cavy

cavy
/kay"vee/, n., pl. cavies.
any of several short-tailed or tailless South American rodents of the family Caviidae, as the guinea pig, capybara, or agouti.
[1790-1800; < NL Cavia name of the genus < Carib (Galibi) cabiai]

* * *

Any of several species of South American rodents constituting the family Caviidae.

Species in the genera Cavia, Kerodon, Galea, and Microcavia resemble the guinea pig. They are stout, gray or brown, and 10–12 in. (25–30 cm) long, with short ears and legs and no visible tail. The Patagonian and salt desert cavies (Dolichotis) are more long-legged and rabbitlike. Cavies are social animals found in various habitats, including plains, marshes, and rocky areas. They live in burrows (which sometimes weaken the ground above so much that it collapses when walked on), and they feed on grass, leaves, and other vegetation.

Patagonian cavy, or mara (Dolichotis patagona).

George Holton
Photo Researchers

* * *

rodent
Introduction
 any of 14 species of South American rodents (rodent) comprising guinea pigs (guinea pig), maras, yellow-toothed cavies, mountain cavies, and rock cavies. All except the maras have robust bodies, short limbs, large heads and eyes, and short ears. There are four digits on the forefeet but three on the hind feet, and the soles of the feet are hairless. The claws are sharp and the tiny tail is inconspicuous except in the rock cavy, which has blunt claws and a short tail projection. Most cavies are moderately large, weighing 200 to 1,500 grams (0.4 to 3.3 pounds) with a body 15 to 40 cm (6 to 16 inches) long. Their dense, coarse fur ranges from gray to brown on the upperparts and whitish to gray on the underparts.

      Maras (mara) resemble hares (hare) in having large ears and eyes, a blunt muzzle, and long, slender legs. They are larger than the other cavies, weighing 9 to 16 kg (20 to 35 pounds) with a body 45 to 75 cm long and a tiny tail of up to 5 cm. Their front claws are sharp, but those on the hind feet are hooflike; the dense fur is gray with whitish underparts and has a crisp texture.

Natural history
      Although the rock cavy climbs trees to forage, cavies are terrestrial and colonial. They are active during the day (diurnal) or during early morning and evening (crepuscular). They den at night in burrows (burrowing) that they have excavated or that other mammals have abandoned; some species also find shelter in rock crevices, under brush piles, or in dense vegetation. Their diet is generally any available vegetation, such as grasses, forbs, leaves, and fruit. Even in cold environments, cavies do not hibernate. Breeding seasons vary among species, with gestation periods ranging from 50 to 93 days. Most cavies bear litters of 1 to 4 young, but wild guinea pigs have up to 5 young, and the domestic guinea pig may bear from 1 to 13 young per litter.

      Cavies range from Venezuela to southern Patagonia but are not found in western Chile or most of the Amazon River basin. Guinea pigs occupy open grasslands, forest margins, swamps, and rocky areas. The rock cavy dwells among boulders in dry areas of eastern Brazil, whereas yellow-toothed and mountain cavies live in grassy, rocky, and brushy habitats in the Andes Mountains from Peru to Argentina at elevations of up to 4,000 metres (13,000 feet). Maras inhabit the open landscapes of semiarid grasslands, thorn scrub, and temperate steppes from Bolivia through Argentina and southern Paraguay.

Paleontology and classification
      Cavies represent a small segment of an evolutionary history that began in South America during the Middle Miocene Epoch (16.4 million to 11.2 million years ago). Five genera exist today, but fossils of 16 genera have been identified. Caviidae is part of the suborder Hystricognatha within the order Rodentia.

Family Caviidae (cavies)
 2 subfamilies comprising 14 species in 5 genera.
      Subfamily Caviinae
 12 species in 4 genera.

      Genus Cavia (guinea pigs (guinea pig))
 5 species.

      Genus Microcavia (mountain cavies)
 3 species.

      Genus Galea (yellow-toothed cavies)
 3 species.

      Genus Kerodon (rock cavy)
 1 species.

      Subfamily Dolichotinae (maras)
 

      Genus Dolichotis
 2 species.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cavy — Ca vy, n.; pl. {Cavies}. [NL. cavia, fr. Brazilian cabiai: cf. F. cabiai.] (Zo[ o]l.) A rodent of the genera {Cavia} and {Dolichotis}, as the guinea pig ({Cavia cobaya}). Cavies are natives of South America. [1913 Webster] {Water cavy} (Zo[ o]l.) …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cavy — ► NOUN (pl. cavies) ▪ a guinea pig or related South American rodent. ORIGIN Latin cavia, from Carib …   English terms dictionary

  • cavy — [kā′vē] n. pl. cavies [< ModL Cavia < Galibi cabiai] any of a family (Caviidae) of short tailed South American rodents, as the guinea pig …   English World dictionary

  • cavy — Guinea pig Guin ea pig [Prob. a mistake for Guiana pig.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) A small Brazilian rodent ({Cavia porcellus} or {Cavia cobaya}), about seven inches in length and usually of a white color, with spots of orange and black. Called also {cavy}.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cavy — This most interesting surname is probably of Old French origin, and is a diminutive form of Cave, which has two separate interpretations. Firstly, it is likely to be a metonymic occupational name for someone employed in or in charge of the wine… …   Surnames reference

  • cavy — noun (plural cavies) Etymology: New Latin Cavia, genus name, from obsolete Portuguese çavia (now sauiá) the spiny rat Makalata (Echimys) armata, from Tupi saujá Date: 1796 any of several short tailed rough haired South American rodents (family… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • cavy — noun A guinea pig …   Wiktionary

  • cavy — ca·vy kā vē n, pl ca·vies any of several short tailed So. American rodents (family Caviidae) esp GUINEA PIG * * * ca·vy (kaґve) guinea pig …   Medical dictionary

  • cavy — ca·vy || keɪvɪ n. any of a number of South American rodents (i.e. guinea pig, capybara, etc.) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • cavy — [ keɪvi] noun (plural cavies) a guinea pig or related South American rodent. [Family Caviidae: numerous species.] Origin C18: from mod. L. cavia, from Galibi cabiai …   English new terms dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”