Chartist, n., adj.
/chahr"tiz euhm/, n.
the principles or movement of a party of political reformers, chiefly workingmen, in England from 1838 to 1848: so called from the document (People's Charter or National Charter) that contained a statement of their principles and demands.
[1830-40; CHART charter (now obs.) + -ISM; r. Charterism; see CHARTER]

* * *

British working-class movement for parliamentary reform.

It was named after the People's Charter, a bill drafted by William Lovett (1800–1877) in 1838 that demanded universal manhood suffrage, equal electoral districts, vote by ballot, annually elected Parliaments, payment of members of Parliament, and abolition of property qualifications for membership. Born amid an economic depression, the movement rose to national importance under the leadership of Feargus O'Connor. Parliament refused to take action on three Chartist petitions presented to it, and the movement declined after 1848.

* * *

▪ British history
 British working-class movement for parliamentary reform named after the People's Charter, a bill drafted by the London radical William Lovett (Lovett, William) in May 1838. It contained six demands: universal manhood suffrage, equal electoral districts, vote by ballot, annually elected Parliaments, payment of members of Parliament, and abolition of the property qualifications for membership. Chartism was the first movement both working class in character and national in scope that grew out of the protest against the injustices of the new industrial and political order in Britain. While composed of working people, Chartism was also mobilized around populism as well as clan identity.

      The movement was born amid the economic depression of 1837–38, when high unemployment and the effects of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 were felt in all parts of Britain. Lovett's charter provided a program acceptable to a heterogeneous working-class population. The movement swelled to national importance under the vigorous leadership of the Irishman Feargus Edward O'Connor (O'Connor, Feargus Edward), who stumped the nation in 1838 in support of the six points. While some of the massive Irish presence in Britain supported Chartism, most were devoted to the Catholic Repeal movement of Daniel O'Connell (O'Connell, Daniel).

      A Chartist convention met in London in February 1839 to prepare a petition to present to Parliament. “Ulterior measures” were threatened should Parliament ignore the demands, but the delegates differed in their degrees of militancy and over what form “ulterior measures” should take. In May the convention moved to Birmingham, where riots led to the arrest of its moderate leaders Lovett and John Collins.

      The rump of the convention returned to London and presented its petition in July. Parliament rejected it summarily. There followed in November an armed rising of the “physical force” Chartists at Newport, which was quickly suppressed. Its principal leaders were banished to Australia, and nearly every other Chartist leader was arrested and sentenced to a short prison term. The Chartists then started to emphasize efficient organization and moderate tactics. Three years later a second national petition was presented containing more than three million signatures, but again Parliament refused to consider it. The movement lost some of its mass support later in the 1840s as the economy revived. Also, the movement to repeal the Corn Laws (Corn Law) divided radical energies, and several discouraged Chartist leaders turned to other projects.

      The last great burst of Chartism occurred in 1848. Another convention was summoned, and another petition was prepared. Again Parliament did nothing. Thereafter, Chartism lingered another decade in the provinces, but its appeal as a national mass movement was ended. With the onset of the relative prosperity of mid-Victorian Britain, popular militancy lost its edge. Many Chartist leaders, however, schooled in the ideological debates of the 1840s, continued to serve popular causes, and the Chartist spirit outlasted the organization. Five of the six points—all except the annual Parliaments—have since been secured.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chartism — was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid 19th century, between 1838 and 1859. It takes its name from the People s Charter of 1838. Chartism was possibly the first mass working class labour movement in… …   Wikipedia

  • Chartism — Chart ism, n. [F. charte charter. Cf. {Charte}, {Chart}.] The principles of a political party in England (1838 48), which contended for universal suffrage, the vote by ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, and other radical… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • chartism — chartísm [ch pron. c] s. n. Trimis de gall, 08.12.2007. Sursa: DOOM 2 …   Dicționar Român

  • Chartism — ► NOUN ▪ a UK parliamentary reform movement of 1837 48, the principles of which were set out in a manifesto called The People s Charter. DERIVATIVES Chartist noun & adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • Chartism — [chärt′iz΄əm] n. 1. a movement for democratic social and political reform in England (1838 48) 2. its principles set forth in the People s Charter (1838) Chartist n., adj …   English World dictionary

  • Chartism — noun Etymology: Medieval Latin charta charter, from Latin, document Date: 1839 the principles and practices of a body of 19th century English political reformers advocating better social and industrial conditions for the working classes •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • chartism — noun The practices and methodologies of chartists …   Wiktionary

  • CHARTISM —    a movement of the working classes of Great Britain for greater political power than was conceded to them by the Reform Bill of 1832, and which found expression in a document called the People s Charter, drawn up in 1838, embracing six points,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • chartism — n. principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Chartism — noun a UK parliamentary reform movement of 1837–48, the principles of which were set out in a manifesto called The People s Charter. Derivatives Chartist noun & adjective …   English new terms dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”