chewing gum

chewing gum
a sweetened and flavored preparation for chewing, usually made of chicle.
[1755-65, Amer.]

* * *

Sweetened product made from chicle and similar resilient substances that is chewed for its flavour.

Tree resins have been chewed as teeth cleaners and breath fresheners since ancient times. The latex (called chicle) of the Central American sapodilla tree was first used to mass-produce chewing gum in the 19th century; its plasticity, insolubility in water, and ability to hold a flavour made it an ideal chewing-gum base. After World War II other gums and synthetic rubbers came to replace chicle.

* * *

      sweetened product made from chicle and similar resilient substances and chewed for its flavour. Peoples of the Mediterranean have since antiquity chewed the sweet resin of the mastic tree (so named after the custom) as a tooth cleanser and breath freshener. New England colonists borrowed from the Indians the custom of chewing aromatic and astringent spruce resin for the same purposes. Similarly, for centuries inhabitants of the Yucatán Peninsula have chewed the latex, called chicle, of the sapodilla tree (Achras zapota), an evergreen that flourishes in the rain forests of the region.

      In the 19th century, chicle was heralded by industrial developers as an equivalent to rubber. Although attempts to vulcanize chicle were unsuccessful, it was discovered in the process that the desiccated resin was insoluble in water and extremely plastic, and that it was able to retain flavour. Thus, although unsuitable as a rubber substitute, chicle did invite exploitation in the latter half of the 19th century as a replacement for the sweetened paraffin that had itself outmoded the less refined spruce resin for chewing.

      To begin the gum manufacturing process, blocks of gathered, hardened chicle are broken up, then screened and strained before mixed with other gum bases, sweeteners, and flavourings during cooking. The blended mass is passed between rollers onto a belt for cooling, after which it is sugared, cut, wrapped, and packaged.

      After World War II various waxes, plastics, and synthetic rubber virtually replaced chicle in chewing gum manufacture. Artificially sweetened chewing gum found a wide market in the United States in the late 20th century, while mint remained the favourite among a wide variety of flavours.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chewing gum — sous forme de dragées Le chewing gum ou gomme à mâcher est une gomme destinée à être mâchée. C est Thomas Adams, qui, mélangeant du chiclé (latex issu du sapotillier ou sapotier) avec de la résine et du sirop, fabriqua et commercialisa en 1872… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • chewing-gum — [ ʃwiŋgɔm ] n. m. • 1904; angl. chewing gum, de to chew « mâcher » et gum « gomme » ♦ Anglic. cour. Gomme à mâcher aromatisée. Tablette de chewing gum. Chewing gum à la menthe. Un paquet de chewing gums. ● chewing gum, chewing gums nom masculin… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chewing-gum — sous forme de dragées Le chewing gum (ou gomme à mâcher, pâte à mâcher, chiclette (Suisse et Belgique (Liège surtout)) ou encore chique (en Belgique seulement)) est une gomme destinée à être mâchée. C est Thomas Adams, qui, mélangeant du chicle… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chewing Gum — Single par AAA extrait de l’album All Face A Chewing Gum Face B Bokura no Te (Live version) Sortie 15 novembre 2006 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chewing Gum (EP) — Chewing Gum EP EP by Polar Bear Released November 18, 1997 Reco …   Wikipedia

  • chewing-gum — /ˈtʃuinɡam, ingl. ˈtʃuːɪŋˌɡʌm/ [vc. amer., «gomma (gum) da masticare (chewing)»] s. m. inv. gomma americana, gomma, cingomma (fam.), cicca (dial.), bubble gum (ingl.) …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • chewing gum — / tʃu:iŋgʌm/, it. / tʃuingam/ locuz. ingl. [comp. di chewing, der. del v. (to ) chew masticare , e gum gomma ], usata in ital. come s.m. [sostanza aromatizzata da masticare, fabbricata con il lattice di una pianta dell America Centrale] ▶◀ (fam.) …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • chewing gum — ► NOUN ▪ flavoured gum for chewing …   English terms dictionary

  • chewing gum — ☆ chewing gum n. a gummy substance, such as chicle, flavored and sweetened for chewing …   English World dictionary

  • chewing gum — n [U] a type of sweet that you chew for a long time but do not swallow …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Chewing gum — For other uses, see Chewing gum (disambiguation). Many types of North American chewing gum from 2009. Chewing gum is a type of gum traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene. For economical …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”