/kahr luyl", kahr"luyl/, n.1. John Griffin /grif"in/, 1835-1910, U.S. politician: Speaker of the House 1883-89.2. a city in Cumbria, in NW England. 99,700.3. a city in S Pennsylvania. 18,314.4. Angling. a fishhook having a narrow bend.
* * *City, administrative district (pop., 2001: 100,734), and seat of the administrative county of Cumbria, northwestern England.It was founded as Luguvallium by the Romans on the River Eden opposite a fortified camp on the line of Hadrian's Wall. Destroyed by Norse invaders с 875, it was restored when claimed from the Scots by William II in 1092. Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned there in 1568. It was besieged during the English Civil Wars, and its Royalist defenders eventually surrendered to Parliamentary forces in 1645. Its cotton textile industry grew in the 18th–19th centuries, and it has remained the centre of northern England's cotton industry.
* * *urban area and city (district), administrative county of Cumbria, historic county of Cumberland, England, on the Scottish border.In the Roman period a civilian settlement, Luguvallium (later the town of Carlisle), grew up on the south bank of the Eden, opposite Petriana (later Stanwix), a fortified camp on the line of Hadrian's Wall. The town dominated the surrounding area and in 685 became part of the see of Lindisfarne. It was destroyed by Norse invaders about 875 and was restored when claimed from the Scots by the Norman-English king William II (William Rufus) in 1092. He initiated the building of a castle and walls.Carlisle's role as a fortress town dates from the reign of Henry I (1100–35). Its position commanding the narrow lowland entry into England from the northwest gave it strategic importance. Augustinian canons built a church behind the castle, and their prior was created the first bishop in 1133. The first charter was granted in 1158, and in 1353 the city was given the right to a “free guild and a free election of their mayors and bailiffs.” During the English Civil Wars the town was besieged from October 1644 until June 1645, when its Royalist defenders finally surrendered to Parliamentary forces.Considerable growth of the cotton textile industry occurred in the late 18th and the 19th century, and the community has remained the principal centre of the northern English cotton industry outside Lancashire, specializing in calico printing. New growth followed the advent of the railways after the 1830s, and Carlisle has become a major railway centre. Principal industries, besides textiles, are food and confectionery and engineering.The cathedral was originally the church of the Augustinian priory (founded 1093), but much of this building was destroyed by fire in 1292 and 1392. Only part of the Norman nave remains. The Decorated-style east window contains mid-14th-century glass, and the tower was added in 1401. Other notable buildings include the town hall (1717) and 14th-century guildhall. Of the castle remains, the most important are the central Norman keep, the 14th-century main gate, and Queen Mary's Tower. There are colleges of art and technology, and Tullie House (1689) houses the city's museum and art gallery. The racecourse is one of the oldest in England.Outside the Carlisle urban area, the city encompasses a rural area with large stretches of unspoiled countryside, reaching a high point at Cold Fell, with an elevation of 2,041 feet (622 metres), and includes the towns and villages of Brampton, Longtown, Dalston, and Wetheral. Area city, 402 square miles (1,040 square km). Pop. (2001) urban area, 71,733; (2004 est.) city, 103,500.borough (town), seat (1751) of Cumberland county, southern Pennsylvania, U.S., in the Cumberland Valley, 18 miles (29 km) southwest of Harrisburg. James Le Tort, a French-Swiss Indian trader, settled with an Indian tribe near the site about 1720. The town, laid out in 1751, was named for Carlisle, Cumberland, England. It was the setting for continuous conflict with the Iroquois Confederacy until Benjamin Franklin (Franklin, Benjamin) negotiated a treaty in 1753. The peace failed, however, with the start of the French and Indian War the following year. A provincial fort was built there in 1756, and Carlisle was the starting point for many American colonial military expeditions during the war.Carlisle became a munitions supply point during the American Revolution. Molly Pitcher (Pitcher, Molly), Revolutionary War heroine, and other colonial notables are buried in the Old Graveyard. In 1794 Carlisle served as the staging area for federal troops during the Whiskey Rebellion. It was linked (1837) with Chambersburg by the Cumberland Valley Railroad. Carlisle was a major station on the Underground Railroad prior to the American Civil War. During the war it was briefly occupied (June 27–30, 1863) by Confederate troops who bombarded it (July 1) as they left for the Battle of Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Battle of).Light manufacturing (carpets, shoes, electronic equipment, paper products, clothing, quartz crystals, manganese steel, glass, and rubber products) dominates its economy. Dickinson College was founded there as a grammar school on land donated by Thomas and John Penn in 1773, and Dickinson School of Law, now part of the Pennsylvania State University system, was founded there in 1834. Carlisle Barracks, seat of the U.S. Army War College, formerly housed the Carlisle Indian Industrial School (1879–1918), where Olympic champion Jim Thorpe (Thorpe, Jim) began his athletic training. Pop. (1990) borough, 18,419; Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle MSA, 587,986; (2000) borough, 17,970; Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle MSA, 629,401.
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