/koh"leen, kol"een/, n.
1. Biochem. a quaternary ammonium cation, C5H14N+O, one of the B-complex vitamins, found in the lecithin of many plants and animals.
2. choline hydroxide, C5H15NO2, the viscous, strongly alkaline commercial form of this compound, usually synthesized, used as a feed supplement, esp. for poultry, and in medicine in certain liver conditions.
3. choline chloride, C5H14ClNO.
[1855-60; CHOL- + -INE2]

* * *

Organic compound related to vitamins in its activity.

It is important in metabolism as a component of the lipids that make up cell membranes and of acetylcholine. It is also important as a source of chemical raw materials for cells and in transport of fats from the liver. It is usually classified with the B vitamins (see vitamin B complex) because it resembles them in function and in its distribution in foods. In humans it is interconvertible with certain other compounds, such as methionine, so deficiency does not lead to disease, but some other animals need it in their diet. Choline has various uses in medicine, nutrition, and the processing of foods and feeds.

* * *

      a nitrogen-containing alcohol related to the vitamins in activity. It is apparently an essential nutrient for a number of microorganisms and higher animals (including some birds) and is also important in metabolic processes in other animals, including humans.

      Choline has several important functions. It is a constituent of an important class of lipids (fats) called phospholipids (phospholipid) (e.g., lecithin), which form structural elements of cell membranes. It is also a component of acetylcholine, which is important in nerve function. Choline serves as a source of the methyl groups (−CH3 groups), which are required in various metabolic processes, and it functions in the transport of fats from the liver.

      Choline, which is usually classified with the B vitamins because of similarities in function and in distribution in foods, is abundant in wheat germ, soybean oil, egg yolk, and nervous and glandular tissues.

      Choline-deficient animals suffer from hemorrhagic kidneys and excessive deposition of fat in the liver. These effects can be alleviated by adding to the diet compounds that can be changed into choline—e.g., proteins containing the amino acid methionine.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Choline — Structure de la choline Général Nom IUPAC 2 hydroxyethyl trimethylazanium …   Wikipédia en Français

  • choline — [ kɔlin ] n. f. • 1870; de chol(é) et ine ♦ Biochim. Matière azotée (alcool à fonction ammonium quaternaire), présente dans les tissus animaux surtout sous forme d esters, qui joue un rôle important dans l utilisation des lipides par le foie et… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Choline — Cho line, n. [Gr. ? bile.] (Physiol. Chem.) See {Neurine}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • choline — choline. См. холин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • choline — [kō′lēn΄, kō′lin] n. [ CHOL(E) + INE3] a viscous fluid, (CH3) 3N(OH)CH2CH2OH, found in many animal and vegetable tissues, that is a precursor of acetylcholine, lecithin, etc.: usually considered a vitamin of the B complex …   English World dictionary

  • Choline — The N,N,N trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− Choline is a water soluble essential nutrient.[1][ …   Wikipedia

  • choline — (2 Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium ion; found in most animal tissues either free or in combination as lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), acetate (acetylcholine), or cytidine diphosphate (cytidine diphosphocholine). It is included in the vitamin B… …   Medical dictionary

  • choline — Esterified in the head group of phospholipids (phosphatidyl choline and sphingomyelin) and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Otherwise a biological source of methyl groups …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • choline — n. a basic compound important in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and other phospholipids and of acetylcholine. It is also involved in the transport of fat in the body. Choline is sometimes classed as a vitamin but, although it is… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • choline — cholinas statusas T sritis chemija formulė Formulę žr. priede. priedas( ai) Grafinis formatas atitikmenys: angl. choline rus. холин ryšiai: sinonimas – (2 hidroksietil)trimetilamonio hidroksidas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”