/bul gair"ee euh, bool-/, n.
a republic in SE Europe. 8,652,745; 42,800 sq. mi. (110,850 sq. km). Cap.: Sofia.

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Introduction Bulgaria -
Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began accession negotiations in 2000. Geography Bulgaria
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 110,910 sq km water: 360 sq km land: 110,550 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Yugoslavia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline: 354 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use: arable land: 39% permanent crops: 1.8% other: 59.19% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 8,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia People Bulgaria -
Population: 7,621,337 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961; female 543,004) 15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199; female 2,648,461) 65 years and over: 16.9% (male 540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.11% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 8.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: -4.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/ female total population: 0.94 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 14.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.5 years female: 75.22 years (2002 est.) male: 67.98 years
Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 346 (2000)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)
Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian- Armenian, and other 1.6% (1998)
Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 99% female: 98% (1999) Government Bulgaria -
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Bulgaria
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Sofia Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence: 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Georgi PARVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister election results: Georgi PARVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PARVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UHdDF 18.18%, CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UHdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of February 2002 - NMS2 115, UHdDF 51, CFB 48, MRF 21, independents 5
Judicial branch: Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary) Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Radical Union [Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CFB (bloc led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost Political Club and Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) [leader NA]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHNOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG- GOTHA]; New Civic Party for Bulgaria [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Democratic Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of Democratic Forces or UHdDF [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces (consisting of UHdDF and People's Union) [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA] Political pressure groups and agrarian movement; Bulgarian
leaders: Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas International organization ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC,
participation: CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador- designate Elena POPTODOROVA consulate(s): New York FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973 telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969 chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Richard
US: M. MILES embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5740 telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100 FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control) Economy Bulgaria
Economy - overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and positive growth rates since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. The current government, elected in 2001, has pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy objectives of its predecessor, i.e., retaining the Currency Board, practicing sound financial policies, accelerating privatization, and pursuing structural reforms. A $300 million stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 will help the government maintain economic stability as it seeks to overcome high rates of poverty and unemployment.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $48 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.5% industry: 27.8% services: 57.7% (2000) Population below poverty line: 35% (2000 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.5%
percentage share: highest 10%: 22.8% (1997) Distribution of family income - Gini 34.1 (1997)
index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 3.83 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 17.5% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $5.57 billion expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2001 est.) Electricity - production: 38.84 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 47.9% hydro: 7.54% other: 0.1% (2000) nuclear: 44.46% Electricity - consumption: 34.42 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 1.5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets
Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Exports - partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Yugoslavia 8% (2000)
Imports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles
Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%, France 5% (2000)
Debt - external: $10.2 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)
Currency: lev (BGL)
Currency code: BGL
Exchange rates: leva per US dollar - 2.2147 (January 2002), 2.1847 (2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997) note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre- 5 July 1999 lev
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Bulgaria - Telephones - main lines in use: 3,186,731 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.054 million (2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: extensive but antiquated domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
Radios: 4.51 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)
Internet country code: .bg Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001)
Internet users: 585,000 (2001) Transportation Bulgaria -
Railways: total: 4,294 km standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435- m gauge (2,710 km electrified) narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)
Highways: total: 37,288 km paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km of expressways) unpaved: 3,502 km (2001)
Waterways: 470 km (1987)
Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)
Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin
Merchant marine: total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 881,758 GRT/1,312,833 DWT ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short- sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 215 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 129 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 93 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 86 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 74 (2001)
Heliports: 1 (2001) Military Bulgaria -
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior), Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president) Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,566,816 (2002
service: est.) Military manpower - reaching military males: 56,104 (2002 est.)
age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $356 million (FY02)
figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2.7% (FY02)
GDP: Transnational Issues Bulgaria - Disputes - international: because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary
Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

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officially Republic of Bulgaria

Country, southeastern Europe.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Area: 42,823 sq mi (110,912 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 7,890,000. Capital: Sofia. Bulgarians make up about 85% of the population; smaller groups include Turks, Gypsies, and Macedonians. Languages: Bulgarian (official), regional dialects. Religions: Eastern Orthodoxy; also Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Islam. Currency: lev. Three major regions define the landscape. The northernmost is the Danubian Plain, a fertile area occupying one-third of the country. Immediately south lie the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina). In the southwest and south lies the Rhodope Range, with the country's highest point, Musala Peak, rising 9,596 ft (2,925 m). Smaller than the three major regions, Bulgaria's Black Sea coast, including its cities of Varna and Burgas, is a popular eastern European resort area. Major drainage systems include the Black and Aegean seas. Bulgaria had a planned economy modeled on the Soviet system (1946–89). Since 1991 the noncommunist government has been moving to privatize some sectors of the economy, including agriculture. Bulgaria is a republic with one legislative body; its chief of state is the president, and its head of government is the prime minister. Evidence of human habitation dates from prehistoric times. Thracians were its first recorded inhabitants, dating from с 3500 BC, and their first state dates from about the 5th century BC. The area was subdued by the Romans, who divided it into the provinces of Moesia and Thrace. In the 7th century AD the Bulgars took the region south of the Danube River. The Byzantine Empire in 681 formally recognized Bulgar control over the area between the Balkans and the Danube. In 1185 Bulgaria fell to the Turks and ultimately lost its independence. At the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Bulgaria rebelled. The ensuing Treaty of San Stefano was unacceptable to the Great Powers, and the Congress of Berlin (1878) resulted. In 1908 the Bulgarian ruler, Ferdinand, declared Bulgaria's independence. After its involvement in the Balkan Wars (1912–13, 1913), Bulgaria lost territory. It sided with the Central Powers in World War I and with Germany in World War II. A communist coalition seized power in 1944, and in 1946 a people's republic was declared. With other eastern European countries in the late 1980s, Bulgaria experienced political unrest; its communist leader resigned in 1989. A new constitution that proclaimed a republic was implemented in 1991. Economic turmoil followed Bulgaria into the 21st century as it sought political stability and admittance to the European Union and NATO.

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▪ 2009

111,002 sq km (42,858 sq mi)
(2008 est.): 7,569,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev

      In 2008 Bulgaria's economic and political outlook were mixed. GDP rose 7% for the second quarter of the year, largely fueled by the services and construction sectors; tourism boomed by 12.1%, and real-estate prices were valued more than 30% higher than in the same period of 2007. Nevertheless, experts pointed to the slowdown in health care reform as one of the biggest risk factors for Bulgaria's long-term economic development. Moreover, the country continued to face a large trade deficit and a persisting pattern of emigration among young qualified professionals.

      After six attempts by Bulgaria's National Assembly to remove Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev's cabinet from power, midyear structural changes were triggered by scandals involving connections of top Interior Ministry officials to organized crime figures. Bulgaria's governing institutions received a poor evaluation from the European Commission, which released its second report on Bulgaria's progress as an EU member. The report concluded that Bulgaria had failed to make reasonable strides in reforming the judiciary, combating corruption, and fighting organized crime.

      Bulgaria's energy sector made some long-term investments, which include participation in the South Stream project, a gas pipeline proposed by Russia's Gazprom and Italy's Eni that was projected to supply 30 billion cu m (1.1 trillion cu ft) of natural gas annually to Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Italy, Austria, and Serbia, starting in 2013. In addition, the construction of the nuclear energy plant Belene was entrusted on Jan. 18, 2008, to the Russian firm Atomstroiexport. Bulgaria and Russia also signed agreements on the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline.

      Hundreds of millions of dollars in funding under the European Commission programs Phare, ISPA (Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession), and SAPARD (Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development) were frozen by the EC owing to suspicions of Bulgarian misappropriation and involvement in corrupt deals. Two Bulgarian government agencies were barred from involvement in contracts for EU funds. The funding, originally meant to stimulate infrastructure, was partially substituted by similar amounts drawn from the Bulgarian budget surplus.

      Bulgarian sports results were also mixed. Although rower Rumyana Neykova won a gold medal for Bulgaria at the Beijing Olympics, 11 other Olympians from the Bulgarian weightlifting team were caught with forbidden substances and banned from the Games. Their dismissal set the stage for an overall Olympic disappointment for Bulgaria, which finished with five medals: one gold, one silver in women's wrestling, and three bronze medals in men's wrestling.

Iva Iovtcheva; Boris Yovchev

▪ 2008

111,002 sq km (42,858 sq mi)
(2007 est.): 7,645,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev

 After putting aside the initial euphoria of Bulgaria's accession into the European Union in January 2007, Bulgarians realized that the road to becoming an integral part of wealthy and ambitious Europe was almost as difficult as the path from communism to democracy.

      Foreign investment poured into the country, and although the rate of unemployment plummeted from 9.6% in 2006 to 7.06% in August 2007, Bulgarian wages stayed low, while prices continued to increase rapidly. Major contributors to the rises were the 7.8% increase in energy prices and an average 3.9% price hike in food items; the latter boost was aided by prolonged drought and a negative outlook for the fall harvest. Overall price pressure prompted educators to stage protest strikes in their quest for higher salaries, and the government agreed to partially satisfy their demands.

      Real-estate prices saw rapid growth of 15% for the first six months of the year. Foreign demand for recreation homes in the countryside and high levels of investment in urban areas drove a number of banks to increase mortgage rates for fear of running low on reserves. The fast-developing real-estate sector also put Bulgaria in danger of infringing on the Natura 2000 ecological network established by the EU to protect wildlife.

      Bulgaria's EU accession helped put an end to the more-than-eight-year ordeal of six medical workers (five Bulgarian nurses and one Palestinian doctor) accused of having deliberately infected some 400 Libyan children with HIV. In spite of continued rejections of the accusation and several reports from AIDS researchers confirming that the epidemic had started before the Bulgarians arrived in the ward, the medical workers had been sentenced to death in 2004. After complex negotiations between Libya and the EU (notably France), the government of Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi lessened the sentence to life imprisonment. The prisoners were flown home, where they were pardoned by Pres. Georgi Purvanov upon their arrival in Sofia on July 24.

      In June the European Commission identified corruption as a continuing hurdle to Bulgaria's full integration into the EU. While visiting during the summer, U.S. Pres. George W. Bush encouraged President Purvanov and Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev to escalate measures against organized crime. Many Bulgarians believed that the government's failure to take action in these areas stemmed from the government's own involvement in illegal deals. This notion was highlighted when the list containing the names of citizens who collaborated with State Security during Bulgaria's communist regime included the names of many political figures, most notably that of President Purvanov.

Iva Iovtcheva; Boris Yovchev

▪ 2007

111,002 sq km (42,858 sq mi)
(2006 est.): 7,681,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev

      Bulgarians would remember 2006 as a time of continuous struggle to prove that they belonged in a strong and prosperous Europe while reminiscing about past days of glory and might. On September 26 Bulgaria's candidacy for accession to the European Union on Jan. 1, 2007, was approved. That, as well as the discovery in September 2005 of a perfectly preserved one-of-a-kind Byzantine church pulpit from the early 5th century AD—at Perperikon in the eastern Rhodope Mountains—was a high point for Bulgarians. Perperikon, known to have been a sacred place for the ancient Thracians, was now shown to have been a primary site for Christian religious rituals as well.

      Although foreign direct investment reached a 15-year high of €1.5 billion (about $1.9 billion), in 2006 Bulgarians were still among the poorest Europeans, facing a current account deficit of 14.6% through March and annual inflation projected at 7.2% for the year. Anticipating financial difficulties in the wake of European Union membership, possibly as early as 2007, and encouraged by higher interest rates, Bulgarians increased their personal savings by 14% through the month of June.

      Bulgaria's structural reform was stalled owing to fiascoes such as the awarding in 2005, without an official bidding process, of the Trakia highway construction concession to foreign companies with connections to the government. The deal was examined by the European Commission in June and was strongly criticized by officials, who also faulted the Bulgarian government for fostering corruption in the highest tiers of power. Even more important, during the year Bulgarians did not see the needed changes in the judicial, health care, and education sectors, which some feared might affect the EU accession process.

      In an atmosphere of general unease, political parties started preparations for the presidential elections to be held on October 22. Political factions on the right struggled to muster a united platform behind a single candidate. Various deals were done and undone on a weekly basis, which eroded public support for the right, and in the event, the Socialist incumbent Georgi Purvanov ran uncontested and was reelected by those few Bulgarians who turned out to vote.

      On a cheerier note, although the International Olympic Committee had rejected Sofia's bid to host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, young Bulgarian athletes fared well at the world junior championships in Beijing in August, and 19-year-old Tezdzan Naimova won gold in the women's 200-m and 100-m sprint.

Iva Iovtcheva; Boris Yovchev

▪ 2006

111,002 sq km (42,858 sq mi)
(2005 est.): 7,715,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Ministers Simeon Saxecoburggotski and, from August 16, Sergei Stanishev

      The year 2005 was an eventful one in Bulgaria. The country exceeded most expectations and achieved notable economic development. Though the state-owned Bulgarian Telecommunication Co. was successfully privatized and awarded a license to operate Bulgaria's third cellular telephone network, the general public deemed this a failure because of suspicions of corruption by government officials. Tourism continued to be one of the most prosperous sectors of the economy, with the Black Sea resorts remaining the major attraction for 2.7 million vacationers from West and Central Europe. Bulgaria's improving economy encouraged a number of foreign investors to look for opportunities in the country. During January–May 2005, direct foreign investment amounted to €421.6 million (about $526 million). The Bulgarian government resumed construction of a nuclear plant complex in Belene and initiated negotiations with possible buyers.

      On April 25 Bulgaria, together with Romania, signed an accession treaty to the European Union; the country would be admitted to the EU on Jan. 1, 2007, if it implemented the promised judicial and administrative system reforms and successfully dealt with corruption. Failure to comply with these European Commission requirements could delay admission to the EU by a year.

      Starting in July torrential rains, alternating with hail and high temperatures, left a number of towns and villages across the country in ruins and displaced their inhabitants. The floods destroyed river ports, crops, and cultural monuments. The damages, excluding the lost crops, were estimated to be more than €128 million (about $155 million).

      In the June 25 elections, seven parties, none of which had enough representatives to form a government, were elected to the 240-seat parliament. The party possessing the biggest share of seats was the left-wing Bulgarian Socialist Party. The right wing was occupied by two opposing factions of the once-strong United Democratic Forces. After each of the two most populous parties in the parliament took turns holding a mandate to construct a government and did not find broad-enough support, Pres. Georgi Purvanov granted a mandate to the third parliamentary power, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), which represented the country's Turkish minority. After weeks of negotiations, the parties with the largest representation in the parliament—the Socialists, the centrist National Movement for Simeon II, and the MRF—formed a coalition government on August 15, with Socialist leader Sergei Stanishev, nominated by the MRF, installed the following day as the country's new prime minister.

Iva Iovtcheva; Boris Yovchev

▪ 2005

111,002 sq km (42,858 sq mi)
(2004 est.): 7,715,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Simeon Saxecoburggotski

      In 2004 Bulgaria secured two major advances in its foreign-policy objectives. At the end of March, it was admitted to NATO, and there were also significant advances toward membership in the European Union. On February 19 the European Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee reported favourably on Bulgaria's progress toward accession, and further progress was made possible when the Bulgarian assembly passed a number of amendments to the law on the judiciary. These reforms had been urgently demanded by Brussels and were aimed primarily at eliminating corruption from the judicial system. By the middle of June, negotiations had been completed, and Bulgaria's accession to the EU on Jan. 1, 2007, was virtually guaranteed, although it was also stated that the European Commission could decide to postpone the accession date for one year if it deemed there was a “serious risk” that Bulgaria might be unable to implement the remaining necessary reforms on time. That warning was partly a result of the continuing unhappiness of Pres. Georgi Purvanov and the Socialist opposition over the government's acceptance of the EU's demand for the closure of two more reactors at the Bulgarian nuclear power complex at Kozlodui.

      There was a much less-happy outcome at the end of the trial of five Bulgarian nurses who, with a Palestinian doctor, were accused of having deliberately infected 426 Libyan children with HIV. The accused had been in detention since 1998 and had been maltreated in prison. Sentences were delivered on May 6, and, despite the evidence of expert witnesses from outside Libya, the accused were condemned to death. Appeals were immediately launched.

      Bulgaria's involvement in Iraq created domestic tensions. Five Bulgarian soldiers had been killed in Karbala on Dec. 27, 2003, and some difficulty was later experienced in finding enough volunteers to replace the 500 troops who had finished their tour of duty early in 2004.

      The government survived a motion of censure in the parliament on March 15, but the prime minister remained unpopular, mainly because the majority of the population did not feel that living standards were improving. The Bulgarian Socialist Party secured and retained a sizable lead in the opinion polls, a situation that was helped along by the weakness of the much-divided conservative factions. In July a simmering dispute between factions within the Bulgarian Orthodox Church ignited when police raided dozens of churches and detained a number of priests.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 2004

110,971 sq km (42,846 sq mi)
(2003 est.): 7,786,000
Chief of state:
President Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Simeon Saxecoburggotski

      Having a seat on the UN Security Council in 2003 made Bulgaria an important factor in the crisis over Iraq. The government adopted a pro-U.S. stance that was not, however, shared by the president or his opposition Bulgarian Socialist Party. It also caused embarrassment with France, whose ambassador warned on February 12 that Bulgaria's position on the Iraq question could pose problems for Bulgaria's integration into the European Union. Still, Bulgaria lent its support to the coalition and allowed U.S. airplanes to use the airport at Sarafovo on the Black Sea coast. After the war Bulgaria agreed to send a military contingent, and by mid-August some 500 Bulgarian troops were in Karbalaʾ, Iraq. In August Bulgaria cosponsored with Britain a draft UN resolution proposing that sanctions on Libya be lifted. Many assumed that this action was dictated by a desire to help the six Bulgarian medics who were on trial in Libya charged with having deliberately infected 393 Libyan children with HIV. Bulgaria continued its progress toward membership in NATO when the National Assembly agreed on March 28 to accept the protocols of accession stipulated by the organization's member states.

      On the domestic front in Bulgaria, there was considerable instability. The judiciary disliked reform proposals that would limit its power, notably an amendment to the Privatization Act making the National Assembly and the government, rather than the courts, the final arbiters in the privatization process. The judiciary responded to the attempted reforms by complicating important privatization processes, particularly with regard to the sale of the state tobacco and telephone companies. In the latter case an agreement reached in December 2002 was nullified, only to be accepted finally in September 2003. In local elections in late October, the Socialist Party (former communists) showed strongly with 33% of the vote.

      The country continued to be troubled by violence and organized crime. On March 25 a bomb shattered windows at the Sofia District Prosecutor's Office, and in the following months a number of prominent businessmen, some of them believed to have been connected with illegal groups, fell to assassins' bullets.

      The spectre of corruption also continued to haunt Bulgarian public life. In April a report from the Ministry of the Interior spoke of connections of politicians and members of the judiciary with organized crime. Particularly embarrassing for the government were allegations that the minister of finance, Milen Velchev, had had contacts with a businessman suspected of large-scale smuggling. Velchev resigned in August, only to withdraw his resignation two weeks later. The incident provoked criticism from the opposition and the president of the apparent instability in the cabinet.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 2003

110,971 sq km (42,846 sq mi)
(2002 est.): 7,890,000
Chief of state:
Presidents Petar Stoyanov and, from January 22, Georgi Purvanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Simeon Saxecoburggotski

      Bulgarian political life in 2002 was influenced by the need for national unity pending decisions on the country's applications to join NATO and the European Union (EU). This meant that a number of confrontations were softened, though not eliminated.

      There were considerable differences between the prime minister and the new, socialist president, Georgi Purvanov, who assumed office on January 22, but both men played them down for the appearance of national unity. There were also tensions between the prime minister's main supporters in the National Movement Simeon II (NDSV); in April the NSDV reorganized itself as a political party with the prime minister (and former king) as its leader.

      Crime and corruption remained visible. A serious embarrassment occurred on March 21 when a newspaper published the minutes of an October 2001 cabinet meeting. The minutes appeared to show that in awarding a contract for the reform of Bulgaria's customs authorities, the government had evaded the Public Procurement Act; the question was who had arranged or paid for such a leak from which only the illegal smuggling groups could profit. During the summer suspicions were also rife about favouritism in the privatization of the large tobacco concern, Bulgartabak.

      The government pursued tight economic policies, which intensified some social tensions. The most notable protest came in mid-February when the largely Roma (Gypsy) population of the Plovdiv suburb of Stolipinovo rioted for three days after the electricity company cut off their supplies because of nonpayment of bills. Another provincial protest was staged in August by people living near Stara Zagora who feared that their health would be endangered by the decommissioning of Bulgaria's stockpile of SS-23 missiles stationed near the town; the decommissioning of the missiles was essential for Bulgaria to be admitted to NATO. There was also anger at the end of May when the European Union commissioner for enlargement appeared to dictate when the Bulgarian government had to close two further reactors at the Kozloduy nuclear power complex. In November Bulgaria was invited to join NATO along with six other European nations.

      In February the long-awaited trial of six Bulgarian medical workers accused of having deliberately infected 393 children with HIV—begun in 2001 but then postponed—recommenced in Libya. The case was referred to a lower court, where the sentences could be expected to be more lenient, but hopes for a final decision had not been fulfilled at year's end.

      On May 23 Pope John Paul II arrived for a four-day visit during which he expressed his conviction that there had been no Bulgarian involvement in the attempt to assassinate him in 1981.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 2002

110,971 sq km (42,846 sq mi)
(2001 est.): 7,953,000
Chief of state:
President Petar Stoyanov
Head of government:
Prime Ministers Ivan Kostov and, from July 24, Simeon Saxecoburggotski

      In the spring of 2001, the government of Ivan Kostov became the first postcommunist administration in Bulgaria to run its full four-year course. It was not returned to power. Early in the year rumours had circulated that the former king, Simeon II, would return to Bulgaria and contest the presidential elections to be held in the fall. The constitution forbade this, however, and he decided to compete in the parliamentary campaign instead. In the elections of June 17, his National Movement for Simeon II, formed in April, secured 120 of the 240 seats. In July Simeon agreed to take the post of prime minister; Bulgaria thereby became the first country ever to elect its exiled king as head of government. Simeon henceforth officially used the surname Saxecoburggotski from his lineage in the royal house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but he was universally known as “the King.” (See Biographies (Saxecoburggotski, Simeon ).) His government's parliamentary majority was to be guaranteed by support from the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), a party representing primarily Bulgaria's ethnic Turkish minority.

      The victory of the movement was based on Simeon's dramatic promise that his movement would restore the country to economic and political health within 800 days of taking office. This goal was to be accomplished by easing tax burdens on business, promoting enterprise, widening privatization, and reducing state involvement in the economy. Both economic and political health were to be gained by eliminating corruption. A reform program to promote these objectives was announced in August.

      To spearhead the economic campaign, the prime minister appointed to key economic ministries young men who had spent time working in Western financial institutions. The foreign minister was from the small Jewish minority, and two ministers were ethnic Turks from the MRF. Surprisingly, Saxecoburggotski gave ministerial posts to two members of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, which did not support his government in the parliament.

      In the second round of presidential elections, held on November 18, Socialist Party leader Georgi Parvanov defeated centre-right Pres. Petar Stoyanov by capturing more than 50% of the vote. Parvanov would take office after Stoyanov's term expired on Jan. 22, 2002.

      In foreign policy the new administration differed little from its predecessor in making admittance to NATO and the European Union its prime objectives. With its long historic association with Macedonia, Bulgaria could not be indifferent to the growing crisis in that country, but the Sofia government insisted that solutions had to be found by peaceful means. Unilateral action by Bulgaria was ruled out. The fate of six Bulgarian medics charged in Libya with having deliberately infected 393 children with HIV became a matter of great concern when the trial began on June 2. Though a decision was expected in late December, the hearing was postponed until Feb. 17, 2002.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 2001

110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi)
(2000 est.): 8,172,000
Chief of state:
President Petar Stoyanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Ivan Kostov

      In April 2000 the government of Prime Minister Ivan Kostov was embarrassed by allegations of corruption. Protesting his own innocence, an official spokesman for the government, Mihail Mihailov, resigned, but further incriminating revelations followed. On June 9 Bulgaria's chief negotiator with the European Union (EU) was required to resign after being accused of financial irregularities. By this time the National Assembly had enacted legislation requiring all senior officials to reveal their incomes and expenses.

      Further embarrassments for the government came during the summer when listening devices were discovered in the home of the prosecutor general. The government insisted that they had been planted in 1994 and never used. On August 18 Bulgaria ordered the expulsion of five foreign businessmen, four of them Russians, who were said to be involved in money laundering and to have connections with international criminal organizations.

      The actions against the Russians prompted a demand from Moscow for information on the evidence against them. The Bulgarian minister for foreign affairs rebuffed her Russian counterpart, reminding him that the Warsaw Pact no longer existed. Another dispute during the year between Bulgaria and Russia was occasioned by the latter's failure to abide by the terms of an agreement to pay off some of its $100 million debt to Bulgaria with spare parts for fighter airplanes. In the wake of the incident, the Bulgarians were considering the purchase of F-16 fighters from the United States.

      Bulgaria and Libya also had a serious dispute. Five nurses and one doctor from Bulgaria were accused of having deliberately infected 393 children with the HIV virus in a Banghazi, Libya, hospital. If they were tried and convicted, the Bulgarians could face the death penalty. Pleas from Pres. Petar Stoyanov and intervention from Russia secured a postponement of the trial until November. The Bulgarians' cause was not helped by injudicious comments from their minister of justice, who told the press he could predict the outcome of the trial “in a white country” but not in Libya.

      In July the Paris Club of creditor nations agreed in principle to a partial conversion of Bulgaria's external debt into investment. In August the German finance minister warned aspiring nations that they could not join the EU until their economies were prepared for competition. The pain of such preparation was shown when Bulgaria enacted measures to comply with European veterinary regulations, which led to a marked fall in meat production.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 2000

110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi)
(1999 est.): 8,206,000
Chief of state:
President Petar Stoyanov
Head of government:
Prime Minister Ivan Kostov

      Public debate in Bulgaria in 1999 was dominated by Balkan developments. On February 22 the governments of Bulgaria and Macedonia signed a historic agreement. For the first time, Bulgaria officially accepted the existence of a Macedonian nation; in return, Macedonia acknowledged that it had no territorial claims upon Bulgaria. In March the two countries concluded a defense agreement in which Bulgaria was to supply military equipment to Macedonia.

      Bulgaria gave official approval to NATO actions in Yugoslavia—a policy dictated largely by the government's aspirations to join that organization. Support for the NATO bombings was not endorsed by the opposition Bulgarian Socialist Party or by a majority of the population. Public criticism intensified when NATO missiles mistakenly landed in Bulgaria, one of them in the suburbs of Sofia, and when the destruction of bridges in Yugoslavia began to affect Bulgarian trade severely. On July 3 Turkish NATO units were allowed to transit Bulgaria en route to Kosovo; it was the first time Turkish troops had set foot in Bulgaria in 121 years. Relations with Russia, however, were strained by the difficulties involved in reaching an agreement to allow Russian troops destined for Kosovo to overfly Bulgaria.

      At a meeting in Athens on January 12, defense ministers from Italy, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey, and Romania agreed to the final details for the setting up of a 4,000-strong joint regional peacekeeping force for southeastern Europe. The headquarters of the new force were opened in Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second largest city, on September 11.

      On the economic front, progress was slower than hoped. International loans continued to flow in, but direct foreign investment was slow, as was economic growth. The second wave of privatization was launched in January when vouchers were issued to buy shares in 31 companies. On July 9 a 51% stake in the state-owned Telecom company was sold to a consortium of Greek and Dutch companies. By then, 80% of the enterprises earmarked for sale or liquidation in 1999 had been sold or closed.

      Some embarrassment was caused to the government in August when the first attempt to demolish the sturdily built mausoleum of communist dictator Georgi Dimitrov failed. A more serious problem was revealed by official figures published in July showing that Bulgaria had the lowest birthrate in Europe. In 1998 the population declined by 0.6%, and already one Bulgarian in four was a pensioner.

Richard J. Crampton

▪ 1999

      Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi)

      Population (1998 est.): 8,273,000

      Capital: Sofia

      Chief of state: President Petar Stoyanov

      Head of government: Prime Minister Ivan Kostov

      The major preoccupation of Bulgaria's government in 1998 was the consolidation of the economic stability achieved in 1997. This had to be done in order for the nation to secure loans from external sources, particularly the International Monetary Fund (IMF); these loans were necessary for the country's economic viability. The external lenders demanded intensified economic reform, and the government delivered. On May 9 the National Assembly sanctioned the ending of subsidies to the agricultural sector and endorsed the principles of a market economy, including privatization. In July Prime Minister Ivan Kostov announced that by the end of the year one-half of the equity of the Bulgarian Telecommunications Co. would be in private hands. Future privatizations were to include arms-manufacturing plants, Balkan Airlines, a number of banks, and Bulgaria's largest oil refinery. Kostov also announced his intention to impose tighter fiscal policies.

      These statements of intended reform made possible some progress with the IMF. In late July and early August, negotiations produced an agreement under which the IMF would lend Bulgaria $800 million, and a similar sum would be loaned from other sources. At the beginning of September, however, the IMF insisted that the loan was still dependent upon Bulgaria's taking an additional 15 "prior actions."

      The party political front remained quiet. In February a new centre-left coalition, the Bulgarian Euroleft, was formed, and in July four liberal parties formed the Liberal Democratic Alliance, of which former president Zhelyu Zhelev was made honorary president.

      There were signs of some tension between the political authorities and the military. In March Pres. Petar Stoyanov dismissed Maj. Gen. Angel Marin, the commander in chief of Missile Troops and Artillery Forces, who had criticized the government's decision to reduce spending on the army. In July the chief of the General Staff, Col. Gen. Miho Mihov, announced that more than 1,000 officers were to be removed from the active list; a number of senior officers were also moved or retired.

      Bulgaria experienced some ethnic tensions as well. In June in the northern city of Lom, Roma (Gypsies) protested against discrimination in employment and the nonpayment of welfare benefits, and in September Bulgarian Turks complained about the removal of three plaques commemorating ethnic Turks executed in 1988 for their alleged involvement in a series of bombings that killed eight people in 1984-85. On the other hand, Bulgaria allowed broadcasts in Turkish and, for the first time in 50 years, permitted the circumcision of Muslim boys.

      On August 5 Todor Zhivkov, who led the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1954 to 1989, died. (See OBITUARIES (Zhivkov, Todor Khristov ).)


▪ 1998

      Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi)

      Population (1997 est.): 8,329,000

      Capital: Sofia

      Chief of state: Presidents Zhelyu Zhelev and, from January 19, Petar Stoyanov

      Head of government: Prime Ministers Georgi Parvanov until February 12, Stefan Sofiyanski until April 24 and, from April 24, Ivan Kostov

      At the end of 1996, Bulgaria was in deep crisis. The currency was in free fall, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) had refused any further help until a currency board was introduced to control the exchange rate and limit government spending. The response of the incumbent Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) was to change its leadership, with Georgi Parvanov replacing Zhan Videnov. The public view was that this was more of the same. On Jan. 3, 1997, crowds began to demonstrate in favour of early elections. On the same day, the opposition Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) made elections a condition of their agreeing to the establishment of a currency board. On January 10 the UDF walked out of the parliament, and that evening serious clashes between demonstrators and police took place outside the parliament building. On January 19 the new president, Petar Stoyanov, took office and was required by the constitution to ask Nikolay Dobrev of the BSP to form an administration. The prospect of continued BSP rule intensified the protests; by the end of the month, a general strike was threatened.

      On February 4 Dobrev conceded. He would not form a government, and elections would be held in April. Stoyanov admitted that civil war might well have been the alternative. An interim administration under the UDF mayor of Sofia, Stefan Sofiyanski, took office on February 12. On February 24 it resumed negotiations with the IMF, suspended in November, the assumption being that a currency board would be introduced; in March the IMF agreed in principle to a financial support package of $167 million.

      The elections of April 19 gave a resounding victory to the UDF, which won 137 of the 240 seats in the parliament. The Democratic Left, the main element of which was the BSP, won 58 seats. On April 24 a new government was formed under the UDF leader, Ivan Kostov, and on July 1 the currency board came into operation. Kostov also committed his administration to speeding up economic change and privatization, especially of land; to the more rigorous combating of crime and corruption; and to seeking membership in NATO and the European Union.

      On July 7 the new government introduced a bill, which became effective in September, opening the files of the former state security police. A government commission in October named 23 high-ranking public officials as former collaborators with the security police.

      This article updates Bulgaria, history of (Bulgaria).

▪ 1997

      The republic of Bulgaria is situated on the eastern Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe, along the Black Sea. Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 8,366,000. Cap.: Sofia. Monetary unit: lev, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a free rate of 216.95 leva to U.S. $1 (341.76 leva = £ 1 sterling). President in 1996, Zhelyu Zhelev; prime minister, Zhan Videnov.

      Petar Stoyanov, candidate of the united opposition, was elected president of Bulgaria on Nov. 3, 1996, easily defeating Ivan Mazarov of the ruling Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) by winning 59.96% of the vote in a runoff election.

      By mid-July the Bulgarian lev, which stood at 71 to the U.S. dollar in December 1995, had fallen to 181 to the dollar. Because of a general weakness in the banking sector, the Bulgarian National Bank, facing imminent foreign payments, had insufficient reserves to defend the currency. On May 22 Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev declared that the country was on the verge of collapse.

      The International Monetary Fund (IMF) demanded action as well as promises of structural reform. Prime Minister Zhan Videnov therefore announced that he would close 64 unprofitable state enterprises and restrict credit for a further 70. Other measures to decrease the budget deficit included the raising of the value-added tax from 18% to 22%, a 5% import levy, hikes in excises on alcohol and tobacco, and huge increases in fuel and public utility costs. In the third quarter the IMF was still not convinced and refused to sanction the second installment of a $580 million standby loan.

      The crisis had serious consequences. Inflation rose rapidly; there were public protests that brought an estimated million people onto the streets on June 7; and in August there were rumours of an imminent military coup. Relations between Zhelev and the BSP deteriorated further, there having been disagreements already over Bulgaria's relationship to NATO, a new law on electronic media, and the state emblem.

      On May 25 King Simeon II, who had left Bulgaria in 1946, returned for the first time to visit his native land. A more ominous shadow of Bulgaria's past was cast on October 2 when former prime minister Andrey Lukanov was murdered in Sofia.


      This article updates Bulgaria, history of (Bulgaria).

▪ 1996

      The republic of Bulgaria is on the eastern Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe, along the Black Sea. Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi). Pop. (1995 est.): 8,406,000. Cap.: Sofia. Monetary unit: lev, with (Oct. 6, 1995) a free rate of 68.17 leva to U.S. $1 (107.77 leva = £ 1 sterling). President in 1995, Zhelyu Zhelev; prime ministers, Reneta Indzhova and, from January 25, Zhan Videnov.

      Following its victory in the December 1994 election, the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) formed a government on January 25-26, 1995, under its youthful party leader, Zhan Videnov. The Cabinet included some members of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and a representative of the Ecoglasnost Political Club. It was the first government in postcommunist Bulgaria to enjoy an absolute majority in the National Assembly.

      The domestic political scene was dominated by a confrontation between the government and Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev. The president rejected bills readmitting former communists to senior academic posts and allowing economic development without reference to environmental considerations. He also vetoed an amendment to the land law that provided that those wishing to sell land had to offer it first to their neighbours and to the state; only if these parties should not wish to buy could the property be placed on the open market. This was one of a number of proposed amendments that were intended to encourage cooperative land ownership.

      The Assembly overruled the presidential veto on May 10, in response to which Zhelev referred the issue to the Constitutional Court. On June 19 the court endorsed the president's view. In July Zhelev criticized the government for lack of progress on economic reform and in the battle against crime; the latter failure, he suggested, was because the BSP was "genetically connected" with criminal circles.

      Videnov hit back during the BSP party conference at the end of July, accusing Zhelev of behaving like a candidate for opposition leader. Videnov also attacked the Constitutional Court. In August the government, invoking an alleged lack of space, ordered the court to leave its offices in the government building. The court appealed successfully to the Supreme Court. In September the Constitutional Court ruled a new local government law illegal because, it said, a clause forbidding reporters in state-controlled media to express their opinions was an infringement of the constitutional right to free speech.

      In external affairs both the prime minister and the president remained committed to taking Bulgaria into the European Union. A new feature of Bulgarian foreign policy was the reassertion of the country's close ties with Russia. These included a deal under which $100 million of Russian debt would be paid to Bulgaria in the form of spare parts for military aircraft, an agreement to inherit outdated Russian tanks to replace even older ones in the Bulgarian army, the reintroduction of compulsory Russian-language lessons in Bulgarian schools, and plans to construct pipelines to transport Russian gas via Burgas to Greece and Italy. (RICHARD J. CRAMPTON)

      This updates the article Bulgaria, history of (Bulgaria).

▪ 1995

      The republic of Bulgaria is on the eastern Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe, along the Black Sea. Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi). Pop. (1994 est.): 8,452,000. Cap.: Sofia. Monetary unit: lev, with (Oct. 7, 1994) a free rate of 62.84 leva to U.S. $1 (99.95 leva = £1 sterling). President in 1994, Zhelyu Zhelev; prime ministers, Lyuben Berov until September 8 and, from October 17, Reneta Indzhova.

      In 1994 Bulgaria received substantial loans from the International Monetary Fund and succeeded in negotiating an almost 50% reduction in foreign debt obligations. Whatever benefits these agreements might have brought, few Bulgarians found cause for celebration in 1994. Political stagnation intensified, and when Prime Minister Lyuben Berov underwent heart surgery in March, few believed his administration could survive much longer. At the beginning of April, Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev announced that the Cabinet should broaden its parliamentary base or resign. Berov's weakness was further revealed on May 18 when Parliament rejected his revised Cabinet.

      Berov, however, remained in office long enough to pass a privatization bill on June 28 and to see through its final stages the controversial Judiciary Bill. Its most important provision required legal officers to have been in office for at least five years before they could be promoted to a senior level; this in effect restricted the upper ranks of the judiciary to officials appointed during the communist regime.

      On September 2 Berov submitted his resignation, which was accepted by Parliament on September 8. In accordance with constitutional requirements, President Zhelev allowed Parliament three attempts to form a new administration, and when it failed he dissolved Parliament, called new elections for December, and on October 17 appointed an interim Cabinet under Reneta Indzhova, the head of the Privatization Agency and the first woman to serve as prime minister of the country.

      The Socialists (former Communists) won a majority in the National Assembly in the December 18 elections, claiming 125 of the 240 seats in that body; the incumbent anticommunist Union of Democratic Forces won 69 seats. Even with their slight majority, the Socialists were expected to seek a coalition government, and their leader, 35-year-old Zhan Videnov, was poised to become prime minister.

      For many Bulgarians, however, politics was becoming increasingly irrelevant in the face of corruption, crime, and rising prices. In January the minister of the interior, Viktor Mihailov, declared that the police were corrupt and incompetent, and few people had much faith in an anticrime package introduced by the government on August 30. On September 26 Mihailov admitted that Bulgarians needed to have the right to carry firearms to defend themselves because the government could no longer do so.


      This updates the article Bulgaria, history of (Bulgaria).

▪ 1994

      The republic of Bulgaria is on the eastern Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe, along the Black Sea. Area: 110,994 sq km (42,855 sq mi). Pop. (1993 est.): 8,466,000. Cap.: Sofia. Monetary unit: lev, with (Oct. 4, 1993) a free rate of 26.14 leva to U.S. $1 (39.60 leva = £1 sterling). President in 1993, Zhelyu Zhelev; prime minister, Lyuben Berov.

      The government of Prime Minister Lyuben Berov was kept in power in 1993 by support in the National Assembly from the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), a mainly Turkish party; the Bulgarian Socialist Party; and the New Union for Democracy, a breakaway section of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF). An angry UDF consistently accused the government of backtracking on reform and of wishing to restore socialism. In support of this they pointed to government interference with the media (from which a number of antiregime figures were removed), the reinstatement of some former communists to official posts, the refusal to remove the Soviet war memorial in Sofia, and the slowing down of economic reform. The chief UDF demand was for the holding of new general elections.

      Matters came to a head during June when UDF deputy Edvin Sugarev went on a hunger strike in an effort to force Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev's resignation. Large antigovernment and anti-Zhelev demonstrations ensued, and at the end of the month Vice Pres. Blaga Dimitrova resigned, claiming that some form of dictatorship was imminent.

      Berov's position was more threatened, however, by growing discontent among the Turkish minority and, therefore, in the MRF. Ethnic Turkish tobacco growers complained bitterly about the level of government-fixed purchase prices. On September 17 the National Assembly annulled the controversial 1992 census results for two areas in southwest Bulgaria that allegedly reported exaggerated numbers of Turkish residents. The MRF protested that the Turks were being denied the right to choose their ethnic identity; there were echoes of the communist regime's attempts in the 1980s to bulgarize the Turkish population.

      The country was much affected by the UN-sponsored embargo on trade with and through the rump Yugoslavia. By midsummer Bulgarians were claiming that their country had lost over $1.3 billion in the first six months of the year, and the country was having difficulties resuming payment of its foreign debt obligations.

      The Berov government had already caused the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concern by announcing that the budget deficit for 1993 would be between 8 and 10%, far above the IMF ceiling for creditworthy states. The IMF also questioned government spending and the slowing pace of economic reform and privatization. By September, in the critical agrarian sector, no more than a quarter of the claims for land restitution had been met, despite government promises that the majority of claims would be settled by the end of the year. In December some 20,000 miners staged a prolonged strike to protest anticipated layoffs caused by the closure of unprofitable mines. After 26 days the government was forced to guarantee back pay to strikers and jobs to those who were laid off.

      August 1993 saw the 50th anniversary of the death of King Boris III. The occasion was marked by the reburial of what was alleged to be his heart in Rila Monastery and by a visit to Bulgaria by his widow, who had left the country in 1946. (RICHARD J. CRAMPTON)

      This updates the article Bulgaria, history of (Bulgaria).

* * *

officially  Republic of Bulgaria , Bulgarian  Republika Bŭlgariya  
Bulgaria, flag of  country occupying the eastern portion of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. Founded in the 7th century, Bulgaria is one of the oldest states on the European continent. It is intersected by historically important routes from northern and eastern Europe to the Mediterranean basin and from western and central Europe to the Middle East. Even before the creation of the Bulgarian state, the empires of ancient Rome, Greece, and Byzantium were a strong presence, and people and goods traveled the land with frequency. Though seemingly antithetical to the emergence of independent Bulgaria, centuries of Ottoman rule were fundamental to Bulgaria's development, and Turkish elements are visible in Bulgarian architecture and folk songs and dances.

      Bulgaria gained its independence in the late 19th century, joined the losing side of several conflagrations in the first half of the 20th century, and, despite gravitating toward the Axis powers in World War II, found itself within close orbit of the Soviet Union by mid-century. This alliance had profound effects on the Bulgarian state and psyche, altering everything from land use and labour practices to religion and the arts. As communist governments fell in eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Bulgaria was suddenly released from the magnetic field of the Soviet giant and drifted into the uneasy terrain of postcommunism. Today its gaze is firmly fixed on the West; Bulgaria became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2004 and of the European Union (EU) in 2007. The members of the EU engage in the bulk of Bulgarian trade.

      Bulgaria formed cultural and political ties to western Europe centuries ago, but its legacy of socialism and its halting steps toward free-market capitalism have kept the relationship somewhat distant. Similarly, Bulgaria has only recently come to good terms with its Balkan neighbours, following a series of joint treaties. In fits and starts, with some success and some failure, Bulgaria has weathered the transition to a post-Soviet world.

      The country is remarkable for its variety of scenery; its rugged mountains and relaxing Black Sea resorts attract many visitors. Like other nations of the Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria claims a mix of Eastern and Western cultures, and the mingling is evident in its cuisine, its architecture, and its religious heritage. Though located in western Bulgaria, the capital, Sofia, is neatly positioned near the geographic centre of the Balkan region, and in nearly every other respect it occupies the central position within Bulgaria. With more than one million inhabitants, Sofia has three times as many people as the next largest cities, Plovdiv and Varna. The Bulgarian writer Yordon Radichkov has placed the capital along the axis of two major transnational routes: 1) the historic man-made Silk Road that connects China and the West, and 2) a major natural path of migrating birds known as the “grand route of Aristotle.” According to Radichkov, “The universal core of Bulgaria is to be found at the crossroads of these two routes.”

      Nearly rectangular in outline, Bulgaria is bounded by Romania to the north, with most of the border marked by the lower Danube River. The Black Sea lies to the east, Turkey and Greece to the south, Macedonia to the southwest, and the federated country of Serbia and Montenegro to the west. The capital city, Sofia, lies in a mountainous basin in the west.

 Within a relatively small compass, the Bulgarian (Bulgaria) landscape exhibits striking topographic variety. Open expanses of lowland alternate with broken mountain country, cut by deep river gorges and harbouring upland basins such as that in which Sofia lies. Three basic structural and physiographic divisions run east-west, splitting the country into the traditional regions of North Bulgaria, including the Danubian Plain and the Balkan Mountains; South Bulgaria, including the Rila-Rhodope Massif; and a transitional area between them.

North Bulgaria
 All but a short section of the northern frontier of Bulgaria is marked by the lower Danube River. The abrupt and often steep banks on the Bulgarian side contrast with the swamps and lagoons of the Romanian side. Extending southward from the Danube to the foothills of the Balkan Mountains is the fertile, hilly Danubian Plain. The average elevation of the region is 584 feet (178 metres), and it covers some 12,200 square miles (31,600 square km). Several rivers cross the plain, flowing northward from the Balkans to join the Danube. The Balkan Mountains border the Danubian Plain on the south. Their rounded summits have an average height of 2,368 feet (722 metres) and rise to 7,795 feet (2,376 metres) at Mount Botev, the highest peak.

Transitional region
      The mountain chain is larger than the adjacent ranges that run parallel in a transitional region of complex relief. Block faulting—the raising or lowering of great structural segments along regular lines of crustal weakness—has produced there the Sredna Mountains, the Vitosha Massif near Sofia, a number of sheltered structural basins, and the Upper Thracian and Tundzha lowlands.

South Bulgaria
      Another mountain mass covers southern Bulgaria. This includes the Rhodope Mountains (Bulgarian: Rodopi; Greek: Rhodopis), which rise to 7,188 feet (2,190 metres) at Golyam Perelik Peak; the Rila Mountains (Rila), rising to 9,596 feet (2,925 metres) at Musala Peak, which is the highest point in the country and indeed in the whole Balkan Peninsula; the Pirin Mountains, with Vikhren Peak reaching 9,560 feet; and a frontier range known as the Belasitsa Mountains. These majestic ranges discharge meltwater from montane snowfields throughout the summer, and their sharp outlines, pine-clad slopes, and, in the Rila and Pirin ranges, several hundred lakes of glacial origin combine to form some of the most beautiful Bulgarian landscapes.

Coastal region
      Trending north-south at the eastern fringe of three principal regions is the narrow Black Sea coastal region. With the exception of the fine harbours of Varna and Burgas, the coast has few bays, but it does have extensive stretches of sandy beach that are features of a number of picturesque seaside resorts.

 Bulgaria has a complex drainage pattern characterized, with the notable exception of the Danube, by relatively short rivers. The major rivers are the Maritsa (Marica) (Maritsa River), Iskŭr (Iskŭr River), Struma (Struma River), Arda (Arda River), Tundzha, and Yantra. Overall, more than half of the runoff drains to the Black Sea, and the rest flows to the Aegean Sea.

      Bulgaria's numerous lakes may be coastal (such as the large lakes around Varna and Burgas, both on the Black Sea), glacial (such as those in the southern mountains), structural, or karst in origin. The country has some 500 mineral springs, half of which are warm or hot (reaching 217 °F [103 °C] at Sapareva Banya, in the west). Numerous dams have been constructed in the mountains.

      The varied Bulgarian natural environment has produced about 20 soil types and subtypes, which may be grouped into three main regions. Northern Bulgaria is characterized by the fertile black-earth soils known as chernozems (Chernozem) and also by gray soils of forest origin. Southern Bulgaria has forest soils with acidic (cinnamonic) traces—by far the most extensive single category—as well as the modified chernozems known as chernozem-smolnitzas (a dark-coloured zonal soil with a deep and rich humus horizon). The rugged high mountain regions have brown forest, dark mountain forest, and mountain meadow soils.

      Most of Bulgaria has a moderate continental climate, which is tempered by Mediterranean influences in the south. The average annual temperature is 51 °F (10.5 °C), but this conceals a wide variation; temperatures as low as −37 °F (−38 °C) and as high as 113 °F (45 °C) have been recorded. Mean annual precipitation ranges from about 18 inches (450 mm) in the northeast to more than 47 inches (1,190 mm) in the highest mountains. The lowlands receive snowfall from mid-October to mid-May, with an annual average of 25–30 days of snow cover. Hailstorms occur between May and August.

Plant and animal life
      The relatively large number of Bulgarian plant and animal species reflects the country's location adjoining several of the great Eurasian biogeographic zones. During the Pleistocene Epoch (1,800,000 to 10,000 years ago), life in the region was not destroyed by advancing glaciers as occurred in much of Europe but was actually enriched by the immigration of species from the north, some of which still survive. Influences from the steppes of western Asia also penetrated the region at that time. Nonetheless, most of the plant and animal life is central European, mixed with a type that blends Arctic and alpine characteristics in the high mountains. Steppe species are most characteristic in the northeast and southeast, while the south is rich in sub-Mediterranean and Mediterranean species.

      Rila National Park is a refuge for local fauna, such as suslik, rock partridges, chamois, capercaillie, chough, accentor, wall creeper, owls, bats, and martens. About one-third of the nesting birds in Bulgaria can be found in the park, as well as one-third of invertebrates. Fish species include the Balkan trout and common minnow.

      The Bulgarian government has introduced a number of conservation measures, including steps to protect soil, water, and air from pollution and to establish protected areas of outstanding interest to naturalists. The Srebarna Nature Reserve, a freshwater lake and bird sanctuary adjoining the Danube River, was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983 and then placed on UNESCO's endangered list in 1992 after environmental decline; improvements were seen in the early 21st century.

People (Bulgaria)

Ethnic groups
 Ethnically, the population is fairly homogeneous, with Bulgarians (Bulgar) making up about 85 percent of the total. Slavic (Slav) tribes who settled in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th century BC assimilated to a large extent the local Thracian culture, which had roots in the 4th century BC, and formed a basic ethnic group. The Bulgars (Bulgar), who established the first Bulgarian state in 681, formed another component. With the gradual obliteration of fragmented Slavic tribes, Bulgars and Slavs coalesced into a unified people who became known as Bulgarians.

      The Turks (Turkic peoples), Bulgaria's largest minority, comprise about one-tenth of the citizenry and live in some regions of the northeast and in the eastern Rhodope Mountains region. Roma (Rom) (Gypsies) are another sizable minority. Macedonians, often tabulated as ethnic Bulgarians, claim minority status. There are a few thousand Armenians, Russians, and Greeks (mostly in the towns), as well as Romanians and Tatars (mostly in the villages).

      The Bulgarian language belongs to the South Slavic group, along with Serbo-Croatian and Slovene; closely related to Bulgarian is Macedonian. A number of dialects remain in common speech. Bulgarian is rendered in the Cyrillic alphabet.

      With the reforms of the 1990s, following the communist period of state-sponsored atheism, full freedom of religion was established. There is no official religion, and the majority of religious Bulgarians are adherents of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Minority religious groups include Muslims, Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and Gregorian Armenians. Within the Protestant minority are Great Commission Christians, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. The Catholic minority are followers of the Bulgarian Catholic Church, which, in contrast to the Roman Catholic church, uses a Byzantine rite in liturgy.

      The variety of religious traditions in Bulgaria can be traced in UNESCO World Heritage sites (World Heritage site), from the Thracian cult tombs of the 3rd and 4th centuries BC near the villages of Sveshtari and Kazanlak to the Horseman of Madara statue near Shumen that symbolizes Bulgaria's conversion to Christianity in the 9th century. The Rila Monastery was founded in the 10th century by St. John of Rila, who was canonized by the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, while the rock-hewn churches of Ivanavo in the northeast date to the 12th century. The Boyana Church, erected outside Sofia in the 10th–19th centuries, features religious artwork of the medieval period.

Settlement patterns
      Bulgarian settlements have been officially classified into more than 250 larger urban areas and 4,000 smaller villages. The latter includes hundreds of small hamlets, clusters of farmsteads, and, deep in the mountains, a handful of historic monasteries. Many Bulgarian towns have roots in the Middle Ages and some even in antiquity, although a large number of modern settlements were created in the communist era of the mid-to-late 20th century. The urban population overtook the rural for the first time in 1969, and by the turn of the 21st century, it comprised about two-thirds of the total population. Despite the pressure of urban population growth, many Bulgarian towns preserve their ancient charm and are rich in cultural monuments; located as they are in remote areas, they offer a slower pace of life than can be found in the cities.

       Sofia, the capital, is the largest city and dominates the economic and cultural life of the country. Plovdiv, another major industrial and cultural centre, is located in the south-central region; it enjoys a scenic location on the Maritsa River and is host to an annual international trade fair. Varna focuses industry, transport, and tourism on the shores of the Black Sea. The nearby seaside resorts of Zlatni Pyassŭtsi (“Golden Sands”) and Albena attract an international tourist trade. Burgas is Bulgaria's largest port on the Black Sea, while Ruse, on the Danube in the north, is the largest river port; there the Friendship Bridge leads to the Romanian city of Giurgiu. Stara Zagora, which lies on the southern flanks of the central Sredna Mountains, is notable for its archaeological and architectural remains.

      Following World War II, Bulgarian villages underwent a transformation from the sleepy, underdeveloped, and poverty-stricken settlements that had typified much of the region for centuries. Almost all of the rural population now live in villages that are supplied with water and electricity and that have paved streets; a majority of the houses are recent constructions that replace older lath-and-plaster buildings. In addition to updated residences, processing plants have been built in many villages, so that rural areas have become increasingly industrialized.

Demographic trends
      As a result of socioeconomic changes after World War II, notably the introduction of free medical care and the improvement of working conditions, Bulgaria's death rate dropped greatly, but it began to rise again in the 1970s as the proportion of older people in the population rose. At the turn of the 21st century the death rate not only was above the world average but also was about one-third greater than the birth rate, which was significantly below the global norm. Though the rate of infant mortality was reduced, Bulgaria had a negative natural-growth rate.

      During World War II the government—in opposition to the demands of Nazi Germany, Bulgaria's wartime ally—saved virtually all of Bulgaria's 50,000 Jews from deportation, but after the war about 48,000 of them emigrated to Israel. A large number of Turks also left the country; 155,000 were expelled in 1949–51 by the communist government, and about 300,000 emigrated in 1989, though almost half of the latter group returned after 1991, with the end of communism. Throughout the 1990s migration was pronounced.

      Internally, the movement of population has been from rural areas to larger towns and cities. In the 50-year period from 1949 to 1999, for example, the population of Sofia doubled; Plovdiv's population increased more than ninefold; and the populations of Varna and that of Ruse rose more than elevenfold.

      Bulgaria's geographic variety is reflected in the distribution of its population. The most densely populated areas are the Danubian Plain, the Upper Thracian Basin, the Burgas Plain, and the intermontane basins of southwestern Bulgaria. Areas of lowest density are the eastern and southeastern parts of the country, such as in the Strandzha and Dobruja regions and the higher mountain areas.

       urbanization continues to have an effect on the demographic structure; a large segment of the urban population is of a young working—and childbearing—age, leading to natural growth of the towns and cities. Because relatively more older adults remain in the villages, the birth rate there continues to be lower and the death rate higher. These effects thus amplify the shift of population from rural areas to urban centres.

      The rapid industrialization of Bulgaria since World War II and the economic transition it underwent with the demise of the communist regime had a profound effect on Bulgarian society. Liberalization of price controls in the early 1990s led to a marked rise in prices. As a result, inflation rose and strikes became more frequent. The growing pains of the private sector and the strict financial discipline required to ease the heavy foreign debt also resulted in periods of high unemployment and decreased social services. Against this backdrop the Bulgarian government pursued economic stability with the assistance of international financial institutions, and with the introduction of the currency board in 1997 and other reforms, inflation was dramatically reduced by the end of the decade.

 Agriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of the national income of Bulgaria. Cereal crops are grown on almost three-fifths of the sown land. Wheat is by far the most important, followed by corn (maize) and barley; rye, oats, soybeans, and rice also are grown. Tobacco, which is of a good-quality Oriental type and is grown mainly in the south, is an especially important industrial crop.

      Sunflower seed is the chief oilseed crop; after extraction of the oil, the pulp is made into cattle feed. Sunflowers, like sugar beets, grow mainly in the north. Bulgaria has become a leading exporter of grapes and tomatoes. There is stock breeding of cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry. The forestry industry claims nearly 4,000,000 hectares (9,900,000 acres) of land.

      A cooperative movement in agriculture developed before World War II. After the war, cooperative farms were established in the fashion of Soviet kolkhozy (kolkhoz) on most arable land. The cooperative and state farms later merged into large state and collective units (collectivization). These were further consolidated in 1970–71 into even larger groupings, called agro-industrial complexes, that took advantage of integrated systems of automation, supply, and marketing.

 In 1990 the government lifted restrictions on private farming, and almost all agricultural land was restored thereafter to private ownership while loans for the establishment of small farms and food-processing facilities were made available.

Resources and power
      Bulgaria is relatively well-endowed with a variety of both metallic and nonmetallic minerals. Geologic exploration has identified about 40 coal basins, which together contain almost 3 billion tons of proven recoverable reserves. Of the reserves, virtually all is lignite. The main mining areas are in the Pernik basin southwest of Sofia, in the Maritsa basin (at two locations: south of Stara Zagora and further southwest, at Dimitrovgrad), and in the northwest at Lom on the Danube. Lignite and brown coal fire the country's thermal power stations and are used as fuel and raw material for many of Bulgaria's industries.

      Although deposits of anthracite and bituminous coal have been almost exhausted in Bulgaria, other deposits of black coking coal have been found in the northeast, in the Dobruja region. One of the largest reserves is near Sofia, at Kremikovtsi, the site of the country's largest metallurgical plant. Smaller quantities of iron ore are mined in the northwest ( Montana [formerly Mikhaylovgrad]), in the central region (Troyan), and in the southeast ( Yambol). There are significant deposits of nonferrous ores (copper, lead, and zinc) in the Rhodope, Balkan, and Sredna mountains.

      Bulgaria is also rich in less-valuable minerals, including rock salt, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, kaolin (china clay), asbestos, and barite. The country has only small deposits of oil and natural gas, though it is hoped that offshore exploration of the Black Sea will reap new deposits. Bulgaria relies on Russia for supplies of natural gas.

      About one-half of Bulgaria's energy is imported. Coal and nuclear power combine about equally to provide nearly nine-tenths of the country's electrical production. The major source of energy within Bulgaria is the Maritsa lignite field, which provides fuel for large thermoelectric plants at Dimitrovgrad and Maritsa-Iztok; there are also thermal power stations at Pernik, Sofia, Plovdiv, and Burgas. Bulgaria's first and only nuclear power station, at Kozloduy, was constructed with Soviet aid and began operation in 1974; two reactors were closed there in 2002.

      Before World War II, Bulgarian industries were of minor importance. Under the socialist system industrialization became one of the principal aims of economic policy, with particular emphasis on basic industries such as electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, and chemicals. Central planning of management, production, and investment channeled a large portion of national resources into industry. The industrial base remained important even after Bulgaria discarded socialism for a market economy at the end of the 20th century.

      Before World War II, shipbuilding at Varna and foundries at Sofia, Plovdiv, Ruse, and Pernik were the most important metallurgical industries. Those developed after the war include iron and steel works at Pernik, utilizing local brown coal and iron ore from the Sofia district; a large steel project at Kremikovtsi; a lead and zinc works at Kŭrdzhali; and a copper and sulfuric acid plant at Pirdop.

      A chemical industry was developed at Dimitrovgrad, and chemical plants were also built at Stara Zagora, Vratsa, Devnya, and Vidin, as well as a petrochemical plant at Burgas. The biotechnology sector is increasingly important in the economy, as is machine building; their relative share of industrial production has jumped dramatically. Machine building and metal processing are widely dispersed throughout the country; the largest plants are located in Sofia, Varna, Ruse, Burgas, and Plovdiv. In general, the production of chemicals and rubber is centred on Sofia, Dimitrovgrad, Varna, Devnya, and Plovdiv.

      Since the 1960s three other industries have had marked regional development: food, beverage, and tobacco processing, textiles, and tourism. While food processing and beverage production are found throughout the country, three main industrial regions may be defined. The first, in the south, includes the towns of Plovdiv, Krichim, Pazardzhik, Asenovgrad, and Pŭrvomay, which primarily specialize in canning and tobacco processing. The second region, in northern Bulgaria (comprising Gorna Oryakhovitsa, Veliko Tŭrnovo, and Lyaskovets), concentrates on canning, sugar refining, and meat processing. A third region, to the northwest ( Pleven, Dolna Mitropoliya, and Cherven Bryag), has become important for flour, paste products, poultry processing, canning, sugar refining, and the processing of vegetable oils.

      Fishing and fish breeding have also become important industries. As the production of wine increased at the end of the 20th century, it became an important export item.

      Before World War II, textile industries were mainly found where the demand for textiles was constant (Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna) or where raw materials were available ( Sliven and Vratsa). Under the communists' five-year plans, large new mills were built at Sofia, Sliven, and Plovdiv, and the total output of textile fabrics rose tremendously.

      Until the reform movement of the late 1980s, the Bulgarian economy was based solely on state ownership (socialism) of all means of production. In the early 1990s Bulgaria began a process of transition toward a market-oriented economy. The government initiated a program of privatized ownership, in addition to freeing prices and restructuring credit, banking, and other monetary institutions. Large-scale privatization of many industries was prevalent by the end of the century, when about three-fifths of the gross domestic product (GDP) was produced by the private sector.

      These reforms enabled Bulgaria to receive financial assistance from Western countries, although they also produced unemployment and inflation. Beginning in 1997 the reform process sped up. By the end of the decade, more than half of the state-owned enterprises had been privatized, and annual inflation, under regulation by a new currency board, had been lowered.

      The national budget continues to finance some capital investments, enterprises under direct central management, and a number of social and cultural institutions (e.g., higher education). It also covers defense and the central government. The state social insurance budget covers expenditure for matters such as employees' pensions, temporary incapacity to work, maternity leave, maintenance of rest homes, and family allowances. Social security and medical care reforms are monitored by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. About one-fourth of the total budgetary expenditure funds social services.

      In the early 1990s the banking system, formerly under the direction of the government, underwent significant reform. Legislation passed in June 1991 ended government direction of the Bulgarian National Bank but retained a measure of bank accountability to the National Assembly. In addition, a new tier of commercial banks and other lending institutions was introduced. In 1997, with the advent of the currency board, the national currency (lev) was tied to the German mark.

      Almost two-thirds of all exports are capital goods, such as machinery and equipment, and one-fourth are consumer goods, mainly of agricultural origin (such as fruit, wine, cigarettes, dairy products, and meat). About two-fifths of all imports are capital goods. The Soviet Union, until its dissolution in the early 1990s, was Bulgaria's main trading partner, but now Bulgarian trade is oriented to the rest of the countries of the European Union (EU).

      Tourism in Bulgaria has grown markedly since the 1960s. Roughly 750,000 annual foreign arrivals were arriving in Bulgaria in 2005. In addition to the popular Black Sea resorts, tourists visit historical centres such as Sofia, Plovdiv, and Rila Monastery and winter sports centres such as Borovets in the Rhodope Mountains. Pirin National Park, which occupies 67,700 acres (27,400 hectares) in the Pirin Mountains, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.

Labour and taxation
      The manufacturing and mining sector employs as many Bulgarians as agriculture does (each employs about one-fifth of the total labour force). Almost one-fourth of the active workforce is employed in trade and services. The percentage of female workers has risen to almost half of the total labour force, and women have greater representation in the service industry.

      Bulgaria has thousands of local trade-union organizations made up of more than 100,000 separate subgroups. Only an insignificant portion of the country's workforce does not belong to a trade union. Until the late 1980s all trade unions belonged to the Central Council of Trade Unions (Tsentralen Sŭvet na Profesionalnite Sŭyuzi), founded in 1944 and allied with the Bulgarian Communist Party. It was reconstituted in 1989 as the Confederation of Independent Bulgarian Trade Unions (S'uz na Nezavisemite B'lgarski Profs'uze).

      The main sources of revenue under the socialist system were the turnover tax (which taxed products at every stage of production and distribution) and deductions made from the profits of public enterprises. The advent of privatization and the harmonization of national legislation with EU standards led to a reform of the tax system and the tax administration, including the introduction of a value-added tax.

Transportation and telecommunications
      The development of the Bulgarian economy has required an expansion of the transportation system. Road transport accounts for a large percentage of all freight carried as well as for most passenger traffic. The European International Highway links Sofia with Istanbul, and the main railway lines connect Sofia with the Black Sea coast. Bulgaria is intersected by major European transportation corridors, such as one from Thessaloníki, Greece, to northern Europe and another linking the Adriatic coast with the Black Sea coast.

      The Danube is used for both internal and international traffic, with Ruse, Svishtov, and Lom the main river ports. The chief seaports are Varna and Burgas on the Black Sea, providing regular international merchant service. Bulgaria has international airports at Sofia, Varna, and Burgas.

      The length of telephone and telegraph trunk lines and the number of radio and television transmitters were in decline by the end of the 1990s, following a mid-decade peak. The use of mobile cellular telephones rose dramatically in the same period, as did the number of Internet users.

Government and society

Constitutional framework
      In July 1991 the National Assembly adopted a new constitution establishing a parliamentary government and guaranteeing direct presidential elections, separation of powers, and freedom of speech, press, conscience, and religion. New laws allowed for the return of the properties that had been confiscated by the previous communist governments. Other laws aimed at meeting EU standards were passed, including those regarding competition, foreign investment, intellectual property rights, and a commercial code.

      Under the terms of the 1991 constitution, Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic, i.e., the prime minister is elected by the majority party (or coalition of parties) in the National Assembly (parliament). The president, who is elected for a five-year term, is the head of state. The president schedules national referenda and elections for the National Assembly, serves diplomatic and other functions, and promulgates and can veto laws.

      According to the constitution, the nation's governing body, the Council of Ministers, is proposed by the president in consultation with the various groups of the National Assembly and with the majority party's candidate for prime minister. Comprising the prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and ministers, the Council of Ministers is charged with coordinating and overseeing the implementation of policies on both domestic and foreign issues in accordance with the constitution and laws of Bulgaria.

      The National Assembly, a unicameral, representative body composed of 240 members, constitutes the legislative branch of the government. It passes and amends laws, ratifies treaties, levies taxes, and retains the power to pass a motion of no confidence in the Council of Ministers or the prime minister, thereby compelling the resignation of the council. Members of the National Assembly serve four-year terms.

Local government
      Township councils embody state power at the local government level. The members of the township councils are elected by the inhabitants of the township to four-year terms. Executive power at the level of local government lies with the elected mayor of a township. Between the township and state levels of government is the oblast, or province, government.

      The court system consists of the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Supreme Administrative Court, local courts, courts of appeal, and military courts. The constitution provides that specialized courts may also be established. At the head of the prosecutorial structure is the prosecutor general.

      The High Judicial Council, consisting of 25 members, appoints judges, prosecutors, and investigators. The members of this council are appointed by the National Assembly and judicial authorities. The Constitutional Court, composed of 12 justices (each of whom serves a nine-year term), is charged with interpreting the constitution and ruling on the legality of measures passed by the National Assembly. The parliament, the president, and the supreme courts each appoint four justices.

Political process
      Prior to the overthrow of the veteran Communist Party leader Todor Zhivkov (Zhivkov, Todor) in November 1989, the ruling party had been the Bulgarian Communist Party (Bŭlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya; BKP), founded in 1891 as the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party. After Zhivkov's fall, the party gave up its guaranteed right to rule, adopted a new manifesto, streamlined its leadership, and changed its name to the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Despite these reforms, the opposition Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) won leadership of the Bulgarian government by a small margin over the BSP in elections held in 1991 and 1997. The National Movement for Simeon II (NDSV), a new party centred on the former king of Bulgaria (but not seeking restoration of the crown), controlled the government from 2001 to 2005, after which a coalition headed by the BSP took power.

      Scores of minor political parties and other organizations, including labour, religious, environmental, and ethnic groups, were created in the early 1990s and each gravitated toward one of the two main parties. Notable among the other political parties was the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, backed mainly by ethnic Turks.

      The president is the commander in chief of the Bulgarian armed forces, whose main defense capabilities lie in a ground force, an air force, and a navy. With the demise of the Warsaw Treaty Organization ( Warsaw Pact) in 1991, Bulgaria assumed responsibility for its own defense policies. A radical military reform program was implemented to meet the requirements for accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The military and the police are under civilian control. The streamlining of the armed forces has resulted in considerable downsizing.

Health and welfare
      Before World War II a rather developed system of welfare and medical insurance existed in the country. With the establishment of the communist regime, social and medical insurance were abolished, medical care was entirely nationalized and offered at no cost, and all social funds were absorbed by the state budget. However, in spite of the highly educated medical personnel, the quality of medical care deteriorated considerably owing to organizational chaos.

      Reforms in medical care and social welfare followed the fall of communism but did not gain momentum until the late 1990s. Free medical care remains, but a wider range of options is now available because of the reintroduction of medical insurance and the return of private medical practice.

      Social welfare laws reestablished funding for social concerns. Separate from, though for a time supported by, the state budget, these funds are governed by a special National Social Insurance Institute. Its moneys derive from social and retirement insurance and health insurance payments from employers, as well as nontax revenues, loans, and additional voluntary payments by the insured. They provide coverage for illness, work-related injuries, maternity compensation, retirement, and death.

      With the establishment of the communist regime after World War II, a vast number of properties, including apartments and houses, were nationalized, though, owing to a strong traditional desire among the population to live in private homes, private ownership of houses was permitted within narrow limits and was often carried out surreptitiously. Rapid urbanization led to a severe and protracted housing shortage.

      After 1990 a widespread restitution returned homes to many people. The restrictions imposed on the right of ownership were abolished, and a large number of renters of state-owned apartments were given the chance to buy them. Individual housing construction was also stimulated. As a result, by the turn of the century, most of the population lived in privately owned homes.

      Primary and secondary education are the responsibility of a hierarchy of educational councils. Higher education is governed by the Ministry of Public Education. Education is free at all levels, and an eight-year elementary program is obligatory for children. Since 1959 general education has included polytechnical subjects and vocational training.

      “St. Clement of Ohrid” University of Sofia (founded in 1888 as the Sofia Higher Institute and named for the 9th-century Christian scholar) is the oldest body of higher learning in Bulgaria and was the only university until 1971, when teacher-training institutes in Plovdiv and Veliko Tŭrnovo were elevated to university status. Among the universities licensed at the end of the century are the American University in Blagoevgrad and the New Bulgarian University in Sofia. There are numerous technical institutes as well as schools for the arts.

Cultural life
      Contemporary Bulgarian culture is a lively blend of millennium-old folk traditions and a more formal culture that played a vital role in the emergence of national consciousness under Ottoman rule and in the development of a modern state.

      Because Bulgaria's population is largely homogeneous, the degree of cultural variation even at the regional level is small. The state encourages cultural development at all levels of society and supports the dissemination of culture, particularly through schools, libraries, museums, publishing, and state radio and television. Bulgaria's numerous theatre troupes, opera companies, and orchestras began fusing together into larger, more competitive units in the 1990s.

Daily life and social customs
      From 1946 until 1990 daily life in Bulgaria was outwardly dominated by the socialist political system. A network of mass organization, controlled by the state and the Communist Party, attempted to penetrate every sphere of private life. The state sought to inculcate a new mode of thinking and manner of action based above all on the need for and benefit of social labour. Beneath the surface, however, daily life long has been dominated by a much older tradition and cultural legacy. For example, the Bulgarian family kept many of its traditional forms of organization. Many households consist of an extended family comprising parents and one of their married sons—usually the youngest—or daughters.

      Under the communist government, religious functions were declared entirely separate from state functions. Indeed, the postwar constitution prohibited the use of religion or religious organizations for political purposes. After 1990 the Bulgarian constitution provided for religious freedom, but in practice this freedom was granted only to mainstream, registered religions. The practice of nonregistered religions was prohibited.

      Bulgarians participate in many festivals, including the International Folklore Festival, held early in August in Burgas; the Varna Summer International Festival, primarily a music festival, held in July; and Sofia Musical Weeks, a springtime celebration of classical music. Historical plays are popular, particularly when staged outdoors in summer against the backdrop of important monuments or buildings associated with events in the country's history. Local festivals provide an opportunity for new musical and literary works to be performed.

      The blossoming of the roses in the Karlovo and Kazanlŭk valleys is celebrated through May and June; the oil-bearing roses are collected for the production of attar of roses, which is exported worldwide.

The arts
      The early impetus of Bulgarian traditions in the arts was cut short by the Ottoman occupation in the 14th century, and many early masterpieces were destroyed. Native artistic life emerged again in Bulgaria during the national revival in the 19th century. Among the most influential works were the secular and realist paintings of Zahari Zograph in the first half of the century and Hristo Tsokev in the second half. At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, Bulgarian painters such as Anton Mitov and the Czech-born Ivan Mrkvichka produced memorable works, many of them depicting the daily life of the Bulgarian people.

      In the early decades of the 20th century, further development of both style and subject matter took place, and the foundations were laid for later artists such as Vladimir Dimitrov, an extremely gifted painter specializing in the rural scenes of his native country; Tsanko Lavrenov, a noted graphic artist and art critic who also painted scenes of old Bulgarian towns; Zlatyo Boyadjiev, noted for his village portraits; and Ilya Petrov, who painted scenes and themes from Bulgarian history. After World War II, Socialist Realism dominated Bulgarian artistic circles. Its influence was seen in the broad historical themes that were adopted by artists in genres ranging from cartoons to still-life paintings and regional landscapes. At the beginning of the 21st century, the best-known contemporary Bulgarian artist was Christo (Christo and Jeanne-Claude), an environmental sculptor known for wrapping famous structures, such as the Pont Neuf in Paris and the Reichstag in Berlin, in fabric and plastic.

      The first performances of Bulgarian classical music date from the 1890s, and the earliest Bulgarian opera, by Emanuil Manolov, was performed in 1900. He, along with other Bulgarian composers, concentrated on solo and choral vocal works. Between World War I and World War II, several symphonies and works for ballet, in addition to choral and opera works, were created by such composers as Lyubomir Pipkov, Petko Stainov, and Pancho Vladigerov. Bulgarian composers in the second half of the 20th century experimented with new tonality in vocal and instrumental music. Recordings and concert tours abroad won much wider audiences for traditional Bulgarian vocal music.

      Opera remains popular, and Bulgaria has produced many world-class performers, including bass singers Boris Christoff and Nikolai Ghiaurov. Pianist Milcho Leviev, saxophonist Yuri Yunakov, and clarinetist Ivo Papazov gained acclaim for their blending of American jazz with traditional Bulgarian folk music. In the 1990s the Bulgarian State Radio and Television Female Vocal Choir achieved international stardom for the recording Le Mystère des voix bulgares, a collection of folk tunes sung a cappella in a style marked by strong dissonances and lack of vibrato.

      The Bulgarian theatre is also a popular source of entertainment. World classics and modern foreign dramas are typically produced, as well as both modern and traditional Bulgarian plays, including those by Ivan Vazov (Vazov, Ivan) and poet Peyo Yavorov (Yavorov, Peyo) (pseudonym of Peyo Kracholov).

      Bulgaria's literary tradition (Bulgarian literature) can be traced to the 9th century, when Saints Cyril and Methodius created an alphabet for Old Bulgarian, which is the basis of the Old Church Slavonic language. They translated most of the Old and New Testament into it and used it to write some original theological treatises. Both the Cyrillic (Cyrillic alphabet) and Glagolitic (Glagolitic alphabet) alphabets were in early use. During Ottoman domination, literature was preserved only in the monasteries and churches. With the national revival in the 19th century, Bulgarian literature flowered once more and was used as a spiritual means of supporting the country's liberation.

      At the end of the 19th century and again in the period between the two world wars, native authors attempted to fit the Bulgarian literary tradition into the European system of standards. Perhaps the most important work during the national revival was Vazov's Pod igoto (1893; Under the Yoke, 1894), which detailed Bulgarian concerns under Ottoman rule and the events of the 1876 uprising. The writings of Vazov, who worked in a multitude of genres, served to define much of the Bulgarian character and influenced generations of Bulgarian writers. These included poets such as Pencho Slaveykov (Slaveykov, Petko Rachev), Yavorov, and Dimcho Debelyanov, as well as such belletrists as Aleko Konstantinov, Yordan Yovkov (Yovkov, Yordan), and Elin Pelin. More recent authors of note include poet Atanas Slavov, Yordan Radichkov, and Blaga Dimitrova, a poet and novelist. (For further discussion see Bulgarian literature.)

      Bulgaria's film industry expanded considerably following World War II, but it nearly collapsed in the mid-1990s. Bulgarian audiences take interest in both domestic and foreign films, and the country's feature and documentary films have been widely exported. Animated cartoons also are popular. Many of the motion pictures are produced at the Cinema Centre near Sofia, and Sofia holds a yearly international film festival.

Cultural institutions
      Bulgaria has some 7,000 libraries. Among its major state libraries are the Cyril and Methodius National Library and the Central Library of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, both in Sofia. There are also a few thousand chitalishtes, cultural centres similar to reading rooms, which are found in even the smallest villages.

      Two of the most notable of the more than 200 museums are in Sofia: the National Archaeological Museum and the National Ethnographical Museum. Other important archaeological museums are found in Plovdiv, Stara Zagora, Burgas, and Varna. The highest research institution in the country, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, is involved in international cooperative projects and has cultural agreements with other European countries.

      Although Bulgarians are avid supporters of film, theatre, and dance, attendance fell off at the end of the 20th century. In the late 1990s Bulgarians produced fewer than 100 films each year, but film audiences were large, averaging close to three million people annually. In that same period the number of theatres with live productions also fell short of 100, but annual theatre attendance was strong, totaling between one and two million visits per year.

Sport and recreation
      In international sports competition, Bulgarians have excelled in tennis, wrestling, boxing, and gymnastics, but the country's greatest repute may be in weight lifting. Through the 1980s Bulgaria produced many world and Olympic champions in the sport, to the credit of coach Ivan Abadjiev, who developed innovative training practices. Several Bulgarian athletes have accomplished the rare feat of lifting more than three times their own body weight. Among them was Bulgarian-born Turkish champion Naim Suleymanoglu (Suleymanoglu, Naim), who up until 1986 competed for Bulgaria.

      Fans of football (football (soccer)) (soccer), the most popular sport in Bulgaria, were buoyed by the success of the national team in the 1994 World Cup, when it advanced to the semifinal match behind the leadership of forward Hristo Stoichkov. The premier league in Bulgaria has 16 teams, of which four play in Sofia: CSKA, Levski, Salvia, and Lokomotiv.

      Bulgarian athletes have considerable facilities at their disposal, including Vasil Levski Stadium, Universiada Hall, Festivalna Hall, and Students' Sports Complex in Sofia and the Palace of Sport and Culture in Varna; many regional centres also have sports complexes for local use. The major sports event in the country is the National Spartakiad, which involves mass participation of teams, clubs, and individuals in athletics (track and field) and other activities. The Committee for Youth, Physical Education, and Sports is the main governmental body charged with sports administration in the country.

Media and publishing
      Broadcasting is the responsibility of the Committee for Television and Radio. In addition to national and regional programs, Bulgarian Radio broadcasts in several languages to foreign countries. Bulgarian National Television produces a variety of programming, including news coverage and documentaries, sports broadcasts, and programs focusing on arts and education or aimed at children and youths or at visiting tourists. Since the end of 1989, mass media, including printed matter, have not been censored, and free media outlets (newspapers, radio stations, and private television channels) have flourished. In a one-year span, from 1999 to 2000, the number of radio and television stations doubled.

Philip Dimitrov Francis William Carter


The Thracians
      Evidence of human habitation in the area of Bulgaria dates from sometime within the Middle Paleolithic Period (100,000 to 40,000 BC). Agricultural communities, though, appeared in the Neolithic Period, and in the Bronze Age the lands were inhabited by Thracian tribes. The Thracians were eventually expelled or absorbed by Greek, Persian, and Roman colonies, but traces of their culture remain in their monuments devoted to horse worship and in the mummer (Bulgarian: kuker) tradition that still survives in southwestern Bulgaria.

      In Roman times Bulgaria was divided between the provinces of Moesia (to the north of the Balkan Mountains) and Thrace (to the south of the Balkans) and was crossed by the main land route from the west to the Middle East. The ruins of Roman towns and settlements are numerous, and extensive sites have been excavated at Plovdiv in the southwest, Varna in the northeast, and other locations. Situated on the Black Sea, the ancient city of Nesebŭr, now a UNESCO World Heritage site, was the Thracian settlement of Mesembria for centuries before it became a Greek colony in the 6th century BC.

The beginnings of modern Bulgaria
Slavic (Slav) invasions
      The story of the modern Bulgarian people begins with the Slavic (Slav) invasions of the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th and 7th centuries AD, a time when Byzantium (Byzantine Empire) was absorbed in prolonged conflict with Persia and could not resist the incursions from the north. Ancient sources refer to two Slavic tribes north of the Danube at this time, the Slavenae and the Antae. Evidence suggests that the Slavenae, to the west, were the ancestors of the Serbs and Croats, while the Antae moved into the regions of Bulgaria, Macedonia, and northern Greece. The Slavic tribes tilled the soil or practiced a pastoral way of life and were organized in patriarchal communities.

Arrival of the Bulgars (Bulgar)
      The name Bulgaria comes from the Bulgars (Bulgar), a people who are still a matter of academic dispute with respect to their origin (Turkic or Indo-European) as well as to their influence on the ethnic mixture and the language of present-day Bulgaria. They are first mentioned under this name in the sources toward the end of the 5th century AD. Living at that time on the steppes to the north of the Black Sea, the Bulgar tribes were composed of skilled, warlike horsemen governed by khans (chiefs) and boyars (nobles).

      The Bulgars were subdued by the Avars (Avar) in the 6th century, but in 635 Khan Kubrat led a successful revolt and organized an independent tribal confederation known as Great Bulgaria. After Kubrat's death in 642, the Bulgars were attacked by the Khazars and dispersed. According to Byzantine sources, the Bulgars split into five groups, each under one of Kubrat's sons. One of these sons, Asparukh (or Isperikh), moved into Bessarabia (between the Dniester and Prut rivers) and then crossed to the south of the Danube, where his people conquered or expelled the Slavic tribes living north of the Balkan Mountains. The Byzantine emperor Constantine IV led an army against the Bulgars but was defeated, and in 681 Byzantium recognized by treaty Bulgar control of the region between the Balkans and the Danube. This is considered to be the starting point of the Bulgarian state.

The first Bulgarian empire
      Asparukh and his successors established their court, which they built of stone, at Pliska, northeast of modern Shumen, and a religious centre at nearby Madara. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Bulgars kept their settlements distinct from those of the Slavs, from whom they accepted tribute. They maintained a mixed pastoral and agricultural economy, although much of their wealth continued to be acquired through warfare. Asparukh's successor, Tervel (701–718), helped to restore Emperor Justinian II to the Byzantine throne and was rewarded with the title “caesar.”

      On the whole, however, relations with Byzantium were hostile, and the 8th century was marked by a long series of raids and larger campaigns in which the Byzantine forces were usually victorious. Bulgaria recovered under Khan Krum (reigned 803–814), who, after annihilating an imperial army, took the skull of Emperor Nicephorus I, lined it with silver, and made it into a drinking cup. Under Krum's successors Bulgaria enjoyed an extended period of peace with Byzantium and expanded its control over Macedonia and parts of what are now Serbia and Croatia.

The spread of Christianity
      Internally, the 8th and 9th centuries saw the gradual assimilation of the Bulgars by the Slavic majority. There are almost no sources that describe this process, but it was certainly facilitated by the spread of Christianity, which provided a new basis for a common culture. Boris I of Bulgaria (852–889) was baptized a Christian in 864, at a time when the conflict between the Roman church and the Eastern church in Constantinople was becoming more open and intense. Although Boris's baptism was into the Eastern church, he subsequently wavered between Rome and Constantinople until the latter was persuaded to grant de facto autonomy to Bulgaria in church affairs.

      The spread of Christianity was facilitated by the work of Saints Cyril and Methodius (Cyril and Methodius, Saints), who had invented an alphabet in which to write the Slavic language (known as Old Church Slavonic (Old Church Slavonic language) or Old Bulgarian) and almost completed the translation of the Bible (most parts of both the Old and the New Testament) into the vernacular of the land. They also developed a Slavonic liturgy in Moravia. When Moravia committed to Rome and expelled the disciples of Cyril and Methodius, many of them resettled in Bulgaria, where they were welcomed by Boris and undertook the translation of church books and the training of priests. St. Clement and St. Naum are credited with preparing more than 3,000 priests, and they established church and educational centres at the new capital Preslav (Veliki Preslav) and on the shores of Lake Ohrid (Ohrid, Lake) (Okhrid) in Macedonia.

      Bulgaria's conversion had a political dimension, for it contributed both to the growth of central authority and to the merging of Bulgars and Slavs into a unified Bulgarian people. Boris adopted Byzantine political conceptions, referring to himself as ruler “by the grace of God,” and the new religion provided justification for suppressing those boyars of Bulgar origin who clung to paganism and the political and social order with which it was linked. In 889 Boris, whose faith apparently was deep and genuine, abdicated to enter a monastery. When his eldest son, Vladimir, fell under the influence of the old boyars and attempted to reestablish paganism, Boris led a coup that overthrew him. After Vladimir was deposed and blinded, Boris convened a council that confirmed Christianity as the religion of the state and moved the administrative capital from Pliska to the Slavic town of Preslav (now known as Veliki Preslav). The council conferred the throne on Boris's third son, Simeon, and Boris retired permanently to monastic life.

Reign of Simeon I
      The reign of Simeon I (893–927) marked the high point of the first medieval Bulgarian state. Educated in Constantinople and imbued with great respect for the arts and Greek culture, Simeon encouraged the building of palaces and churches, the spread of monastic communities, and the translation of Greek books into Slavonic. Preslav (Veliki Preslav) was made into a magnificent capital that observers described as rivaling Constantinople. The artisans of its commercial quarter specialized in ceramics, stone, glass, wood, and metals, and Bulgarian tile work in the “Preslav style” surpassed its contemporary rivals and was eagerly imported by Byzantium and Kievan Rus.

      Simeon was also a gifted military leader. His campaigns extended Bulgaria's borders, but he ultimately dissipated the country's strength in an effort to take Constantinople. When he died he was master of the northern Balkans, including the Serbian lands, and styled himself “Tsar of the Bulgars and Autocrat of the Greeks,” but his country was near exhaustion.

      Under Simeon's successors Bulgaria was beset by internal dissension provoked by the spread of Bogomilism (Bogomil) (a dualist religious sect) and by assaults from Magyars, Pechenegs, the Rus, and Byzantines. The capital city was moved to Ohrid (now Okhrid (Ohrid), Macedonia) by Tsar Samuel after the fall of Preslav in 971. In the campaign of 1014 the Byzantine emperor Basil II won a decisive victory over Samuel, after which he blinded as many as 15,000 prisoners taken in the battle, before releasing them. (For this act he became known as Basil Bulgaroctonus, or Basil, Slayer of the Bulgars.) The shock of seeing his blinded army caused Samuel to die of a heart attack. Bulgaria lost its independence in 1018 and for more than a century and a half, until 1185, remained subject to Byzantium (Byzantine Empire).

The second Bulgarian empire
      With the collapse of the first Bulgarian state, the Bulgarian church fell under the domination of Greek ecclesiastics (Eastern Orthodoxy) who took control of the see of Ohrid and attempted to replace the Bulgarian Slavic liturgy with a Greek liturgy. Bulgarian culture was by this time too deeply rooted to be easily changed, and the Byzantine Empire, beset by the attacks of the Seljuq Turks and the disturbances of the Crusaders, lacked the power to support a more forcible Hellenization.

      In 1185 the brothers Ivan (Ivan Asen I) and Peter Asen of Tŭrnovo (Veliko Tŭrnovo) launched a revolt to throw off Byzantine sovereignty. The Asen brothers defeated the Byzantines and forced Constantinople to recognize Bulgarian independence. Their brother and successor, Kaloyan (reigned 1197–1207), briefly accepted the supremacy of Rome in church affairs and received a royal crown from the pope. But when Baldwin I, first Latin emperor of Constantinople, refused him recognition and declared war on Bulgaria (claiming all its territory by virtue of succession of the Byzantines), Kaloyan had a change of heart. He defeated Baldwin and afterward reverted to Orthodoxy.

      The second Bulgarian empire, with its centre at Tŭrnovo (Veliko Tŭrnovo), reached its height during the reign of Tsar Ivan Asen II (1218–41). Bulgaria was then the leading power in the Balkans, holding sway over Albania, Epirus, Macedonia, and Western Thrace. During this period the first Bulgarian coinage appeared, and in 1235 the head of the Bulgarian church received the title of patriarch.

      The successors of Ivan Asen II, however, could not match his ability. Moreover, Bulgaria was beset by Mongol attacks from the north and by internal upheavals brought on by the growing burdens placed on the peasantry by the powerful nobles. The great peasant revolt of 1277–80 briefly allowed the swineherd Ivaylo to occupy the royal throne at Tŭrnovo until he was defeated with the aid of the Byzantines. The Asen dynasty died out in 1280 and was followed by the houses of Terter and Shishman, neither of which was very successful in restoring central authority.

      The declining state reached its nadir in 1330 when Tsar Mikhail Shishman was defeated and slain by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbuzhd (modern Kyustendil). Bulgaria lost its Macedonian lands to the Serbian empire of Stefan Dušan, which then became the dominant Balkan power for the next four decades. Bulgaria appeared to be on the point of disintegration into feudal states when the invasions of the Ottoman Turks began.

Ottoman rule (Ottoman Empire)
      The Ottoman Turks (Ottoman Empire) first entered the Balkans as mercenaries of Byzantium in the 1340s, and they returned as invaders in their own right during the following decade. Between 1359 and 1362 Sultan Murad I wrested much of Thrace from Byzantine control and captured Adrianople (modern Edirne, Turkey), commanding the route up the Maritsa valley into the heart of the Bulgarian lands. In 1364 the Turks defeated a crusade sent by Pope Urban V (Urban V, Blessed) to regain Adrianople, but not before the Crusaders committed so many atrocities against the Orthodox Christians that many Bulgarians came to regard Turkish rule as preferable to alliance with the Roman Catholic West.

      Although Ivan Shishman, Bulgaria's last medieval tsar, declared himself a vassal of Murad in 1371, the Ottomans continued to seek complete domination. Sofia, in the west, was seized in 1382, and Shumen, in the east, fell in 1388. A year later the defeat of the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo (Kosovo, Battle of) sealed the fate of the entire Balkan Peninsula. In 1393, after a three-month siege, Tŭrnovo was taken and burned. Ivan Shishman allegedly died in Turkish captivity three years later. With the capture of a rump Bulgarian kingdom centred at Bdin ( Vidin) in 1396, the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared.

The “Turkish yoke”
      The five centuries from 1396 to 1878, known as the era of the “Turkish yoke,” are traditionally seen as a period of darkness and suffering. Both national and ecclesiastical independence were lost. The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam and Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters. The “blood tax” took a periodic levy of male children for conversion to Islam and service in the Janissary Corps (Janissary) of the Ottoman army.

      The picture was not entirely negative, however. Once completed, the Turkish conquest included Bulgaria in a “Pax Ottomanica” that was a marked contrast to the preceding centuries of war and conflict. While Ottoman power was growing or at its height, it provided an acceptable way of life for the Bulgarian population. It was only when the empire was in its decline and unable to control the depredations of local officials or maintain reasonable order that the Bulgarians found Ottoman rule unbearable.

      Bulgaria did not change radically in its religious or ethnic composition during the Ottoman period, for the Turks did not attempt forcibly to populate Bulgaria with Turks or to convert all Bulgarians to Islam. With the exception of the people of the Rhodope Mountains who were converted (and thereafter were called Pomaks) and some Catholic communities based in the northwest, the Bulgarian population remained mainly within the Orthodox church. Although Turkish administrators were established in the towns and countryside, Turkish peasants did not settle in Bulgaria in large numbers, and those who did immigrate were concentrated in the southern and eastern parts of the country and in some of the valleys of Macedonia and Thrace. In the 15th and 16th centuries Turkish authorities permitted the immigration of Jewish (Jew) refugees from the Christian West. While the majority were resettled in Constantinople and Salonika (now Thessaloníki, Greece), most Bulgarian towns acquired small Jewish communities in which newcomers mostly from Spain mixed with the already existent Jewish population.

Ottoman administration
      At the time Bulgaria was conquered, the Ottoman Empire was divided into two parts for administrative purposes. Bulgaria was part of the European section, called Rumelia, headed by a beglerbeg (“lord of lords”) who resided in Sofia. As the empire expanded, this system proved inadequate, and in the 16th century it was replaced by territorial divisions called vilayets (provinces), further subdivided into sanjaks (districts). The borders of these units changed many times over the centuries. Bulgarian lands were assigned as fiefs (fief) to Turkish warriors, or spahis (spahi), who could impose taxes and other obligations on the subject population. Fiefs were also given to governors and other officeholders to provide their income, and lands in the form of vakifs—designated for the support of religious, educational, or charitable enterprises—were assigned to specific institutions. The spahi had no right of lordship or justice over the peasants living in his fief, and the Bulgarians frequently retained their traditional village administration and the customs of local law with regard to issues in which Turkish interests were not involved.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire
      The decline of the Ottoman Empire was marked by military defeats at the hands of Christian Europe and by a weakening of central authority. Both of these factors were significant for developments in Bulgaria. As the empire was thrown on the defensive, the Christian powers, first Austria and then Russia, saw the Bulgarian Christians as potential allies. Austrian propaganda helped to provoke an uprising at Tŭrnovo in 1598, and two others occurred in 1686 and 1688 after the Turks were forced to lift the siege of Vienna. Under Catherine II (the Great), Russia began to assert itself as the protector of the Orthodox population of the Ottoman Empire, a claim that the Sublime Porte (as the government of the empire was called) was forced to recognize in the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of) in 1774.

      Of greater significance, however, was the inability of the central government to keep the spahis and local officials under control. During the 17th and 18th centuries the spahis succeeded in converting their fiefs to çiftliks, hereditary estates that could not be regulated by the government. Owners of çiftliks were free to impose higher obligations on the peasantry or to drive them off the land. Turkish refugees from lands liberated by Christian states were frequently resettled on çiftliks in Bulgaria, increasing the pressure on the land and the burden on the peasantry. Occasionally, Turkish refugees formed marauding bands that could not be subdued by central authority and that exacted a heavy toll from their Christian victims.

      One response among the Bulgarians was a strengthening of the haiduk tradition. The haiduks were guerrillas—some would say bandits—who took to the mountains to live by robbing the Turks. Although the haiduks lacked a strong sense of national consciousness, they kept alive a spirit of resistance and gave rise to legends that inspired later revolts.

The national revival
      In the 19th century growing Bulgarian discontent found direction in a movement of national revival that restored Bulgarian national consciousness and prepared the way for independence. The social foundation of this movement arose from the quickening of economic life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and from the influence of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, echoes of which, however faint, were heard among the people. A growing demand for cotton cloth and other products stimulated urban development. Many Bulgarian merchant houses were founded, and artisans in the towns began to form guild organizations (esnafi), which played an important role in sponsoring schools and providing scholarships for young Bulgarians to study abroad.

      The monk Paisiy of the Khilendar Monastery on Mount Athos (Athos, Mount) is recognized as the founder of the national revival. Little is known of his life except that he came from a merchant family in Bansko, a town in southwestern Bulgaria that maintained commercial relations with Vienna. In the 1760s Paisiy used texts preserved on Mount Athos to write his Slaveno-Bulgarian History. It reminded Bulgarians of the greatness of their past empires and called on them to forswear foreign customs and to take pride in their race and use their own language. Sofroniy, bishop of Vratsa, helped to spread Paisiy's influence. In his own writings he stressed the importance of education, without which his people would remain, in his words, “dumb animals.”

Spread of education
      The spread of education was in fact the centrepiece of the Bulgarian national revival. In 1835 Vasil Aprilov founded a Lancasterian school, based on the monitorial system of instruction, in Gabrovo. With the monk Neofit Rilski (Neophyte of Rila) as its teacher, it was the first school to teach in Bulgarian. Its work was facilitated by the appearance of a Bulgarian publishing industry and a small but influential periodical press. By the 1870s the guilds, town and village councils, and wealthy groups and individuals had founded some 2,000 schools in Bulgaria, each providing free education. The schools were supplemented with the chitalishte, or “reading room,” an institution that first appeared in Svishtov in 1856 but soon spread throughout the country. More than just a small library, the chitalishte staged lectures, meetings, plays, concerts, debates, and social events. It was of immense importance for those who did not acquire formal education.

      The influence of American Protestant missionaries in the 19th century, mainly in the western part of the country, led to the establishment in Samokov in 1856 of the American College, which was later enlarged and moved to Sofia. Many of the students at Robert College (founded 1861) in Istanbul, Turkey, were young Bulgarians who, after the liberation from Ottoman rule in 1878, took important political and economic positions in Bulgaria. Additionally, a considerable number of young Bulgarians were sent by their families or by sponsors to study in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Switzerland.

Cultural movement against Greek influence
      The cultivation of Bulgarian national consciousness was initially a cultural rather than a political movement. Consequently, it was directed more against the “cultural yoke” of the Greeks than the “political yoke” of the Ottoman Empire. After the Turkish conquest of the Balkans, the Greek patriarch had become the representative of the Rūm millet, or the “Roman nation,” which comprised all the subject Christian nationalities.

      Considered by some historians as the sui generis Bulgarian reformation, the desire to restore an independent Bulgarian church (Bulgarian Orthodox Church) was a principal goal of the national “awakeners.” Their efforts were rewarded in 1870 when the Sublime Porte issued a decree establishing an autocephalous Bulgarian church, headed by an exarch, with jurisdiction over the 15 dioceses of Bulgaria and Macedonia, in which more than two-thirds of the population defined itself as Bulgarian. Although the Greek patriarch refused to recognize this church and excommunicated its adherents, it became a leading force in Bulgarian life, representing Bulgarian interests at the Sublime Porte and sponsoring the further expansion of Bulgarian churches and schools. After the liberation of 1878, it provided a powerful means of maintaining Bulgarian national feeling in Macedonia.

National revolution
      The inability of the Sublime Porte to maintain order or to carry through its program of reform known as Tanzimat (1839–76), especially when contrasted with Greek and Serbian independence, engendered an explicitly revolutionary movement among the Bulgarians. Inspired by the haiduk tradition, Georgi Rakovski (Rakovski, Georgi Sava) formed a Bulgarian legion on Serbian territory in 1862 to send armed bands to harass the Turks in Bulgaria. In 1866 Lyuben Karavelov (Karavelov, Lyuben Stoychev) and Vasil Levski (Levski, Vasil) created a Bulgarian Secret Central Committee in Bucharest, Romania, to prepare for a national uprising. It dispatched “apostles” into Bulgaria to spread the message among the people. Levski, who worked for a democratic, independent republic, is considered to be the greatest hero of the revolutionary movement. He was captured during one of his organizing missions into Bulgaria and was hanged in Sofia in 1873.

      Against the background of a wider Balkan crisis, the Bulgarian revolutionary committees laid plans for a nationwide uprising in 1876. The April Uprising broke out prematurely on April 20 (May 2, New Style) and was violently put down. The atrocities committed against the civilian population by irregular Turkish forces, including the massacre of 15,000 Bulgarians near Plovdiv, increased the Bulgarian desire for independence. They also outraged public opinion in Europe, where they became known as the Bulgarian Horrors. A conference of European statesmen proposed a series of reforms, but when the sultan refused to implement them Russia declared war. In the ensuing campaign Bulgarian volunteer forces fought alongside the Russian army, earning particular distinction in the epic battle for the Shipka Pass.

Treaty of San Stefano (San Stefano, Treaty of)
      Advancing to the outskirts of Constantinople, the Russians dictated the Treaty of San Stefano (San Stefano, Treaty of), which called for a large independent Bulgaria within the territory of the exarchate, stretching from the Danube River to the Aegean Sea and from the Vardar and Morava valleys to the Black Sea. The boundaries stated in the treaty, signed on February 19 (March 3), 1878, represented the fulfillment of Bulgaria's territorial aspirations and remained for generations the national ideal of the people. But the creation of a large Bulgaria, perceived as an outpost of Russian influence in the Balkans, was intolerable to Austria-Hungary and Britain, and they forced a revision of the Treaty of San Stefano a few months later at the Congress of Berlin (Berlin, Congress of).

      The new Treaty of Berlin (Berlin, Congress of), signed July 1 (July 13), 1878, created a much smaller Bulgarian principality, autonomous but under the sovereignty of the Sublime Porte, in the territory between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains and the region of Sofia, which soon became capital. To the south, the treaty created the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia, subject to the sultan but with a Christian governor. Macedonia was returned entirely to the Ottoman Empire. The treaty also stipulated that Bulgaria would elect an assembly of notables to meet at Tŭrnovo to prepare a constitution and to choose a prince who would be confirmed by the powers.

      The liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish rule also functioned as a land reform, for Russian occupation authorities and subsequent Bulgarian governments confiscated the Turkish estates and sold them in small parcels to the peasantry. Bulgaria began its independence as a nation of smallholders with one of the most egalitarian land distributions in Europe.

The principality
      By the time the constituent assembly convened in Tŭrnovo in February 1879, conservative and liberal political tendencies had emerged and rapidly coalesced into parties. The Liberal Party, under Dragan Tsankov, Petko Karavelov (the brother of Lyuben Karavelov), and Petko Slaveikov, dominated the assembly and created a constitution that was one of the most democratic in Europe. It provided for a single National Assembly elected by universal male suffrage, guarantees of civil rights, and strict limits on the power of the prince.

Political divisions under Alexander of Battenberg
      The democratic character of the constitution was at variance with the views of Bulgaria's first prince, Alexander I of Battenberg (Alexander I) (of both Austrian and Russian ancestry), and with those of the Russian advisers who played a large role in his court. The prince first formed a Conservative ministry, but he was forced by popular agitation to form a Liberal government under Tsankov. Tsankov's government undertook the construction of judicial and state apparatuses and put an end to the depredations of brigands who had remained active in the mountains after the war.

      In Prince Alexander's estimation, however, the Liberals showed insufficient respect for the institution of monarchy. Moreover, Russia was concerned that the Liberals were starting to follow the same pro-Western tendencies as the Conservatives. As a result, Alexander dismissed the Liberal government in favour of a pro-Russian one led by General Casimir Erenroth, a Finn in Russian service, who had earlier been charged with setting up the Bulgarian army. Erenroth used rigged elections to select the Grand National Assembly, which agreed in 1881 to suspend the constitution and invest the prince with absolute power for seven years.

      A period of dictatorship followed under the Russian generals Leonid N. Sobolev and Alexander V. Kaulbars. Prince Alexander, however, soon found his Russian allies harder to deal with than their Liberal predecessors. The popular sentiment against the Russian generals was growing too. In September 1883 Alexander compromised with his opponents, dismissed the Russians, restored the constitution, and accepted a Conservative-Liberal coalition government, but the coalition was soon supplanted by an entirely Liberal government under Petko Karavelov.

      Meanwhile, popular sentiment for unification with Bulgaria had been growing in Eastern Rumelia, and the restoration of the constitution provided the Eastern Rumelians with the stimulus to prepare for a seizure of power in Plovdiv. In September 1885, with the prior approval of Prince Alexander, they staged a bloodless coup d'état and declared the unification of the two states. Turkey did not resist, but Russia, incensed by such independence of action in its diplomatic sphere of influence, refused to approve, and Tsar Alexander III ordered the withdrawal of all Russian officers and advisers in the Bulgarian army.

      In these circumstances, King Milan (Milan IV (or II)) of Serbia, stating that the balance of power in the Balkans was endangered by Bulgarian unification, suddenly declared war (Serbo-Bulgarian War). The Serbs advanced as far as Slivnitsa, where they were met and defeated by the untrained Bulgarian army under Prince Alexander's command. Bulgarian forces pursued the Serbs across the frontier but were stopped by the threat of Austrian intervention. Peace and the status quo were restored by the Treaty of Bucharest (February 19 [March 3], 1886) and the convention of Tophane (March 24 [April 5], 1886). Prince Alexander was appointed governor-general of Eastern Rumelia, and the Eastern Rumelian administrative and military forces were merged with those of Bulgaria.

      Prince Alexander had little time to enjoy the fruits of his popular triumph. On August 9 (August 21), 1886, a group of Russophile conspirators and military officers whom Alexander had passed over for promotion seized the prince in his palace, forced him to sign a statement of abdication, transported him out of the country, and handed him over to the Russians at the Danube port of Reni. The conspiracy was countered, however, by Stefan Stambolov (Stambolov, Stefan Nikolov), president of the National Assembly, and by Lieutenant Colonel Sava Mutkurov, commander of the Plovdiv garrison, who took control of Sofia and recalled the prince. Alexander was not detained by the Russians, but he declared he would not remain in Bulgaria without Russian approval. When the tsar refused to give it, Alexander abdicated on August 26 (September 7), appointing a regency composed of Stambolov, Mutkurov, and Petko Karavelov.

      The regency was successful in preserving order but had great difficulty in finding a new prince, for few wished to assume the throne in the face of Russian hostility. A willing candidate was at last found in the person of 26-year-old Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, a grandson of Louis-Philippe of France, who was then serving as an officer in the Austrian army. Ferdinand was elected prince by the Grand National Assembly in July 1887.

      Because Russia declared Ferdinand a usurper, Europe withheld recognition, the bishops of the Holy Synod would not pay him homage, and conspiracies flourished. However, Stambolov, as prime minister from 1887 to 1894, ruthlessly suppressed all opposition. Recognized as one of Europe's “strongmen,” he stabilized Bulgaria's international position, but his methods, which amounted to a virtual dictatorship, alienated much of the population. In 1894 Ferdinand unexpectedly made use of his constitutional right to dismiss Stambolov and replaced him with a government headed by a Conservative, Konstantin Stoilov. A year later the former prime minister was murdered in the street in Sofia.

      The change of course in Sofia and the death of Tsar Alexander III facilitated a reconciliation between Bulgaria and Russia. Ferdinand gained international recognition as prince, and in 1896 Tsar Nicholas II became the godfather of Ferdinand's first son when he was baptized into the Orthodox faith.

Bulgaria at the end of the century
      The first two decades following the reestablishment of the Bulgarian state were dominated by efforts at modernization in political, economic, and cultural spheres. The governments of Karavelov (1883–85), Stambolov (1887–94), and Stoilov worked to bring the country closer to Europe. As prince and later as tsar, Ferdinand also played an important role.

      Sofia and other cities were modernized, railways were built, trade with European countries (especially Austria-Hungary and Germany) was rapidly developed, and laws encouraging local industry were passed. Special emphasis was put on education, and, by the turn of the century, illiteracy had practically vanished. The University of Sofia (1888) was opened, and large numbers of young Bulgarians were finding ways to study abroad, bringing back European culture and ideas. In the political sphere, parliamentary traditions were established mainly after the fashion of France and Belgium. Full reception of the continental legal system was effected in the late 1880s and the 1890s, combining institutions from the Roman (French and Italian) and the Pandect (German) legislative systems.

      This modernization exacerbated the social differences in a society that was used to being more egalitarian. The desire for reunification with the Bulgarian lands of the exarchate allowed for increases in military expenditures, which led to rising taxes. Internally, there was criticism of this growing bureaucracy and bouts of government corruption. Moreover, the shrinking of the Turkish market and the decline in world grain prices added to the economic problems of rural regions.

      Following the restitution of Eastern Rumelia, differences arose among both the Conservatives and the Liberals, and new political parties were formed. In the 1890s two new leftist parties were created—the Social Democratic Party and the Agrarian Union (Bulgarian Agrarian National Union). While the first, led by schoolteacher Dimituv Blagoev, echoed to a great extent the spreading of socialist ideas in Europe and Russia (Blagoev himself had studied in Russia), the Agrarian Union was somewhat unique. Established in 1899, it gained popularity among peasants as well as educated people who maintained their roots in rural life. Its popularity was largely due to the charismatic leadership of Alexsandur Stamboliyski (Stamboliyski, Aleksandŭr).

Foreign policy under Ferdinand
      The period from Stambolov's fall in 1894 to World War I is known as the era of Ferdinand's “personal regime.” By encouraging the fragmentation of the political parties and by skillfully using his powers of patronage to manipulate the party chiefs, Ferdinand became the dominant political figure in the country. In 1908, in conjunction with the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, he proclaimed the de jure independence of Bulgaria from the Sublime Porte and assumed the title of tsar. Three years later a Grand National Assembly amended the constitution to give him this title officially and to grant him the right to conclude treaties with foreign states without the consent of the National Assembly.

      Macedonia constituted the principal objective of Ferdinand's diplomacy. On July 20 (August 2), 1903, the Macedonian revolt—known as the Ilinden (St. Elijah's Day) Uprising—was brutally suppressed, focusing attention yet again on the problems of Turkish misrule in Macedonia. In 1908 the revolution of the Young Turks led Balkan statesmen to believe that the time was fast approaching when Macedonia could be wrested from the empire. Greece (Greece, history of) and Serbia, however, laid claim to portions of Macedonia that Bulgarians regarded as rightfully theirs. It was the great mistake of Bulgarian diplomacy to organize a war against the Ottoman Empire without first clearly resolving these competing claims.

 In March 1911, against the background of increasing unrest in Macedonia, Ferdinand appointed a new government under Ivan Geshov (Geshov, Ivan Evstatiev) to begin negotiations for an anti-Turkish alliance. In May 1912 Bulgaria signed a treaty with Serbia providing for military cooperation but leaving a large section of Macedonia as a contested zone, the fate of which would be determined after the war. A quickly made agreement with Greece also made no provision for the future distribution of territory. An arrangement between Greece and Serbia and verbal agreements with Montenegro completed the formation of the Balkan League. Montenegro declared war (Balkan Wars) on the Ottoman Empire on September 25 (October 8), and the other Balkan states soon entered the conflict.

      The successes of the Balkan League exceeded expectations. Bulgarian forces won major victories at Lozengrad (now Kırklareli) and Lüleburgaz and laid siege to Adrianople (now Edirne) and the Çatalca line of fortifications defending Constantinople, while the Greeks took Salonika (now Thessaloníki), and Serbian troops won a series of battles in Macedonia. Turkey asked for an armistice, but Ferdinand insisted that the army attempt to capture Constantinople. When the assault on the Çatalca line failed, leaving the Bulgarian army in a weakened state, the tsar agreed to the armistice, and peace negotiations began in London.

      On May 17 (May 30), 1913, Turkey signed the Treaty of London, conceding all but a small strip of its European territory. But it proved impossible to divide the territory peacefully among the victors. Serbia and Greece insisted on retaining most of the Macedonian territory they had occupied, and Romania demanded compensation for its neutrality. When Geshov was not able to negotiate a compromise, he resigned in favour of Stoyan Danev, who reflected the tsar's desire for a military solution. On the night of June 16–17 (June 29–30) Bulgarian forces began the Second Balkan War by launching a surprise assault on Greek and Serbian positions in Macedonia. As the Bulgarian attack was being repulsed, Romanian troops began an uncontested march toward Sofia from the north, and Turkey reoccupied the fortress of Adrianople.

      By the Treaty of Bucharest, signed on July 28 (August 10), 1913, Romania took the rich lands of the southern Dobruja and the city of Silistra, while Serbia and Greece divided the larger part of Macedonia between them. From its gains in the First Balkan War, Bulgaria retained only a small part of eastern Macedonia, the Pirin region, and a portion of eastern Thrace. This was poor compensation for the loss of the southern Dobruja and of the Bulgarian exarchate in Macedonia. Consequently, the desire to win back what had been lost was the main motivating factor in Bulgaria's diplomacy when World War I began.

      When World War I began, Bulgaria declared strict neutrality, but the tsar and a Germanophile government under Vasil Radoslavov encouraged both sides to bid for Bulgarian intervention. In this contest, the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary and the German empire) could offer far more at the expense of Serbia, Greece, and, later, Romania, than could the Triple Entente (an alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia), which had to take the interests of its smaller allies into account. During the summer of 1915, when the military balance swung in Germany's favour, Bulgaria committed to the Central Powers and declared war on Serbia on October 1 (October 14). Some of the neutralist and pro-Entente political figures objected, but none went as far as the Agrarian leader Stamboliyski, who threatened the tsar and issued a call for the troops to resist mobilization. For these acts he was arrested and condemned to life imprisonment.

      By the autumn of 1918, approximately 900,000 Bulgarian men, nearly 40 percent of the male population, had been conscripted. The army suffered 300,000 casualties, including 100,000 killed, the most severe per capita losses of any country involved in the war. In the interior, bad weather and the absence of adult male labour cut grain production nearly in half, while those in the towns suffered from shortages of food and fuel and from runaway inflation. “Women's riots” for food began early in 1917 and continued to the end of the war. The revolutions in Russia and the hopes inspired by American intervention in the war and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points peace plan further contributed to the breakdown of civilian order and military discipline. In June 1918 the replacement of the pro-German Radoslavov by Alexander Malinov, a leader of the parliamentary opposition, raised hopes for an end to the war, but instead frustration increased as Malinov yielded to Tsar Ferdinand's determination to fight on.

      On September 15, 1918 (New Style), the Allied forces on the Macedonian front broke through the Bulgarian lines at Dobropole. The army dissolved, as many of the troops deserted to return home, and others began a march on Sofia to punish the tsar and party leaders responsible for the war. Ferdinand turned to Stamboliyski, releasing the Agrarian leader from prison in return for his promise to use his influence to restore order among the troops. Stamboliyski, however, joined the uprising and, at the village of Radomir, where rebel troops were encamped, proclaimed Bulgaria a republic. The Radomir Rebellion was short-lived, as the Agrarian-led assault on Sofia was repulsed by German and Macedonian forces that remained loyal to the tsar. But this provided only a temporary respite. The Bulgarian government asked the Allies for an armistice, which was signed on September 29. Four days later Tsar Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his son Boris III and left the country.

      Bulgaria was punished for its part in World War I by the Treaty of Neuilly (Neuilly, Treaty of), which assigned the southern portion of the Dobruja region to Romania, a strip of western territory including Tsaribrod and Strumitsa to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (subsequently called Yugoslavia), and the Aegean territories gained in the Balkan Wars to the Allies, who turned them over to Greece at the Conference of San Remo (San Remo, Conference of) in 1920. Bulgaria also was disarmed and subjected to a heavy burden of reparations.

Postwar politics and government
      Defeat and the hardships of war broke the hold of Bulgaria's traditional parties on the government. In the first two postwar elections the Agrarians, communists (communism), and socialists (socialism) together polled first 59 percent and then 65 percent of the ballots. These parties were not united, however, and a communist-led general strike in the winter of 1919–20 was ruthlessly put down by Stamboliyski, who became prime minister first in coalition with smaller conservative parties and then as head of an all-Agrarian cabinet.

Programs of the Agrarian Union
      The years from 1920 to 1923 represented a remarkable period in which the Agrarian Union (Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) sought to translate into reality the beliefs and ideas developed in its years in opposition. The Agrarian government introduced a progressive income tax and a land reform directed against the country's few large estates and against absentee ownership, sponsored the spread of cooperative organizations in agriculture and other branches of the economy, and undertook a massive expansion of the school system, providing for, among other things, free, obligatory secondary education. The Agrarians also introduced the practice of obligatory labour service, by which all young men were required to contribute a year's labour on state projects in lieu of military conscription. The Agrarian government, however, exhibited authoritarian characteristics, which disturbed the majority of the nation.

Stamboliyski (Stamboliyski, Aleksandŭr)'s foreign policy
      Stamboliyski abandoned the traditional Bulgarian goal of territorial expansion, which had required huge military budgets, maintaining a standing army and professional officer corps, and the patronage of the great powers. His policy aimed, above all, to cultivate good relations with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes by accepting the status quo in Macedonia.

      Stamboliyski's policies alienated the old political leaders, the Military League (comprising active and reserve officers), and Tsar Boris's court. The rightist parties united in the National Alliance (later called Democratic Alliance) and planned to march on Sofia to wrest control of the country. On the left, the communists viewed the Agrarian government as their principal opponent. But the most dangerous enemies were the Military League and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). IMRO established effective control over the Pirin region and launched terrorist attacks across the border into Yugoslav and Greek Macedonia. It also assassinated several Agrarian leaders. Unable to rely on the Bulgarian military against the Macedonian terrorists, Stamboliyski turned to Yugoslavia (as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was soon to be known); by signing the Treaty of Niš, he permitted Yugoslav forces to pursue the Macedonian guerrilla bands into Bulgarian territory.

      This treaty, the pressures of dictatorial rule, and an overwhelming Agrarian election victory in early 1923 led Stamboliyski's opponents to plan a coup d'état. It was organized by the Military League, IMRO, and the old parties, and it probably had the support of Tsar Boris III. When the coup was launched on the night of June 8–9, 1923, it took the Agrarian government by surprise. Stamboliyski was captured a few days later and brutally murdered, and a right-wing government under Aleksandur Tsankov (Tsankov, Aleksandŭr) took over.

Communist uprising
      The Bulgarian communists, who had declared their neutrality when the coup occurred, were chastised by Moscow and directed to prepare an armed revolt against the Tsankov regime. The communists' September Uprising was ruthlessly suppressed and provided Tsankov with a pretext for outlawing the Communist Party before the elections in November 1923.

      The communists struck back in 1925 with a series of terrorist acts, culminating in an attempt to assassinate the tsar and leaders of the government by blowing up Sofia's Sveta Nedelya Cathedral during services. Although 123 people were killed and hundreds more wounded, the main targets escaped, and the government exacted brutal reprisals.

      In the wake of the defeats suffered in 1923 and 1925, the communist leaders escaped abroad, finding positions in the Soviet Union or the Comintern (International, Third) (Communist International). One of them, Georgi Dimitrov (Dimitrov, Georgi Mikhailovich), achieved international fame as the chief defendant in the Reichstag fire trial of 1933. Following Dimitrov's acquittal, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had him appointed secretary-general of the Comintern, a position he held until that body was dissolved in 1943.

Attempts to stabilize government
      After 1925 Bulgarian political life began a slow recovery. In January 1926 Tsankov yielded the premiership to the more moderate Andrei Liapchev (Liapchev, Andrei). A gradual and qualified return to a free press and parliamentary politics marked his five-year tenure, although terrorist acts by IMRO continued and soured Bulgaria's relations with Yugoslavia and Greece. In 1931 a reconstituted opposition called the Popular Bloc, a coalition that included the moderate wing of the Agrarian Union, defeated the Democratic Alliance.

      Coming to power during the Great Depression, the Popular Bloc government was unable to alleviate the dire economic situation and stem a rising tide of labour unrest. On the night of May 18–19, 1934, the Military League carried out a peaceful coup d'état that installed as prime minister Kimon Georgiev, a participant in the 1923 coup. Similar to Italian fascism, the ideology of the new regime was supplied by an elitist group called Zveno (Zveno Group) (“A Link in a Chain”), which drew its membership from intellectual, commercial, and military circles. Zveno advocated “national restoration” through an authoritarian, nonpartisan regime. The “divisive forces” associated with parliamentary politics were eliminated by the suspension of the constitution and the suppression of all political parties. A new assembly was created, composed of individuals without party affiliation and elected from approved government lists.

      The new regime was able to suppress IMRO and restore the government's authority over Pirin Macedonia, but its political base was too narrow to allow it to consolidate power firmly. The real beneficiary of the 1934 coup was Tsar Boris III. By the end of 1935, he had filled the power vacuum. He used his own clique in the army to unseat and jail Georgiev, purged the Military League, and, by 1939, installed a subservient government under Georgi K'oseivanov. The relative weight of parliament was considerably diminished, and the government approximated a royal-military dictatorship, the form of government that had become nearly universal in eastern Europe.

Boris's alliance with Germany
      After World War II began, Bulgaria proclaimed neutrality. Tsar Boris, however, appointed a new government under a notorious Germanophile, Bogdan Filov, and moved steadily closer to the German orbit, particularly after Germany and the Soviet Union, then allied by the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, forced Romania to restore the southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in August 1940. The desire for territorial expansion at the expense of Yugoslavia and Greece and the expectation of a German victory led Boris to join the Axis (Axis Powers) on March 1, 1941. German troops used Bulgaria as a base from which to attack Yugoslavia and Greece, and in return Bulgarian forces were permitted to occupy Greek Thrace, Yugoslav Macedonia, and part of Serbia.

      After the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Japanese attack on the United States, Bulgaria yielded to German pressure to declare war on Great Britain and the United States, a move of only symbolic importance, but Tsar Boris avoided joining the war against the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), fearing that this would lead to popular unrest. Bulgaria did not send troops to the front and was relatively untouched by military operations until the summer of 1943, when Allied bombers began to attack rail and industrial centres.

Defending Bulgarian Jews
      In 1941 anti-Semitic (anti-Semitism) legislation was enacted in Bulgaria under German pressure to adopt something akin to the Nürnberg Laws. However, the legislation met with a wave of protest and was never strictly implemented. In early 1943 the government complied with German requests to secretly deport (Holocaust) non-Bulgarian Jews from occupied territories that had not been incorporated into Bulgaria to the concentration camp at Treblinka (in Poland). The clandestine deportation of Jews from Bulgaria was also scheduled, for March 1943, but Dimitar Peshev, deputy speaker of the National Assembly, managed to force the government to cancel it. Forty-three members of the majority backed a resolution in parliament in defense of Bulgarian Jews, a move supported by many from across the social strata. In late May, in spite of Nazi pressure, Tsar Boris canceled the deportation orders for Bulgaria's Jews.

Bulgarian resistance to the Axis alliance
      Some attempts at forming a resistance were made by Agrarian leaders when Bulgaria joined the Axis. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union, however, the Bulgarian Communist Party took the initiative inside the country. Until the final stage of the war, resistance tactics emphasized sabotage and small-group operations. About 10,000 persons are estimated to have participated in or supported the resistance, making it the largest such movement among Germany's allies. Politically, the communists sought the cooperation of other opposition groups, and in August 1943 the Fatherland Front was formed, composed of communists, left-wing Agrarians, Zveno, socialists, and some independent political figures. The front's influence grew as the military situation of Germany deteriorated.

      Many Bulgarians expected Tsar Boris to break with the German alliance when circumstances permitted. On August 28, 1943, however, just after a stormy encounter with Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden, Germany, the tsar suffered a fatal heart attack. Because his son and heir, Simeon II (Saxecoburggotski, Simeon), was only six years old, Filov established a regency council headed by himself and appointed a new government under Dobri Bozhilov, which remained loyal to the German alliance. In May 1944, faced with the continuing German collapse and stern Allied threats that Germany's allies would be severely punished, Bozhilov resigned.

      He was replaced by the right-wing Agrarian Ivan Bagrianov, who began secret negotiations for surrender with the Allies but at a snail's pace. At the end of August, the sudden surrender of Romania, which brought Soviet troops to the Danube months before they had been expected, created panic in Sofia. When Bagrianov's attempt to proclaim Bulgarian neutrality was rejected as insufficient by both Britain and the Soviet Union, the prime minister resigned and was replaced by Kosta Muraviev of the Agrarian Union on September 2, 1944.

      Three days later, aware that the new government was preparing to break with Germany, the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and entered the country unopposed. Simultaneously, the Fatherland Front began preparations for a coup d'état. On September 8 Muraviev declared war against Germany; nonetheless military forces organized by Zveno occupied key points in Sofia and toppled Muraviev's government in the name of the Fatherland Front. Kimon Georgiev of Zveno became the new prime minister and sought an immediate armistice with the Soviet command.

The early communist era
Consolidation of power
      The consolidation of communist power in Bulgaria was carried out by 1948, coinciding with the completion of the peace treaty with the Allies and the presence of Soviet occupation forces. In the coalition Fatherland Front government, the communists had control of the interior and judicial ministries, which were crucial in setting up the new state.

      Exploiting the popular feeling that those who were responsible for Bulgaria's involvement in the war should be punished, the regime established “people's courts” to prosecute the political leaders of the wartime period. The first mass trial (December 20, 1944–February 1, 1945) resulted in death sentences for more than 100 top officials. By the time sentencing was completed in April 1945, the courts had tried 11,122 people, of whom 2,730 were condemned to death, 1,305 to life imprisonment, and 5,119 to terms of up to 20 years. (Unofficial estimates suggested that as many as 30,000 political opponents, including anti-Nazi activists, were killed without trial.) When the army returned following the German surrender, the regime also purged the officer corps.

      On November 4, 1945, Georgi Dimitrov (Dimitrov, Georgi Mikhailovich) returned to Bulgaria after 22 years of exile and became prime minister. Given the Communist Party's control of the instruments of power, the hopes of the noncommunist opposition rested on the Western democracies. Indeed, during the summer of 1945 the regime postponed parliamentary elections after Great Britain and the United States protested the undemocratic character of the proposed electoral laws. Bulgaria, however, was not a high priority on the diplomatic agenda of the West. As early as October 1944 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had shown his willingness to consign the country to Soviet control during his “percentages discussion” with the Soviet premier Joseph Stalin (Stalin, Joseph).

      Bulgarian communists and their Soviet sponsors moved more forcefully to eliminate the internal opposition. Elections held in November 1945 returned a substantial majority of communists and their allies. In September 1946 a referendum decided by a 93 percent majority proclaimed Bulgaria a republic, and Tsar Simeon II and the queen mother were required to leave the country. Elections for a Grand National Assembly to prepare a new constitution were held on October 27, 1946. The noncommunist opposition polled more than one million votes, or 28 percent of the total. When the assembly opened in November, the Agrarian leader, Nikola Petkov, emerged as the opposition's principal spokesman. However, he was charged with plotting to overthrow the government and was expelled from parliament along with most of his associates. In June 1947 Petkov was arrested, and on September 23 he was executed. One week later the United States extended diplomatic recognition to the new regime; Great Britain had already done so in February.

      The defeat of the political opposition coincided with the elimination of pluralism in Bulgarian society. This was accelerated after the founding congress of the Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) in September 1947 in Poland, where Andrey A. Zhdanov (Zhdanov, Andrey Aleksandrovich) delivered the message that Stalin desired a more rapid transformation of the socialist camp along Soviet lines.

      In Bulgaria this resulted in increased pressure on the remaining noncommunist parties. The Socialist Party was formally absorbed by the Bulgarian Communist Party in August 1948, and socialists who remained in opposition were crushed by police repression. The Agrarian leader, Georgi Traikov, repudiated his party's traditional ideology and defined a new role for it as the helpmate or “little brother” of the Bulgarian Communist Party in the countryside. By 1949 Zveno and the remaining smaller parties announced their “self-liquidation” and dissolved into the Fatherland Front, which in turn was converted into a broad “patriotic” organization under communist control.

      In the Grand National Assembly, a team of Soviet jurists assisted in the preparation of the “Dimitrov Constitution,” enacted on December 4, 1947. Modeled closely on the Soviet constitution of 1936, it provided a legal foundation for the reconstruction of the state on communist principles.

Reforms under the Fatherland Front
      The Fatherland Front regime had launched an assault on private property almost immediately after the coup of September 9, 1944, employing a variety of legislative measures aimed at confiscating the wealth of “fascists” or “speculators.”

      The Dimitrov Constitution provided for even larger measures of nationalization. All large-scale industries, banks, and insurance companies were nationalized, and government monopolies were established over retail trade. By the end of 1948, approximately 85 percent of industrial production was in the hands of the state, with another 7 percent carried on by cooperative organizations. The party also created the General Workers' Trade Union, gradually forcing all workers' organizations into it. Similarly, the youth organizations of the various parties were incorporated into the Dimitrov Communist Youth League.

      Exarch Stefan, head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, sought to adapt to the new political regime, but he resisted the efforts of the Bulgarian Communist Party to control church affairs directly. In September 1948 he resigned his office under mysterious circumstances and retired to a monastery. His successor offered no resistance to legislation adopted in March 1949 that subjected all religious orders to state supervision. At the same time, 15 pastors from evangelical Protestant churches were arrested, tried, and executed for espionage and other alleged crimes. Soon afterward a number of Bulgarian Catholic clergy were tried for spying for the Vatican and for disseminating anticommunist propaganda. Among the executed was Bishop Evgeny Bosilkov, beatified by the Vatican in 1998.

      The nearly 50,000 Bulgarian Jews who survived the war were encouraged to emigrate to Israel. The regime also attempted to deport ethnic Turks and Roma (Gypsies), causing the Turkish government to seal the border.

Stalinism and de-Stalinization
      Traicho Kostov, who had been particularly instrumental in supervising the destruction of the opposition, was accused of treason and of collaborating with Yugoslavia's communist leader Josip Broz Tito against Stalinism. Kostov's execution in December 1949 was followed by the purge of thousands of “Kostovites” and others alleged to be criminals and spies.

      Dimitrov died in office in July 1949 and was succeeded by Vasil Kolarov, who died in early 1950, and Vulko Chervenkov. Known as Bulgaria's “Little Stalin,” Chervenkov followed policies aimed at developing Bulgaria according to the Soviet model. These included rapid industrialization, the forced collectivization of agriculture, heavy reliance on the police and security apparatus, and isolation from countries outside the Soviet bloc.

      Stalin's death in 1953 and the inauguration of the “New Course” in the Soviet Union had repercussions in Bulgaria. In 1954 Chervenkov accepted the Soviet model of collective leadership, remaining prime minister but yielding his post as party leader to Todor Zhivkov (Zhivkov, Todor). The government also released several thousand political prisoners and moderated its economic policies in favour of raising living standards. The beginning of open de-Stalinization at the Soviet Union's 20th Communist Party Congress in February 1956 was followed in Bulgaria by the April Plenum of the Bulgarian Communist Party, at which Chervenkov was accused of abuse of power and later removed from the premiership. There was some relaxation of censorship, and the victims of the Kostovite trials, including Kostov himself (posthumously), began to be rehabilitated.

      These developments, however, did not put an end to communist repression, and the concentration (‘‘labour reconstruction ") camps did not close until the early 1970s.

Late communist rule
Rise of Todor Zhivkov (Zhivkov, Todor)
      After becoming prime minister in 1962, Zhivkov continued to hold the positions of head of state and head of party until 1989. An attempted putsch led by General Ivan Todorov-Gorunya in 1965 was easily put down, and Zhivkov consistently managed to purge or undercut party leaders regarded as potential rivals. During the era of Zhivkov's ascendancy, Bulgaria modeled its domestic policies on those of the Soviet Union, with long-term treaties linking Bulgaria's economic development to the Soviets. Bulgaria gave the highest priority to scientific and technological advancement and the development of trade skills appropriate to an industrial state. In 1948 approximately 80 percent of the population drew their living from the soil, but by 1988 less than one-fifth of the labour force was engaged in agriculture, with the rest concentrated in industry and the service sector.

      By the 1960s, Bulgaria abandoned the isolationism that had characterized the Chervenkov period. Although remaining steadfast in its commitments to the Warsaw Pact and Comecon, Bulgaria improved relations with its Balkan neighbours, particularly Greece (Greece, history of), and expanded its economic and cultural relations with most Western states. Relations with Yugoslavia remained strained, however, over the persistence of the Macedonian (Macedonia) issue. In 1979 Bulgaria proposed a treaty with Yugoslavia that would guarantee the inviolability of the borders established after World War II; this proposal was rejected, however, because of Bulgaria's refusal to admit the existence of a distinct Macedonian nationality. From the Bulgarian point of view, such an admission would both fly in the face of historical reality and legitimize Yugoslav claims on the Pirin region.

      During the 1970s concern developed over the low birth rate of the ethnic Bulgarian population, and policies were adopted to encourage larger families, but without apparent effect. In late 1984 the government began a major campaign to “Bulgarize,” or assimilate (assimilation), the country's ethnic Turks (Turkic peoples). Measures aimed at the Turkish population, estimated to number approximately 800,000, included the discontinuation of Turkish-language publications and radio broadcasts and the requirement that Turks adopt Bulgarian names.

      The ethnic Turkish population, however, resisted assimilation, and clashes with the authorities continued. In spite of official harassment, independent human rights groups were formed in defense of the Turks. In 1989, when the government of Turkey offered to accept refugees from Bulgaria, more than 300,000 ethnic Turks fled or were forcibly driven from the country by the communist authorities.

      The era of reforms launched by Mikhail Gorbachev (Gorbachev, Mikhail) in the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) had a major impact on Bulgaria, inspiring greater demands for openness and democratization. The increase in Bulgarian dissidents, a declining economic situation, and internal party rivalries led Zhivkov's colleagues to force his resignation on November 10, 1989. He was later tried, sentenced, and imprisoned for embezzlement.

End of party rule
      Under growing popular pressure Zhivkov's successors endorsed a policy of openness, pluralism, and respect for law, halted repression of the ethnic Turks, and took the first steps toward separating the Bulgarian Communist (communism) Party from the state, such as repealing its constitutional monopoly of power. After some shuffling of positions, Petar Mladenov was named head of state, Andrey Lukanov prime minister, and Alexander Lilov head of the Bulgarian Communist Party. In early 1990 the party held an extraordinary congress that enacted significant changes in party structure and in April 1990 renamed itself the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP).

      In the meantime, dissident groups had taken advantage of the country's new freedoms to organize opposition political parties. Many of these joined the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), a coalition led by the sociologist Zheliu Zhelev. By the spring of 1990, at a roundtable held between early January and May 1990, the UDF and the BSP had agreed to free elections for a Grand National Assembly that would prepare a new constitution. In these June elections, the socialists won a narrow majority. In July 1990 Mladenov resigned after failing to conceal that he had recommended a military crackdown on protesters in late 1989. Because their majority was too small to allow them to govern alone, in August 1990 the BSP supported the election of Zhelev as head of state.

      The National Assembly adopted a new constitution on July 12, 1991, which proclaimed Bulgaria a parliamentary republic and promised citizens a broad range of freedoms. During the summer several parties withdrew from the UDF coalition, and those that remained split into two factions: UDF (liberals) and UDF (movement). In elections for the National Assembly held in October 1991, the UDF (movement) won a narrow majority of seats over the BSP, with the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF; primarily representing the country's Turkish minority) gaining few seats; no other party minority gained the required minimum percentage of the vote to qualify for participation in parliament. The leader of the UDF, Philip Dimitrov, was elected prime minister and, with the support of the MRF, formed a government, without BSP participation. Under the new constitution Zhelev was elected president for a five-year term in general elections held in January 1992.

Bulgaria's transition
      Dimitrov's government launched an ambitious reform program aimed at changing the country into a pro-Western democracy with a market economy. Chief among these reforms were the liberalization of prices, the restitution of properties commandeered during the communist regime, and the restructuring of state-owned enterprises. Efforts were made to ease the external debt, build a legal framework for the new market infrastructure, and reach out to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

      Bulgaria recognized the newly independent former Yugoslav republics and on January 16, 1992, became the first nation to recognize the Republic of Macedonia, with which it concluded an agreement in 1999. In 1992–93 Bulgaria joined the Council of Europe (Europe, Council of) and signed the Europe Agreement with the European Union, in which it sought membership.

      Meanwhile, President Zhelev grew critical of the UDF and Dimitrov's government and received support from the MRF. In October 1992 Dimitrov's government was forced to resign by a vote of no confidence. In December 1992 a new government dominated by the MRF was elected with support from the BSP. For the next two years, under the leadership of Zhelev's adviser Luben Berov, reforms stagnated. In elections in December 1994 the BSP won an absolute majority and formed a government headed by party leader Zhan Videnov that tried to reestablish subsidies for state-owned enterprises but faced financial losses. In early 1997, when the monthly inflation reached about 240 percent, mass protests forced the government to resign.

      Zhelev's successor as president, Peter Stoyanov, called a new election, and, after a decisive victory, UDF leader Ivan Kostov formed a pro-market government. It reduced inflation by introducing a currency board, sped up privatization, and in early 1997 applied for NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) membership. In elections in June 2001 Simeon Saxecoburggotski (Saxecoburggotski, Simeon), the former king of Bulgaria, led the newly formed National Movement for Simeon II (NDSV) to victory. The new prime minister weathered criticism that he and his ministers lacked political experience, and he continued Bulgaria's program of financial restraint and increased privatization.

      In 2002 Stoyanov was replaced as president by Georgi Parvanov (Parvanov, Georgi), a candidate from a coalition of leftist and nationalist groups backed by the BSP who nevertheless declared his intent to not stray from the goals of membership in NATO and the EU. Bulgaria became a member of NATO in 2004 and a member of the EU in 2007. Meanwhile, Saxecoburggotski's party was defeated in the 2005 legislative elections, and Sergei Stanishev of the BSP became prime minister.

      In foreign affairs, throughout the 1990s relations with Russia, Romania, Greece, and Turkey gradually improved, backed by a series of agreements and joint protocols. Internally, in response to prodding by the IMF, EU, and other international agencies, Bulgaria tried to quell corruption and social unrest and to divest itself further of its state-owned enterprises. As with the rest of eastern Europe at the turn of the 21st century, Bulgaria was far along in the uneasy transition from postcommunist regime to full-fledged market economy.

Philip Dimitrov John D. Bell

Additional Reading

A general work is Emil Giatzidis, An Introduction to Post-Communist Bulgaria: Political, Economic, and Social Transformations (2002); and Richard J. Crampton (compiler), Bulgaria (1989), is an annotated bibliography. Economic and social policies are discussed in Robert J. McIntyre, Bulgaria: Politics, Economics, and Society (1988); John R. Lampe, The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century (1986); and George R. Feiwel, Growth and Reforms in Centrally Planned Economies: The Lessons of the Bulgarian Experience (1977). Bulgaria's cultural heritage is surveyed in Machiel Kiel, Art and Society of Bulgaria in the Turkish Period (1985), an extensive survey of Turkish influences on Bulgaria and on Christian art and symbolism, 1360–1700; Atanas Slavov, The “Thaw” in Bulgarian Literature (1981); and Stefan Stamov (ed.), The Architectural Heritage of Bulgaria (1972).

Antiquities and archaeological discoveries are the subjects of Douglass W. Bailey, Ivan Panayotov, and Stefan Alexandrov (eds.), Prehistoric Bulgaria (1995). General overviews of Bulgarian history are provided by Plamen S. Tzvetkov, A History of the Balkans: A Regional Overview from the Bulgarian Perspective (1993); and Richard J. Crampton, A Short History of Modern Bulgaria (1987). Coverage of specific periods of history may be found in John Julius Norwich, A Short History of Byzantium (1997, reprinted 1999); David Marshall Lang, The Bulgarians: From Pagan Times to the Ottoman Conquest (1976); Robert Browning, Byzantium and Bulgaria: A Comparative Study Across the Early Medieval Frontier (1975); Assen Nicoloff, The Bulgarian Resurgence (1987); Nikolai Genchev, The Bulgarian National Revival Period, trans. by M. Shipkov (1977); Ferdinand Schevill, A History of the Balkans (1991, reissued 1995); R.T. Shannon, Gladstone and the Bulgarian Agitation, 1876, 2nd ed. (1975); E. Garrison Walters, The Other Europe: Eastern Europe to 1945 (1988, reissued 1990); Richard J. Crampton, Bulgaria, 1878–1918: A History (1983); John D. Bell, Peasants in Power: Alexander Stamboliski and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, 1899–1923 (1977); Stéphane Groueff, Crown of Thorns (1987, reissued 1997), covering the reign of Boris III (1918–43); Charles A. Moser, Dimitrov of Bulgaria: A Political Biography of Dr. Georgi M. Dimitrov (1979); Marshall Lee Miller, Bulgaria During the Second World War (1975); Michael Bar-Zohar, Beyond Hitler's Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews (1998, reissued 2001); John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov (1986); and Rodney Castleden, World History: A Chronological Dictionary of Dates (1995), which extends historical research into the 1990s.Philip Dimitrov Francis William Carter John D. Bell

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Universalium. 2010.

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