Cimmerianism, n.
/si mear"ee euhn/, adj.
1. Class. Myth. of, pertaining to, or suggestive of a western people believed to dwell in perpetual darkness.
2. very dark; gloomy: deep, Cimmerian caverns.

* * *

Any member of an ancient people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov.

Their origins are obscure; linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or Iranian. Driven by the Scythians out of southern Russia and over the Caucasus, they entered Anatolia toward the end of the 8th century BC. In 696–695 BC they conquered Phrygia. They reached the summit of their power in 652 after taking Sardis, capital of Lydia. Their decline soon began, and their final defeat may be dated from 637 or 626, when they were routed by Alyattes of Lydia.

* * *

      member of an ancient people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov, driven by the Scythians (Scythian) out of southern Russia, over the Caucasus, and into Anatolia toward the end of the 8th century BC. Ancient writers sometimes confused them with the Scythians. Most scholars now believe that the Cimmerians assaulted Urartu (Armenia) about 714 BC, but in 705, after being repulsed by Sargon II of Assyria, they turned aside into Anatolia and in 696–695 conquered Phrygia. In 652, after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia, they reached the summit of their power. Their decline soon began, and their final defeat may be dated from 637 or 626, when they were routed by Alyattes of Lydia. Thereafter, they were no longer mentioned in historical sources but probably settled in Cappadocia, as its Armenian name, Gamir, suggests.

      The origin of the Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian, or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class. They probably did live in the area north of the Black Sea, but attempts to define their original homeland more precisely by archaeological means, or even to fix the date of their expulsion from their country by the Scythians, have not so far been completely successful. One theory identifies them with what is known to archaeologists as the “Catacomb” culture. This culture was ousted from southern Russia by the “Srubna” culture advancing from beyond the Volga just as the Cimmerians were ousted by the invading Scythians, but that upheaval took place in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, and a gap of several centuries separates it from the appearance of historic Cimmerians in Asia. Some authorities identify them with “Thraco-Cimmerian” remains of the 8th–7th century BC found in the southwestern Ukraine and in central Europe; these may perhaps be looked upon as traces of the western branch of the Cimmerians, who, under fresh Scythian pressure, eventually invaded the Hungarian plain and survived there until about 500 BC.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cimmerian — Cim*me ri*an, a. [L. Cimmerius.] [Written also {Kimmerian}.] 1. Pertaining to the Cimmerii, a fabulous people, said to have lived, in very ancient times, in profound and perpetual darkness. [1913 Webster] 2. Without any light; intensely dark.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cimmerian — (adj.) pertaining to the Cimmerii, an ancient nomadic people who, according to Herodotus, inhabited the region around the Crimea, and who, according to Assyrian sources, overran Asia Minor 7c. B.C.E.; from L. Cimmerius, from Gk. Kimmerios. Homer… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Cimmerian — [sə mir′ē ən] n. [< L Cimmerius, pertaining to the Cimmerii, Cimmerians < Gr Kimmerioi] any of a mythical people whose land was described by Homer as a region of perpetual mist and darkness adj. extremely dark; gloomy …   English World dictionary

  • cimmerian — adjective /sɪˈmɪərɪən/ a) perpetually dark or gloomy There, under ebon shades... in dark Cimmerian desert ever dwell. b) mentally dark; ignorant As ragged as thy locks,<br />In dark Cimmerian desert ever dwell …   Wiktionary

  • Cimmerian — I. adjective Date: 1580 very dark or gloomy < under ebon shades…in dark Cimmerian desert ever dwell John Milton > II. noun Etymology: Latin Cimmerii, a mythical people, from Greek Kimmerioi Date: 1584 any of a mythical people described by Homer… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Cimmerian — adjective intensely dark and gloomy as with perpetual darkness the Cimmerian gloom...a darkness that could be felt Norman Douglas • Similar to: ↑dark …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cimmerian Sibyl — by Guercino. The Cimmerian Sibyl, by name Carmentis, was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Cimmerium in Italy, near Lake Avernus (i.e. Cumae). This sibyl may have been a doublet for the Cumaean since the designation… …   Wikipedia

  • Cimmerian Plate — The Cimmerian Plate was still attached to Gondwana. 290 mya (Early Permian) The Cimmerian Plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present day Anatolia, Iran, Afghanistan, Tibet, Indochina and Malaya regions. The Cimmerian Plate …   Wikipedia

  • Cimmerian Orogeny — Cimmeria collided with North and South China blocks, closing the Paleo Tethys Ocean between them and forming mountains. 100 mya map The Cimmerian Orogeny, is an orogeny that created mountain ranges that now lie in Central Asia. The orogeny is… …   Wikipedia

  • Cimmerian — noun /sɪˈmɪərɪən/ a) any of the mythical people supposed to inhabit a land of perpetual darkness There in a lonely land, and gloomy cells,<br />The dusky nation of Cimmeria dwells;<br />The sun neer views the uncomfortable seats b)… …   Wiktionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”