/syooh"teuh/; Sp. /the"oo tah, se"-/, n.a seaport and enclave of Spain in N Morocco, on the Strait of Gibraltar. 67,187.
* * *Arabic SebtaA military station and seaport, it constitutes with Melilla an autonomous community of Spain with an area of 8 sq mi (20 sq km). The city is on a narrow isthmus that connects Jebel Musa (one of the Pillars of Hercules) to the mainland. Located in northern Morocco at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar, it was successively colonized by Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans. Long a flourishing trading town, it was taken by the Portuguese in 1415, and it passed to Spain in 1580. In 1995 the Spanish government approved statutes of autonomy for Ceuta.
* * *▪ autonomous area, SpainSpanish exclave, military post, and free port on the coast of Morocco, at the Mediterranean entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar (Gibraltar, Strait of). Though physically contiguous with Morocco, Ceuta is an autonomous city administered by Spain. Ceuta, Melilla (also an exclave), and other tiny islets along the coast of North Africa constitute the territories of Spanish North Africa. The city is on a narrow isthmus that connects Mount Hacho (one of the Pillars of Hercules) to the mainland.Successively colonized by Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans, it became independent under the Byzantine governor Count Julian. Because of Ceuta's commercial importance in ivory, gold, and slaves, it was continually disputed until Portugal gained control (1415). The port passed to Spain in 1580 and was assigned to Spain in the Treaty of Lisbon (1688). At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936), Gen. Francisco Franco dispatched an expedition to Spain from Ceuta. In 1995 the Spanish government approved statutes of autonomy for Ceuta, replacing the city council with an assembly similar to those of Spain's other autonomous communities.Five centuries of Spanish Christian occupation have given the place a European rather than Moorish appearance. (Only about a third of the population is Muslim.) Lying south of the isthmus, the port consists of a small bay enclosed by two breakwaters. With the construction of modern port facilities, Ceuta grew as a military, transport, and commercial centre. Ceuta is surrounded by a double fence with barbed wire to secure its borders. In 2006 the fence was raised and Ceuta's military personnel and number of weapons were increased. Even so, thousands of immigrants, mainly African refugees, unsuccessfully try to cross the border every year.Public administration is the city's main economic activity. Fishing and the drying and processing of the catch are important industries, as are brewing, metallurgy, and machine repairs. Tourism has gradually become significant. There is ferry service to Algeciras on the European side of the Strait of Gibraltar. A teacher-training college, business school, and administrative school are affiliated with the University of Granada. Pop. (2006 est.) city, 67,781.
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