/kong"keuhrd/ for 1, 2, 5, 6; /kon"kawrd, kong"-/ for 3, 4; for 5, 6 also /kon"kawrd, kong"-/, n.
1. a town in E Massachusetts, NW of Boston: second battle of the Revolution fought here April 19, 1775. 16,293.
2. a city in W California, near San Francisco. 103,251.
3. a city in and the capital of New Hampshire, in the S part. 30,400.
4. a city in central North Carolina. 16,942.
6. a sweet red wine with a strong grapelike taste, made from the Concord grape.

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City (pop., 2000: 121,780), western California, U.S. Located near San Francisco, it was laid out in 1868 as Todos Santos and renamed in 1869 for Concord, Mass.

Developed as an orchard and poultry centre after the railroad reached it in 1912, it is now mainly residential.
City (pop., 2000: 40,687), capital of New Hampshire, U.S. It lies along the Merrimack River above Manchester.

Settled in 1727, the community was incorporated in 1733 by Massachusetts as Rumford but, following bitter litigation, was determined in 1762 to be within the jurisdiction of New Hampshire. Renamed Concord in 1765, it was made the capital in 1808. Printing, carriage making, and granite quarrying were important in its early development; Concord granite is still quarried.
Town (pop., 2000: 16,993), eastern Massachusetts, U.S. Founded in 1635, it was the first inland Puritan settlement.

In 1775 the British were marching to seize its storehouse of military supplies when they were checked by minutemen (see Battles of Lexington and Concord). In the 19th century it was a noted cultural centre and the home of writers Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Louisa May Alcott (all buried there). Several historic houses are now museums; Walden Pond, where Thoreau lived and wrote, is nearby.

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      city, Contra Costa county, California, U.S. It lies 30 miles (50 km) east of San Francisco. The area was first inhabited by the Bay Miwok Indians and was explored by the Spanish in the late 18th century. A land grant, called Monte del Diablo, was made in 1834 to Don Salvio Pacheco. Laid out in 1868 as Todos Santos (Spanish: “All Saints”), the city was renamed in 1869 for Concord, Massachusetts, and developed as an orchard and poultry centre after the Oakland, Antioch and Eastern Railway was built in 1912. Now mainly residential, it is connected to San Francisco and Oakland by freeways and the Bay Area Rapid Transit system. The Chronicle Pavilion at Concord is a performing arts and exhibit centre. The city has two popular amusement parks, Pixieland and Six Flags Waterworld Concord. Mount Diablo State Park is adjacent to the city. Inc. 1905. Pop. (1990) 111,348; (2000) 121,780.

 town (township), Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Concord River, 20 miles (32 km) northwest of Boston. Founded and incorporated in 1635 as Musketaquid, it was the first Puritan settlement away from tidewater and ocean commerce; later that year it was renamed Concord, indicative of peaceful agreements with Native Americans. In 1774 the first county convention to denounce the “Coercion Acts (Intolerable Acts)” (which deprived Massachusetts of its charter and the right to choose its own magistrate) met there, followed by the convening of the first and second Massachusetts provincial congresses.

 Concord shares with nearby Lexington the honour of opening the military phase of the American Revolution. (See Lexington and Concord, Battles of.) Following the initial skirmish at Lexington, British soldiers entered Concord on April 19, 1775, for the purpose of destroying arms and ammunition collected by the Americans, but, forewarned by Paul Revere, the residents had already removed most of the supplies. Minutemen met the British at the North Bridge, and the resultant gunfire was immortalized by the poet and transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson (Emerson, Ralph Waldo) in the “Concord Hymn,” excerpted here:By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,
And fired the shot heard round the world.

      During the 19th century, Concord was a noted cultural centre, being the home of Emerson, the naturalist Henry David Thoreau (Thoreau, Henry David), the sculptor Daniel Chester French (French, Daniel Chester), and the authors Nathaniel Hawthorne (Hawthorne, Nathaniel) and Louisa May Alcott (Alcott, Louisa May) (all buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery). The Concord Summer School of Philosophy (founded by A. Bronson Alcott (Alcott, Bronson), father of Louisa) met there from 1879 to 1888. About 1850 Ephraim Bull perfected the Concord grape, marking the beginning of commercial cultivation of table grapes in the United States.

      Concord was a small farming community until the beginning of the 20th century; it is now primarily residential with services and diversified manufacturing (including computerized diagnostic systems, electronics, and metallurgical products). The town preserves its early American character, and tourism is important. Of special interest are the Minute Man National Historical Park (including the reconstructed North Bridge and French's famous bronze Minuteman Statue), the Concord Museum (containing relics of the Revolution, a collection of Thoreau's belongings, and the contents of Emerson's study), Walden Pond State Reservation, and the homes of Emerson, Hawthorne, and the Alcotts. The Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (established 1944) is nearby. Area 26 square miles (67 square km). Pop. (1990) 17,076; (2000) 16,993.

      city, capital (since 1808) of New Hampshire, U.S., and seat (1823) of Merrimack county. It lies along the Merrimack River above Manchester. The site was granted by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1725 as Penacook Plantation. Settled in 1727, the community was incorporated as Rumford in 1733 by Massachusetts. In 1741 it was determined that the town was within the jurisdiction of the Province of New Hampshire. Bitter litigation ended in an appeal to the Privy Council in England, and the dispute was not settled until 1762. In 1765 the town was reincorporated by New Hampshire and named Concord to signify the peaceful settlement of the boundary dispute. In 1808 New Hampshire's legislature finally settled there after having moved from place to place since 1775.

      Printing, an important industry in the town's development, was soon overshadowed by carriage making and granite quarrying. By the end of the 19th century railroads and repair shops had become predominant. Concord's economy is now well diversified and includes manufacturing (semiconductors and industrial equipment), insurance, and agriculture (dairy products, apples). Concord granite, used in the construction of the State House (1819) and the Library of Congress (Congress, Library of) in Washington, D.C., is still quarried.

      The Museum of New Hampshire History in Concord displays early Americana. The home of President Franklin Pierce (Pierce, Franklin), who practiced law in Concord, has been preserved. Mary Baker Eddy (Eddy, Mary Baker), founder of Christian Science, was born nearby at Bow. The Canterbury Shaker Village, including 24 historic buildings and displays of Shaker furniture, is 15 miles (24 km) north of Concord. The New Hampshire Technical Institute (founded 1961) is in the city; St. Paul's School (1856; Protestant Episcopal) is 2 miles (3 km) west. Inc. city, 1853. Pop. (1990) 36,006; (2000) 40,687.

      city, seat of Cabarrus county, south-central North Carolina, U.S. It lies near the eastern edge of the Piedmont region, about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Charlotte. The name emanates from the amicable settlement of a dispute over the site. Concord was founded in 1796, and in 1799 the discovery of the Reed Gold Mine, 10 miles (16 km) southeast, started the North Carolina gold rush. Mining declined by the 1850s. The community became a textile centre in the 20th century, producing a wide variety of cotton goods and hosiery.

      Textiles are still of major importance to the economy; livestock raising dominates the area's agriculture. Concord is the seat of Barber-Scotia College (1867), and Confederate Memorial Hall (1941) has American Civil War relics. Lake Norman is about 25 miles (40 km) to the west. Inc. 1837. Pop. (1990) 27,347; (2000) 55,977.

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Universalium. 2010.

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