ciderish, ciderlike, adj.
/suy"deuhr/, n.
the juice pressed from apples (or formerly from some other fruit) used for drinking, either before fermentation (sweet cider) or after fermentation (hard cider), or for making applejack, vinegar, etc.
Also, Brit., cyder.
[1250-1300; ME sidre < MF < OF si(s)dre < LL sicera strong drink < Septuagint Gk síkera < Heb shekhar (Levit. 10:9); r. ME sithere < OF sidre]

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Expressed juice of apples.

Apples are ground to a fine pulp and then pressed. Hard (alcoholic) cider is fermented in vats for up to three months before being filtered and aged (see fermentation). Sweet cider is unfermented and either drunk fresh (as in the U.S.) or mellowed in pressurized tanks first (particularly in Europe). Most cider in the U.S. is now pasteurized. Juice that is pasteurized, treated with a preservative, and often clarified before being hermetically sealed in cans or bottles is marketed as apple juice.

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      the expressed juice of apples, used as a beverage or for making other products (such as applejack, vinegar, or apple butter). In most European countries the name is restricted to fermented juice. In North America, the freshly expressed juice that has not been subjected to any permanent preservative treatment is generally called sweet cider, whereas juice that has been permitted to undergo some natural fermentation is designated hard cider. The expressed juice of apples that has been treated by some method to prevent spoilage while in hermetically sealed cans or bottles is marketed as apple juice in most countries.

      Apple juice or cider is relatively low in content of protein, fat, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and vitamin A and contains a moderate amount of carbohydrates. However, about 75 percent of the carbohydrates consists of sugars that are readily assimilated by humans. Ascorbic acid, too, is easily added.

      In the making of cider, the apples are ground into a fine pulp or pomace and then pressed. For hard cider, the extracted juice is conveyed directly into fermenting vats or casks. If the fermented cider is to be sweet, the juice must be filtered at an early stage to make possible the retention of the desired percentage of unfermented sugar. If a dry cider is desired, fermentation must proceed until all or most of the sugar is converted into alcohol. Natural fermentation resulting from the wild yeasts present on the apples is the usual practice, but some makers pasteurize the fresh juice and then add pure cultures of selected yeasts. After about three months the juice is subjected to filtration to remove sedimentation and the look of turbidity. Flavour is improved by aging hard cider for a few months, or even two or three years, after filtration. Some hard cider is carbonated.

      In the making of sweet cider or apple juice, the apples are ground and pressed in much the same manner as for making alcoholic cider. Europeans prefer a juice that is mellowed by holding it for a few months in large tanks under pressure supplied by introducing carbon dioxide into the tanks. Americans generally prefer freshly pressed juice.

      The usual processing procedure for making a clear juice is to clarify and filter the juice, flash-pasteurize it, fill the juice into metal or glass containers, close the containers, and cool immediately. If an unclarified or cloudy juice is to be packed, the apples are often sprayed with ascorbic acid when they are ground to prevent darkening of the juice by oxidation and to reduce the amount of sedimentation in the finished product.

      Of all countries, France has the largest production of cider. Cider manufactured in France must be produced by the fermentation of the juice of fresh apples or a mixture of apples and pears and must conform to specific standards for the different kinds, designated by different names. English and American cider has been extremely variable because of a lack of legal standards, except for those regulations relating to contamination.

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Universalium. 2010.

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