way the figures in the clouds seem to protrude into the spectators' space is an audacious and astounding use for the time of foreshortening.The remainder of Correggio's most famous works, the dates of few known with certainty, fall into three groups: the great altarpieces (and a few other large religious compositions); exquisite small works of private devotion; and a handful of mythological subjects of a lyrically sensuous character. Many of the altarpieces became so well known that they acquired nicknames. The “Adoration of the Shepherds” (c. 1530; Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, Ger.) is called “Night” (“La Notte”), and the “Madonna of St. Jerome” (Galleria Nazionale, Parma) is popularly known as “Day” (“Il Giorno”). The late altarpieces are generally characterized by an intimate and domestic mood sustained between idealized figures. This intimate and homely poetry also distinguishes the small devotional works, such as “The Madonna of the Basket” or “The Virgin Adoring the Child Jesus” (Uffizi, Florence), while the “Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine” is a visual essay in the mid-16th-century aesthetic of ideal feminine beauty. In these late works Correggio fully exploited the medium of oil painting. He was intrigued with the sensual beauty of paint texture and achieved his most remarkable effects in a series of mythological works, including the “Danae” (Borghese Gallery, Rome), “The Rape of Ganymede,” and “Jupiter and Io” (both in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). The sensuous character of the subject matter is enhanced by the quality of the paint, which seems to have been lightly breathed onto the canvas. These pictures carry the erotic to the limits it can go without becoming offensive or pornographic.Although his influence can be detected in later Parmese painting, especially in the Mannerist style of Parmigianino (1503–40), Correggio had many imitators but no direct pupils who deserve mention. His decorative ideas were taken up by the Baroque painters of the 17th century, particularly in the ceiling painting of Giovanni Lanfranco (Lanfranco, Giovanni) (1582–1647), himself a native of Parma. Correggio became almost a tutelary deity of the French Rococo style, and his great altarpieces were among the works most abundantly copied by the travelling artists of the 18th century during their years of study in Italy.Sir Ellis K. WaterhouseAdditional ReadingCorrado Ricci, Correggio (1930; originally published in Italian, 1929), is the first major source on the artist. Sylvia de Vito Battaglia, Correggio: Bibliografia (1934), is a definitive bibliography up to 1934. A.E. Popham, Correggio's Drawings (1957), is an extensive work with a detailed catalog. Erwin Panofsky, The Iconography of Correggio's Camera di San Paolo (1961), is perhaps the most stimulating book written about Correggio. A.C. Quintavalle (ed.), L'opera completa del Correggio (1970), is the only book that reproduces everything plausibly ascribed to Correggio. Good recent sources include Cecil Gould, The Paintings of Correggio (1976); Lucia Fornari Schianchi, Correggio (1994; originally published in Italian, 1994); and David Ekserdjian, Correggio (1997).
* * *