clownish, adj.clownishly, adv.clownishness, n.
/klown/, n.
1. a comic performer, as in a circus, theatrical production, or the like, who wears an outlandish costume and makeup and entertains by pantomiming common situations or actions in exaggerated or ridiculous fashion, by juggling or tumbling, etc.
2. a person who acts like a clown; comedian; joker; buffoon; jester.
3. a prankster; a practical joker.
4. Slang. a coarse, ill-bred person; a boor.
5. a peasant; rustic.
6. to act like a clown.
[1555-65; earlier cloyne, clowne, perh. akin to ON klunni boor, Dan dial. klunds, Sw dial. klunn log]
Syn. 3. lout, churl. 4. bumpkin.

* * *

Comic character of mime and pantomime and the circus.

The clown developed from the bald-headed, padded buffoons who performed in the farces and mimes of ancient Greece and from the professional comic actors of the Middle Ages. The Italian commedia dell'arte introduced the harlequin, and the clown's whiteface makeup was introduced with the 17th-century French character Pierrot. The distinctive clown costume of oversized shoes, hat, and giant ruff around the neck was established by the popular German clown character Pickelherring. The first circus clown, Joseph Grimaldi, appeared as "Joey" in England (1805) and specialized in pantomime, pratfalls, and slapstick. Famous 20th-century clowns included the Swiss pantomimist Grock (Adrian Wettach), the U.S. circus star Emmett Kelly, and the longtime star of the Moscow circus, Oleg Popov.

* * *

 familiar comic character of pantomime and circus, known by his distinctive makeup and costume, ludicrous antics, and buffoonery, whose purpose is to induce hearty laughter. The clown, unlike the traditional fool or court jester, usually performs a set routine characterized by broad, graphic humour, absurd situations, and vigorous physical action.

      The earliest ancestors of the clown flourished in ancient Greece—bald-headed, padded buffoons who performed as secondary figures in farces and mime, parodying the actions of more serious characters and sometimes pelting the spectators with nuts. The same clown appeared in the Roman (ancient Rome) mime, wearing a pointed hat and a motley patchwork robe and serving as the butt for all the tricks and abuse of his fellow actors.

      Clowning was a general feature of the acts of medieval minstrels and jugglers, but the clown did not emerge as a professional comic actor until the late Middle Ages, when traveling entertainers sought to imitate the antics of the court jesters and the amateur fool societies, such as the Enfants san Souci (Enfants sans Souci), who specialized in comic drama at festival times. The traveling companies of the Italian commedia dell'arte developed one of the most famous and durable clowns of all time, the Arlecchino, or Harlequin, some time in the latter half of the 16th century, spreading his fame throughout Europe. The Harlequin began as a comic valet, or zany, but soon developed into an acrobatic trickster, wearing a black domino mask and carrying a bat or noisy slapstick, with which he frequently belaboured the posteriors of his victims.

      The English clown was descended from the Vice character of the medieval mystery plays, a buffoon and prankster who could sometimes deceive even the Devil. Among the first professional stage clowns were the famous William Kempe (Kempe, William) and Robert Armin (Armin, Robert), both of whom were connected with Shakespeare's company. Traveling English actors of the 17th century were responsible for the introduction of stage clowns to Germany, among them such popular characters as Pickelherring, who remained a German favourite until the 19th century. Pickelherring and his confederates wore clown costumes that have hardly changed to this day: oversized shoes, waistcoats, and hats, with giant ruffs around their necks.

      The traditional whiteface makeup of the clown is said to have been introduced with the character of Pierrot (or Pedrolino), the French clown with a bald head and flour-whitened face who first appeared during the latter part of the 17th century. First created as a butt for Harlequin, Pierrot was gradually softened and sentimentalized. The pantomimist Jean-Baptiste-Gaspard Deburau (Deburau, Jean-Gaspard) took on the character in the early 19th century and created the famous lovesick, pathetic clown, whose melancholy has since remained part of the clown tradition.

      The earliest of the true circus clowns was Joseph Grimaldi (Grimaldi, Joseph), who first appeared in England in 1805. Grimaldi's clown, affectionately called “Joey,” specialized in the classic physical tricks, tumbling, pratfalls, and slapstick beatings. In the 1860s a low-comedy buffoon appeared under the name of Auguste, who had a big nose, baggy clothes, large shoes, and untidy manners. He worked with a whiteface clown and always spoiled the latter's trick by appearing at an inappropriate time to foul things up.

       Grock (Adrien Wettach) was a famous whiteface pantomimist. His elaborate melancholy resembled that of Emmett Kelly, the American vagabond clown. Bill Irwin maintained the tradition in performances billed as “new vaudeville,” while Dario Fo, an Italian political playwright, carried the torch in a more dramatic context, through both his plays and his personal appearance.

      The clown figure in motion pictures culminated in the immortal “little tramp” character of Charlie Chaplin (Chaplin, Charlie), with his ill-fitting clothes, flat-footed walk, and winsome mannerisms.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.


Look at other dictionaries:

  • clown — clown …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • CLOWN — On se perd en conjectures sur la date et le lieu de naissance du clown , mot anglais qui signifie paysan, rustre, vilain. On lui donne, selon les pays, des ancêtres différents. Et, à défaut d’établir une filiation continue, on n’a que l’embarras… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Clown — Sm Spaßmacher std. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. clown. Es liegt ein Wort zugrunde, das Bauer; plumper Bursche bedeutete (l. colōnus Bauer ). Im englischen Schauspiel zunächst der Tölpel, dann Entwicklung zur Bezeichnung von Spaßmachern… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Clown — (kloun), n. [Cf. Icel. klunni a clumsy, boorish fellow, North Fries. kl[ o]nne clown, dial. Sw. klunn log, Dan. klunt log, block, and E. clump, n.] 1. A man of coarse nature and manners; an awkward fellow; an ill bred person; a boor. Sir P.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • clown — clown·age; clown·ery; clown; clown·ish; clown·ish·ness; …   English syllables

  • Clown — Clown, v. i. To act as a clown; with it. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] Beshrew me, he clowns it properly indeed. B. Jonson. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • clown — [n1] joking person antic, buffoon, comedian, comic, cut up*, dolt, droll, farceur, fool, funnyperson, funster, gagman*, gagster*, harlequin, humorist, jester, joker, jokesmith, jokester, life of the party*, madcap, merryandrew, merrymaker, mime,… …   New thesaurus

  • Clown & Co — Clown Co. war eine Kindersendung in den 1970er Jahren, die im Dritten Programm ( Südwest 3) lief. Die erste Sendung wurde 1977 ausgestrahlt. Drei weiß geschminkte Clowns (Erich Schleyer, Franz Hanfstingl und die Niederländerin Cora De Nes), die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clown & Co. — Clown Co. war eine Kindersendung in den 1970er Jahren, die im Dritten Programm ( Südwest 3) lief. Die erste Sendung wurde 1977 ausgestrahlt. Drei weiß geschminkte Clowns (Erich Schleyer, Franz Hanfstingl und die Niederländerin Cora De Nes), die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clown & Co. — Clown Co. war eine Kindersendung in den 1970er Jahren, die im Dritten Programm (zunächst auf Südwest 3) lief. Die erste Sendung wurde 1977 ausgestrahlt. Drei weiß geschminkte Clowns (Erich Schleyer, Franz Hanfstingl und die Niederländerin Kora De …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • clown — s.m.inv. ES ingl. {{wmetafile0}} 1. pagliaccio del circo 2. estens., buffone {{line}} {{/line}} DATA: 1828. ETIMO: propr. campagnolo, uomo semplice e goffo , forse dal lat. colonus contadino . POLIREMATICHE: clown bianco: loc.s.m. CO …   Dizionario italiano

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”