- Confederate States of America
the group of 11 Southern states that seceded from the United States in 1860-61. Also called the Confederacy.
* * *or ConfederacyGovernment of the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61 until its defeat in the American Civil War in 1865.In the months following Abraham Lincoln's election as president in 1860, seven states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) seceded. After the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia joined them. The government was directed by Jefferson Davis as president, with Alexander H. Stephens as vice president. Its principal goals were the preservation of states' rights and the institution of slavery. The government's main concern was raising and maintaining an army. It counted on the influence of King Cotton to exert financial and diplomatic pressure on the Union from sympathetic European governments. Battlefield victories for the South in 1861–62 gave the Confederacy the moral strength to continue fighting, but from 1863 dwindling finances and battlefield reverses increasingly led to demoralization. The surrender at Appomattox Court House by Gen. Robert E. Lee precipitated its dissolution.
* * *▪ historical nation, North Americaalso called Confederacyin the American Civil War, the government of 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61, carrying on all the affairs of a separate government and conducting a major war until defeated in the spring of 1865.Convinced that their way of life, based on slavery, was irretrievably threatened by the election of President Abraham Lincoln (November 1860), the seven states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) seceded from the Union during the following months. When the war began with the firing on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861), they were joined by four states of the upper South (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia).A provisional government, established in February 1861 at Montgomery, Alabama, was replaced by a permanent government at Richmond, Va., a year later. The Confederacy, operating under a structure similar to that of the United States, was headed by President Jefferson Davis (Davis, Jefferson) and Vice President Alexander H. Stephens. The new nation soon acquired other symbols of sovereignty, such as its own stamps and a flag known as the Stars and Bars.The main concern of the Confederate States was raising and equipping an army. The Southern Congress first voted to permit direct volunteering up to 400,000, but conscription was begun in April 1862. The total number of Confederate soldiers is estimated at 750,000, as opposed to twice that many Federal troops. (Confederate population stood at about 5,500,000 whites and 3,500,000 black slaves, as against 22,000,000 Northerners.) In railroads, the South had only 9,000 miles, the industrial North 22,000.The Confederacy's early attempts to raise funds centred on printing money, which proved highly inflationary, and issuing bonds that could be paid for in kind. Because of the Federal blockade of Southern ports, tariff revenues proved inadequate. In 1863 a general tax bill was passed, imposing license and occupational taxes, a profits tax, and a 10 percent tax on farm products, collected in kind. Profitable private blockade running was put under strict supervision in 1864. Prices of farm products for the army were eventually fixed to check profiteering.In foreign affairs, the South had been initially confident of the power and influence of “ King Cotton” (q.v.), the crop that accounted for more than half the value of U.S. exports before the war. Confederates felt that the importance of cotton would force diplomatic recognition from the Federal government and European countries. Neither the commissioners sent abroad in 1861 nor the permanent envoys who replaced them were able to secure recognition from Great Britain, France, or any other European power. The South was able, however, to buy considerable war matériel and several fast ships that destroyed much Federal shipping on the high seas.President Davis took an active part in dictating military policy and major strategy, but the great leader on the battlefield was Gen. Robert E. Lee (Lee, Robert E.). Heartened by a series of military victories in the first two years of fighting, the Confederacy was convinced of its ultimate success. But disillusionment set in with almost simultaneous Federal victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg (July 1863). Not even the brilliant tactics of Lee in the East or of General Joseph E. Johnston in the West could indefinitely hold off the stronger Northern armies. After Lee surrendered his dwindling, half-starved army at Appomattox (Appomattox Court House), Va., on April 9, 1865, the Confederacy soon collapsed.
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