/chook"chee/, n., pl. Chukchis, (esp. collectively) Chukchi for 1.
1. a member of a Paleo-Asiatic people of northeastern Siberia.
2. the Chukotian language of the Chukchi people, noted for having different pronunciations for men and women.

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▪ autonomous okrug, Russia
also spelled  Chukchee , also called  Chukotka 
 autonomous okrug (district), Russia, in the extreme northeastern portion of Siberia. Apart from the basin of the Anadyr River, most of the okrug is mountainous or hilly. Almost everywhere a severe Arctic climate permits only tundra vegetation, with some stunted forest in the south. The okrug was formed in 1930 for the Chukchi people, but they, together with small numbers of Evenk, Koryak, and Sakha (Yakut), were outnumbered by Russian settlers. The okrug is the leading Siberian gold area. Centres of gold production include the northern coast around and to the east of Cape Shmidta and the Bilibino area. There is also mining of tin, tungsten, and mercury in the north and some coal near the capital, Anadyr. Area 284,800 square miles (737,700 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 50,700.

also spelled  Chukchee,  also called  Luorawetlan,  
 people inhabiting the northeasternmost part of Siberia, the Chukchi autonomous okrug (district) in Russia. They numbered 14,000 in the late 20th century and are divided into two chief subgroups, reindeer Chukchi and maritime Chukchi. The reindeer Chukchi inhabit the interior of the easternmost portion of the okrug, the Chukchi Peninsula, and its Siberian hinterland; the maritime Chukchi inhabit the Arctic and Bering coasts. Both speak a Luorawetlan language of the Paleosiberian language group and are linguistically and culturally related to the Koryak and Itelmen (Kamchadal).

      The reindeer Chukchi formerly lived mainly off of domesticated herds of reindeer. These herds supplied them with means of transport, milk and meat for food, and pelts for clothing and shelter. The maritime Chukchi lived by hunting Arctic sea mammals, chiefly walrus, seals, and whales, and by fishing.

      Their traditional dwellings varied according to their subsistence pattern. Maritime Chukchi lived in fixed villages; their houses were semisubterranean. Reindeer Chukchi were nomadic and lived in tents, changing residence according to seasonal change in pasture. Transportation depended on sledges pulled by reindeer or dogs harnessed in pairs. The maritime Chukchi traveled in boats with wooden frames and skin covers. The basic socioeconomic unit of the maritime Chukchi was the boat team of several related families; it sometimes included neighbours. The village was a territorial association of related and unrelated families. Among the reindeer Chukchi, the encampment of families who herded together was the basic economic unit.

      According to Chukchi religion, invisible spirits populate the universe. Sacrifices were an important aspect of the major festivals. Shamanist ceremonies were conducted for divination and healing.

      After the Russian Revolution the Chukchi were settled on collective farms. Technical improvements and new economic activities have been introduced among them.

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Universalium. 2010.

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