bryophytic /bruy'euh fit"ik/, adj.
/bruy"euh fuyt'/, n. Bot.
any of the Bryophyta, a phylum of nonvascular plants comprising the true mosses and liverworts.
[1875-80; < NL Bryophyta name of the group; see BRYO-, -PHYTE]

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Any of the green, seedless land plants that make up the division Bryophyta, numbering at least 18,000 species and divided into three classes: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.

They are distinguished from vascular plants and seed plants by the production of only one spore-containing organ in their spore-producing stage. Most bryophytes are 0.8–2 in. (2–5 cm) tall or, if reclining, generally less than 12 in. (30 cm) long. Found throughout the world, from polar regions to the tropics, they are most abundant in humid environments, though none is marine. Bryophytes are extremely tolerant of dry and freezing conditions. Peat moss is economically important to humans in horticulture and as an energy source. Some bryophytes are used ornamentally, as in moss gardens. In nature, bryophytes initiate soil formation on barren terrain and maintain soil moisture, and they recycle nutrients in forest ecosystems. They are found on rocks, logs, and forest litter.

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      (division Bryophyta) any green, seedless plant that is one of the mosses, hornworts, or liverworts. Bryophytes are among the simplest of the terrestrial plants. Most representatives lack complex tissue organization, yet they show considerable diversity in form and ecology. They are widely distributed throughout the world and are relatively small compared with most seed-bearing plants. Most are 2–5 centimetres (0.8–2 inches) tall or, if reclining, generally less than 10 centimetres long. The division Bryophyta includes three main evolutionary lines: the mosses (class Bryopsida, or Musci), the liverworts (class Hepatopsida, or Hepaticae), and the hornworts (class Anthocerotopsida, or Anthocerotae). It is conservatively estimated that there are more than 1,000 genera and more than 18,000 species of bryophytes.

      The bryophytes show an alternation of generations between the independent gametophyte generation, which produces the sex organs and sperm and eggs, and the dependent sporophyte generation, which produces the spores. In contrast to vascular plants, the bryophyte sporophyte usually lacks a complex vascular system and produces only one spore-containing organ (sporangium) rather than many. Furthermore, the gametophyte generation of the bryophyte is usually perennial and photosynthetically independent of the sporophyte, which forms an intimate interconnection with the gametophytic tissue, especially at the base, or foot, of the sporophyte. In most vascular plants, however, the gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte. In bryophytes the long-lived and conspicuous generation is the gametophyte, while in vascular plants it is the sporophyte. Structures resembling stems, roots, and leaves are found on the gametophore of bryophytes, while these structures are found on the sporophytes in the vascular plants. The sporophyte releases spores, from which the gametophytes ultimately develop.

      In some bryophytes, sporophytes are unknown. The gametophyte in these bryophytes often reproduces asexually, or vegetatively, by specialized masses of cells (gemmae) that are usually budded off and ultimately give rise to gametophytes. Fragmentation of the gametophyte also results in vegetative reproduction: each living fragment has the potential to grow into a complete gametophyte.

      The mature gametophyte of most bryophytes is leafy, but some liverworts and hornworts have a flattened gametophyte, called a thallus. The thallus tends to be ribbonlike in form and is often compressed against the substratum to which it is generally attached by threadlike structures called rhizoids. Rhizoids also influence water and mineral uptake.

General features
      Thallose bryophytes vary in size from a length of 20 centimetres (8 inches) and a breadth of 5 centimetres (2 inches; the liverwort Monoclea) to less than 1 millimetre (0.04 inch) in width and less than 1 millimetre in length (male plants of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos). The thallus is sometimes one cell layer thick through most of its width (e.g., the liverwort Metzgeria) but may be many cell layers thick and have a complex tissue organization (e.g., the liverwort Marchantia). Branching of the thallus may be forked, regularly frondlike, digitate, or completely irregular. The margin of the thallus is often smooth but is sometimes toothed; it may be ruffled, flat, or curved inward or downward.

      Leafy bryophytes grow up to 65 centimetres (2 feet) in height (the moss Dawsonia) or, if reclining, reach lengths of more than 1 metre (3.3 feet; the moss Fontinalis (water moss)). They are generally less than 3 to 6 centimetres tall, and reclining forms are usually less than 2 centimetres long. Some, however, are less than 1 millimetre in size (the moss Ephemerum). Leaves are arranged in rows of two or three or more around a shoot or may be irregularly arranged (e.g., the liverwort Takakia). The leafy shoot may or may not appear flattened. Leaves are usually attached by an expanded base and are mainly one cell thick. Many mosses, however, possess one or more midribs several cells in thickness. Leaves of liverworts are often lobed, while those of mosses are unlobed. Leaves diverge outward from the shoot; rigidity results from water pressure within the cells or from the support of a midrib, when present. The leaves of bryophytes generally lack vascular tissue and are thus not analogous to the leaves of vascular plants. Although most botanists call them leaves for convenience, the technical term for these bryophyte structures is phyllids.

      Most gametophytes are green, and all except the gametophyte of the liverwort Cryptothallus have chlorophyll. Many have other pigments, especially in the cellulosic cell walls but sometimes within the cytoplasm of the cells.

      Bryophytes form flattened mats, spongy carpets, tufts, turfs, or festooning pendants. These growth forms are usually correlated with the humidity and sunlight available in the habitat.

Distribution and abundance
      Bryophytes are distributed throughout the world, from polar and alpine regions to the tropics. Water must, at some point, be present in the habitat in order for the sperm to swim to the egg (see below Natural history). Bryophytes do not live in extremely arid sites or in seawater, although some are found in perennially damp environments within arid regions and a few are found on seashores above the intertidal zone. A few bryophytes are aquatic. Bryophytes are most abundant in climates that are constantly humid and equable. The greatest diversity is at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Bryophytes (especially the moss Sphagnum) dominate the vegetation of peatland in extensive areas of the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

      The geographic distribution patterns of bryophytes are similar to those of the terrestrial vascular plants, except that there are many genera and families and a few species of bryophytes that are almost cosmopolitan. Indeed, a few species show extremely wide distribution. Some botanists explain these broad distribution patterns on the theory that the bryophytes represent an extremely ancient group of plants, while others suggest that the readily dispersible small gemmae and spores enhance wide distribution.

      The distribution of some bryophytes, however, is extremely restricted, yet they possess the same apparent dispersibility and ecological plasticity as do widespread bryophytes. Others show broad interrupted patterns that are represented also in vascular plants.

Importance to humans and ecology
      The peat moss genus Sphagnum is an economically important bryophyte. The harvesting, processing, and sale of Sphagnum peat is a multimillion-dollar industry. Peat is used in horticulture, as an energy source (fuel), and, to a limited extent, in the extraction of organic products, in whiskey production, and as insulation.

      Bryophytes are very important in initiating soil formation on barren terrain, in maintaining soil moisture, and in recycling nutrients in forest vegetation. Indeed, discerning the presence of particular bryophytes is useful in assessing the productivity and nutrient status of forest types. Further, through the study of bryophytes, various biological phenomena have been discovered that have had a profound influence on the development of research in such areas as genetics and cytology.

Natural history

Reproduction and life cycle
 The life cycle of bryophytes consists of an alternation of two stages, or generations (alternation of generations), called the sporophyte and the gametophyte. Each generation has a different physical form. When a spore germinates, it usually produces the protonema, which precedes the appearance of the more elaborately organized gametophytic plant, the gametophyte, which produces the sex organs. The protonema is usually threadlike and is highly branched in the mosses but is reduced to only a few cells in most liverworts and hornworts. The protonema stage in liverworts is usually called a sporeling in other bryophytes (see below Form and function (bryophyte)).

      The gametophyte—the thallose or leafy stage—is generally perennial and produces the male or female sex organs, or both. The female sex organ is a flask-shaped structure called the archegonium. The archegonium contains a single egg enclosed in a swollen lower portion that is more than one cell thick. The neck of the archegonium is a single cell layer thick and sheathes a single thread of cells that forms the neck canal. When mature and completely moist, the neck canal cells of the archegonium disintegrate, releasing a column of fluid to the neck canal and the surrounding water. The egg remains in the base of the archegonium, ready for fertilization. The male sex organ, the antheridium, is a saclike structure made up of a jacket of sterile cells one cell thick; it encloses many cells, each of which, when mature, produces one sperm. The antheridium is usually attached to the gametophyte by a slender stalk. When wet, the jacket of the mature antheridium ruptures to release the sperm into the water. Each sperm has two flagella and swims in a corkscrew pattern. When a sperm enters the field of the fluid diffused from the neck canal, it swims toward the site of greatest concentration of this fluid, therefore down the neck canal to the egg. Upon reaching the egg, the sperm burrows into its wall, and the egg nucleus unites with the sperm nucleus to produce the diploid zygote. The zygote remains in the archegonium and undergoes many mitotic cell divisions to produce an embryonic sporophyte. The lower cells of the archegonium also divide and produce a protective structure, called the calyptra, that sheathes the growing embryo.

      As the sporophyte enlarges, it is dependent on the gametophore for water and minerals and, to a large degree, for nutrients manufactured by the gametophyte. The water and nutrients enter the developing sporophyte through the tissue at its base, or foot, which remains embedded in the gametophyte. Mature bryophytes have a single sporangium (spore-producing structure) on each sporophyte. The sporangium generally terminates an elongate stalk, or seta, when the sporangium is ready to shed its spores. The sporangium rupture usually involves specialized structures that enhance expulsion of the spores away from the parent gametophyte.

      Bryophytes generate their nutrient materials through the photosynthetic activity of the chlorophyll pigments in the chloroplasts. In addition, most bryophytes absorb water and dissolved minerals over the surface of the gametophore. Water retention at the surface is assisted by the shape and overlapping of leaves, by an abundance of rhizoids, or by capillary spaces among these structures. Water loss through evaporation is rapid in most bryophytes.

      A few bryophytes possess elaborate internal conducting systems (see below Form and function (bryophyte)) that transfer water or manufactured nutrients through the gametophore, but most conduction is over the gametophore surface. In most mosses, water and nutrient transfer from the gametophore to the developing sporangium takes place along the seta and also via an internal conducting system. A protective cuticle covers the seta, reducing water loss. The calyptra that covers the developing sporangium prevents water loss in this fragile immature structure. In liverworts the sporangium remains close to the gametophore until it is mature; thus, a conducting system is not formed in the seta. In most hornworts there is also an internal conducting system within the developing horn-shaped sporangium. The internal movement of fluid in all parts of the bryophyte is extremely slow. Storage products include starch and lipids.

Ecology and habitats
      Some bryophytes are unusually tolerant of extended periods of dryness and freezing, and, upon the return of moisture, they rapidly resume photosynthesis. The exact mechanism involved remains controversial.

      Many bryophytes grow on soil or on the persistent remains of their own growth, as well as on living or decomposing material of other plants. Some grow on bare rock surfaces, and several are aquatic. The main requirements for growth appear to be a relatively stable substratum for attachment, a medium that retains moisture for extended periods, adequate sunlight, favourable temperature, and, for richest luxuriance, a nearly constantly humid atmosphere.

      Unusual habitats include decomposing animal waste (many species in the moss family Splachnaceae), somewhat shaded cavern mouths (the liverwort Cyathodium and the mosses Mittenia and Schistostega), leaf surfaces (the moss Ephemeropsis and the liverwort genus Metzgeria and many species of the liverwort family Lejeuneaceae), salt pans (the liverwort Carrpos), bases of quartz pebbles (the moss Aschisma), and copper-rich substrata (the moss Scopelophila).

      In humid temperate or subtropical climates, bryophytes often grow profusely, forming deep, soft carpets on forest floors and over rock surfaces, sheathing trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, and festooning branches. In broad-leaved forests of temperate areas, trees and boulders often harbour rich bryophyte stands, but it is near watercourses that bryophytes tend to reach their richest luxuriance and diversity.

      In Arctic and Antarctic regions, bryophytes, especially mosses, form extensive cover, especially in wetlands, near watercourses, and in sites where snowmelt moisture is available for an extended part of the growing season. There they can dominate the vegetation cover and control the vegetation pattern and dynamics of associated plants. The same is true for alpine and subalpine environments in which many of the same species are involved.

      Bryophytes, especially mosses, are important in nutrient cycling, in some cases making use of limited precipitation and airborne minerals that are thus made unavailable to the seed plant vegetation. Rapid evaporation from the moss mat is probably critical to some vegetation types by impeding moisture penetration to the root systems of seed plants and therefore indirectly controlling the vegetational composition of some forests.

      Bryophytes are fundamental to the development of wetland habitats, especially of peatland (peat moss). The moss genus Sphagnum leads to the development of waterlogged masses of highly acid peatland, in which decomposition is relatively slow. The formation of extensive bogs can control the hydrology of much of the surrounding landscape by behaving like a gigantic sponge that absorbs and holds vast quantities of water and influences the water table. Extension of this saturated living moss mat into living forest can drown the root systems of the forest trees, killing the forest and replacing it with bog. Peatland can also develop on calcareous terrain through the growth of other mosses, including species of the genera Drepanocladus and Calliergon. These mosses also build up a moss mat that, through organic accumulation of its own partially decomposed remains, alters the acidity of the site and makes it attractive to the formation of Sphagnum peatland.

      Bryophytes, especially mosses, colonize bare rock surfaces, leading ultimately to the initiation of soil formation. This in turn produces a substratum attractive to seed plant colonists that invade these mossy sites and, through their shading, eliminate the pioneer mosses but create a shaded habitat suitable for other bryophytes. These new colonists, in turn, are important in nutrient cycling in the developing forest vegetation.

Form and function
      The gametophyte form shows several developmental stages: the spore, the protonema, and the gametophore, which produces the sex organs. Spores of bryophytes are generally small, 5–20 micrometres on the average, and usually unicellular, although some spores are multicellular and considerably larger. Spores have chlorophyll when released from the sporangium. They are generally hemispheric, and the surface is often elaborately ornamented.

      The protonema, which grows directly from the germinating spore, is in most mosses an extensive, branched system of multicellular filaments that are rich in chlorophyll. This stage initiates the accumulation of hormones that influence the further growth of newly formed cells. When specific concentrations of the hormones are reached, the branches of the protonema generate small buds, which in turn produce the leafy gametophore.

      In most liverworts and hornworts, the protonema is usually limited to a short unbranched filament that rapidly initiates a three-dimensional cell mass, the sporeling. This sporeling is rich in chlorophyll and soon forms an apical cell from which the gametophore grows.

      In moss gametophores the leaves (leaf) of the shoots are spirally arranged on the stem in more than three rows. Leaves often have elaborate ornamentation on the cell surfaces. This ornamentation is often important in rapid water uptake. Although the leaf begins its growth from an apical cell, cells are soon cut off between the apical cell and the leaf base, and further division of these cells results in the elongation of the leaf and also in the production of one or more midribs. The gametophore is often attached to the substratum by rhizoids. The rhizoids are structurally similar to cells of the protonema, but they lack chlorophyll. In some mosses, rhizoids closely invest the stem among the leaf bases and perform a significant function in external water conduction and retention before its absorption by stem and leaves.

      The internal structure of the stems of moss gametophores is usually simple. The outer cells are often thick-walled and supportive, while the inner cells are generally larger and have thinner walls. Some mosses, however, have considerable tissue differentiation in the stem. In the moss subclass Polytrichidae, for example, a complex conducting strand is often formed in the centre of the stem. It consists of an internal cylinder of water-conducting cells (the hydroids) surrounded by layers of living cells (leptoids) that conduct the sugars and other organic substances manufactured by the gametophore. This conducting system is analogous to that of the vascular plants, except that it lacks lignin (a carbohydrate polymer), and it closely resembles that found in the fossils of the earliest land plants.

      In gametophores of leafy liverworts, the leaves are arranged in two or, usually, three rows. The plants are often flattened horizontal to the substratum. Lobing of these leaves is sometimes complex, as is their orientation on the stems as compared with the mosses. Rhizoids are generally confined to the undersurface of the stem and are important in that they form attachments and influence water retention and uptake by the leafy plant.

      In gametophores of thallose liverworts and hornworts, an internal conducting strand is rarely developed. In a few genera of the liverwort order Metzgeriales, the water-conducting cells have a form similar to water-conducting cells of vascular plants, but the cells of the liverworts and hornworts, like those of mosses, lack the lignin that characterizes the cell walls of water-conducting cells of vascular plants.

      The thalli (thallus) of most liverworts and hornworts consist of relatively undifferentiated layers of cells. Those cells on the dorsal surface are rich in chlorophyll, while those situated deeper within the thallus lack chlorophyll but have storage products of photosynthesis, especially starch. Fungi (fungus) are often present in the cells of many thalli (and also leafy liverwort stems) and are probably important in water and mineral uptake as well as in making organic compounds available for the nutrition of the gametophore. The thalli of the liverwort order Marchantiales show considerable tissue differentiation, which gives these complex thalli a structure analogous to that of the leaves of vascular plants and provides structural features which allow them to occupy habitats too dry for many other liverworts and hornworts.

      The sexual reproduction of bryophyte gametophores is usually seasonally restricted, often initiated by short-day or long-day illumination; thus, especially in temperate climates, sex organs appear and mature in the autumn, while in more extreme climates they appear in the spring or summer. In mosses, the sex organs are usually sheathed by specialized leaves and are embedded in a mass of filaments that protects the sex organs from drying out before maturity. Many mosses have antheridia and archegonia on separate gametophores, ensuring outbreeding, while others have both sexes on the same gametophore but apparently with features that discourage inbreeding.

      In many leafy liverworts the archegonia are often enclosed by a protective sleeve, the perianth, and have mucilage hairs among them with a function similar to that of the paraphyses of mosses. The antheridia of leafy liverworts are often on specialized branches and at the axils of specialized leaves that are usually swollen to enclose them. Most leafy liverworts have antheridia and archegonia on separate plants.

      The archegonia of the hornworts are completely embedded in the dorsal surface of the thallus, while antheridia are found in chambers near the dorsal surface. Thalli may contain antheridia or archegonia or both.

      Sporophytes of mosses usually consist of the foot, which penetrates the gametophore, the seta, with an internal conducting system, and a terminal sporangium. The seta contains chlorophyll when immature and cannot absorb moisture from the environment because its surface is covered by a water-impermeable layer, the cuticle. The sporophyte is photosynthetic when immature, but its restricted amount of chlorophyll-containing tissue rarely produces enough carbohydrates to nourish a developing sporangium. All water and much of the needed nutrients are absorbed from the gametophore and are conducted through the transfer tissue of the foot up the conducting strand that leads to the apex of the sporophyte. The seta is made rigid by thick-walled cells external to the conducting strand. The sporangium differentiates after the seta elongates and is protected from injury and drying by the calyptra.

      The moss sporangium usually opens by way of an apical lid (the operculum). When the operculum falls, there is exposed a ring of teeth that controls the release of the spores over an extended period of time. These teeth usually respond to slight moisture changes and pulsate inward and outward, carrying spores out of the sporangium on their jagged inner surfaces. In the moss subclass Polytrichidae, however, the tiny spores exit through a series of holes between the teeth and a membrane that closes much of the mouth; thus, any slight movement of the sporangium causes spores to shake out into the air. In the moss subclass Andreaeidae, the spores are released when the sporangium wall gapes open in longitudinal slits. In the genus Sphagnum, air is trapped within the sporangium as it matures; as the sporangium dries out, it shrinks, until the buildup of internal pressure abruptly shoots the operculum and spores into the air.

      In most liverworts, the sporangium matures before the seta elongates, pushing the sporangium above the calyptra that protected it. Elongation is rapid, and the seta is held erect by water pressure within its cells. The sporangium usually contains within it elongate cells (elaters) with coiled thickenings that are scattered among the spores. When the sporangium opens, usually very rapidly when dry, it does so along four longitudinal lines, exposing the elaters, which uncoil rapidly and throw themselves and the adjacent spores into the air. Other devices exist for spore release in the liverworts.

      Hornworts (hornwort) are unusual among the bryophytes because the sporophyte has indeterminate growth. This means that throughout the growing season new tissue is continually produced, even when spores are being shed. Early in its growth within the archegonium, the embryo produces a foot that penetrates the thallus and an apical meristem that elongates the rest of the horn-shaped sporophyte to rupture the thallus surface. A meristem (an area of actively dividing cells that gives rise to all subsequent tissue) is soon differentiated just above the foot, between it and the horn-shaped sporophyte above, and this meristem contributes new growth to the elongating sporophyte throughout the growing season and ceases when the gametophore disintegrates around it. The sporophyte thus matures near the apex while new tissue is differentiated just above the foot, contributing to the elongation of the sporophyte. The sporangium usually opens by two longitudinal lines on opposite sides of the horn. As the apex matures, it exposes the spores and elaters, which are released to the air.

Evolution and paleontology
      The fossil record of bryophytes is poor. Some fossils, however, show a morphology, size, and cellular detail that characterize bryophytes, and the specimens are treated as fossil bryophytes. Since sex organs and attached sporophytes are absent in nearly all fossil material and because the gametophytes of some living vascular plants resemble the gametophores of some bryophytes, the assignment of these fossils as bryophytes is by no means secure.

      Although spores and other microfossils dating to the early Devonian Period (416 to 398 million years ago) have been hypothesized to represent bryophytes, the earliest unequivocal bryophyte fossils are contemporaneous with the earliest vascular plants of the late Devonian Period (about 385 to 359 million years ago). These fossils structurally resemble gametophores of the liverwort order Metzgeriales. Indeed, fossil material of the Carboniferous Period (359 to 299 million years ago) also is structurally similar to genera of Metzgeriales. The specimens are surprisingly well preserved and show considerable cellular detail.

      The most elegantly preserved bryophyte fossils are those in amber of the Eocene Epoch (55.8 to 33.9 million years ago). The detailed cellular structure and morphology of the gametophore make the determination of the genus reasonably secure. The genera are still extant, although not where the fossil material was found, and even the species relationships can be suggested.

      For mosses, the earliest material that appears unambiguous is in the Permian Period (299 to 251 million years ago), and the detailed relationships are not clear. The subclass Bryidae is most likely, but more precise attribution is difficult.

      Well-preserved material of mosses and liverworts appears in the Tertiary Period (65.5 to 2.6 million years ago), and most of the main evolutionary lines are represented. Fossils of the Neogene (roughly equivalent to the last one-third of the Tertiary Period, 23 to 2.6 million years ago) are relatively numerous, and subfossil material of the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years ago to the present) can be determined with confidence as modern species. Mosses are most richly represented in this material, and species of wetland habitats predominate in the record.

      Classification of the liverworts leans heavily on gametophyte structure, with sporophyte structure providing additional evidence of relationships. In the hornworts and mosses, the structure of the sporophyte, especially the sporangium, is important in distinguishing the main evolutionary lines, while gametophytic features provide the details for distinguishing genera and species.

Annotated classification
      The classification presented here reflects main evolutionary lines. These seem best illustrated at the order level for liverworts and hornworts but at the subclass level for the taxonomically more complex mosses. Those orders that are considered to be most generalized are treated first; and those most specialized, last.

Division Bryophyta (bryophytes)
 Small, mostly nonvascular, archegoniate plants with a dominant, photosynthetic, free-living gametophyte; sporophyte has little or no chlorophyll and is dependent on gametophyte; biflagellate sperm; more than 1,000 genera and more than 18,000 species.
      Class Hepatopsida (or Hepaticae; liverworts (liverwort))
 Protonema generally reduced to a few cells, with gametophore differentiated early after spore germination; rhizoids unicellular; gametophore leafy or thallose and generally flattened; sex organs lacking paraphyses; leaves lacking true midrib; leaf cells often with corner thickenings; complex oil bodies often in cells of gametophore; sporangium jacket lacking stomata, and often with transverse thickenings in cell walls; sporangium usually opening by longitudinal lines; sporangium releasing all spores and elaters at the time it opens; calyptra remaining at base when seta elongates.

      Order Calobryales
 Leaves flattened and in three rows on an erect shoot arising from a colourless, subterranean, rootlike system that lacks rhizoids; sex organs lateral but near shoot apices; sporophytes with elongate seta; sporangium elongate, with elaters and thickenings on the jacket cell walls; opening by 1–4 longitudinal lines; mainly of mid-latitudes, most species in the Australasian and Indo-Malayan region; 2 genera, Haplomitrium (12 species) and Steereomitrium (1 species).

      Order Metzgeriales
 Thallose, with the thallus mainly of uniformly thickened cell walls, usually reclining but sometimes erect; branching varies from forked to regularly pinnate or irregular; smooth rhizoids on the undersurface; sex organs lateral; sporophytes with elongate seta; sporangia spherical to elongate, with elaters and thickenings of the jacket cell walls; opening by 1–4 longitudinal lines or irregularly; widely distributed throughout the world; approximately 30 genera and 550 species; some botanists separate the family Treubiaceae (2 genera) into the segregate order Treubiales on the basis of several unusual morphological features of the gametophytes.

      Order Jungermanniales
 Leaves flattened, in 2 or 3 rows, usually broadened to attachment, often lobed; shoots reclining, erect, or pendent; rhizoids smooth-walled; archegonia terminating shoot, surrounded by a chlorophyllose sheath (perianth); sporophyte with seta; sporangium spherical to elongate, with elaters and thickenings of the jacket cell walls, opening by 4 longitudinal lines (rarely helical); distributed throughout the world, reaching greatest abundance in humid subtropical to temperate climates; contains at least 85 percent of the liverworts; conservatively, 300 genera and more than 7,000 species.

      Order Sphaerocarpales
 Essentially lobate thallus in all modern representatives; thallus of parenchyma cells reclining or erect, with smooth-walled rhizoids; each sex organ surrounded by an enveloping sac, lateral; sporangium spherical, lacking seta and elaters, opening by disintegration of the unornamented jacket cells; terrestrial except the aquatic genus Riella; distributed mainly in milder temperate climates; 3 genera with approximately 30 species.

      Order Monocleales
 Large thalli of mainly uniformly parenchymatous cells, reclining; thallus forked to irregularly branched; archegonia within a sleevelike chamber behind the lobe apex; antheridia in padlike receptacles in the same location on different thalli; sporangia elongate on a massive elongate seta, with long elaters and opening by a single longitudinal line; jacket with thickenings on cell walls; in South and Central America and New Zealand; a single genus, Monoclea, with 1 species.

      Order Marchantiales
 Thallus often of complex anatomy, with air pores on the dorsal surface, air chambers with chlorophyllose cells forming a photosynthetic area, and cells of the remainder of the thallus serving for storage; ventral scales often present; rhizoids; sex organs sometimes borne on a stalked receptacle; sporophytes with short seta or seta absent; sporangia spherical or elongate, opening by regular or irregular longitudinal lines, a caplike lid, or decomposition; sporophytes often carried up from the thallus surface by elongation of the stalk of a receptacle, with the sporangia hanging downward; occupying a diversity of habitats—some can withstand extended periods of dryness while others are floating or submerged aquatics, and still others grow in humid shaded sites—approximately 27 genera and 450 species widely distributed throughout the world; the genus Riccia containing nearly half the species of the order.

      Class Anthocerotopsida (or Anthocerotae; hornworts (hornwort))
 Protonema reduced to short filament or absent, differentiating the gametophore early after spore germination; rhizoids unicellular and smooth-walled; gametophore thallose, sometimes lobate; archegonium not a discrete structure, made up of an egg and neck canal cells embedded in the dorsal surface of the thallus; often several antheridia within a chamber embedded in the dorsal surface of the thallus; thallus sometimes with ventral pores, sometimes developing mucilage chambers; thallus lacking complex oil bodies; chloroplasts often solitary in each cell and often with pyrenoid; sporangium horn-shaped, usually with stomata in jacket; elaters often multicellular and often lacking helical thickenings; columella of sterile tissue extending the length of the sporangium, with the spore-bearing tissue overarching and sheathing it; sporangium indeterminate in growth from a basal meristem just above the foot; spores shed throughout the growing season by longitudinal lines of openings extending from the apex downward as the sporangium ages, sometimes (in Notothylas) by decomposition of the sporangium jacket.

      Order Anthocerotales
 Characteristics are those of the class; widely distributed in temperate to tropical latitudes, with greatest diversity in the tropics and subtropics; containing 6 or 7 genera and probably fewer than 300 species.

      Class Bryopsida (or Musci; mosses (moss))
 Protonema an extensive many-branched filament that precedes gametophore production; rhizoids multicellular, branched; gametophore leafy, with leaves spirally arranged, usually in more than 3 rows; gametophore usually not strongly flattened; sex organs usually with paraphyses among them; leaves unlobed and often with thickened midrib; cells usually lacking corner thickenings; oil bodies, if present, not complex; jacket of sporangium often with stomata; sporangium usually opening by apical cap (operculum); peristome teeth usually surrounding the sporangium mouth and influencing spore release; columella usually present, encircled or overarched by a spore-bearing layer; calyptra capping apex of elongating seta and influencing survival and differentiation of sporangium; spores generally shed over extended period; seta a rigid structure with internal conducting strand and holding sporangium well above gametophore in most instances.

      Subclass Andreaeidae
 Sporophytes usually lacking a seta; sporangium opening by longitudinal lines; sporangium with spore-bearing layer overarching and encircling the central columella; gametophore irregularly branched, dark-pigmented, with spirally arranged leaves, attached to the substratum by rhizoids; leaves with or without midrib; paraphyses few or absent; sporophytes usually pushed beyond perichaetium on an elongate leafless extension of the gametophore (pseudopodium); mainly in cooler climates throughout the world, confined mainly to siliceous rock surfaces; 3 orders, with 1 genus in each order, Andreaea, Andreaeobryum, and Takakia, and probably fewer than 100 species in the entire subclass. Until recently, the genus Takakia (2 species) was considered a liverwort rather than a moss, and its classification remains less than perfectly understood.

      Subclass Sphagnidae (peat moss)
 Sporophytes lacking a seta; subspherical sporangium opening by a lid (operculum) released explosively with the spores when sporangium dries, shrinks in diameter, and reaches high atmospheric pressure through compression of the gases within; protonema phase thalloid; branching in fascicles; leaf without midrib; leaf cells forming a network of elongate chlorophyllose cells surrounding dead swollen cells reinforced by fibril thickenings in walls and perforated by pores; sporophytes pushed beyond perichaetium by leafless extension of gametophore (pseudopodium); widely distributed in the world but forming extensive peatland mainly in boreal regions; 1 order, 1 genus, Sphagnum, with more than 160 species.

      Subclass Tetraphidae
 Sporophytes with elongate seta; sporangium opening by an operculum exposing four multicellular peristome teeth that respond to moisture change to release spores gradually; spore layer forming a cylinder around central columella; protonema filamentous but with thallose flaps; gametophores erect, with rhizoids at base, leaves with midrib, all cells with chlorophyll; widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with Tetrodontium also present, but rare, in the Southern Hemisphere; 1 order, 2 genera, Tetraphis and Tetrodontium, with 3 or 5 species. The family Calomniaceae (1 genus, with about 9 species) is sometimes included in this subclass.

      Subclass Polytrichidae
 Sporophytes with elongate rigid seta containing conducting system; sporangium opening by operculum; numerous multicellular peristome teeth in a single concentric circle and overarching a membrane formed by the expanded apex of the columella (many rows of teeth and no membrane in Dawsonia); spores very small and released gradually through spaces between the teeth; spore layer forming a cylinder around central columella; gametophores erect, often with complex internal conducting system in stems and often leaves; leaves with numerous chlorophyllose elongate flaps on upper face; widely distributed throughout the world at most latitudes and altitudes, mainly terrestrial; 1 order, 19 to 23 genera, and more than 400 species.

      Subclass Buxbaumiidae
 Sporophyte with elongate or short seta; sporangium asymmetrical, with operculum; peristome teeth sometimes in several concentric circles, the outer articulated, the inner forming a cone opened at the tip; spores released slowly when slight pressure on the sporangium surface causes the spores to puff out through the narrow mouth; gametophore sometimes extremely reduced and microscopic, always small but sometimes with leaves; widely but erratically distributed in temperate to tropical regions; 1 order, 4 genera with approximately 40 species.

      Subclass Bryidae
 Sporophyte may have elongate seta, with or without conducting strand; sporangium diverse in form, with internal cylindric columella encircled by spore-bearing layer, usually opening by operculum to expose articulated peristome teeth in 1 or 2 concentric circles; peristome teeth pulsating in response to moisture changes, extracting the spores from the sporangium and gradually releasing them; gametophores diverse in form and structure; widely distributed throughout the world in most habitats except the sea, representing more than 95 percent of the mosses; more than 650 genera and more than 10,000 species. The classification within this subclass remains controversial, with genera variously placed in 15 or more orders.

      Subclass Archidiidae
 Sporophyte with no seta; sporangia containing a restricted number of large spores (sometimes 4), lacking columella, opening by decomposition of the jacket; gametophore small, leaves with midrib; attached to substratum by rhizoids; of scattered distribution in temperate to subtropical climates; 1 order, a single genus, Archidium, with approximately 26 species.

Critical appraisal
      The order Anthocerotales is considered by some researchers to be so unrelated to bryophytes that it is placed in its own phylum, the Anthocerotophyta. The evolutionary lines of the class Bryopsida are most easily demonstrated by the subclasses. The treatment of orders and families remains in a state of flux, with widely varying opinions derived from differing interpretations of the taxonomic importance of characteristics. Even phylogenetic placement of the sequence of subclasses is difficult.

      Fundamental classification of bryophytes is hampered by a lack of agreement concerning not only the critical features that define a bryophyte but also the criteria that can be used to interpret relationships. Unlike the situation in vascular plants, molecular studies involving comparisons of gene sequences have not resolved most of the major disagreements over bryophyte classification. Consequently, there are still considerable differences among classification systems. It is vital that there be an adequate assessment concerning the diversity of bryophytes that now exist. The extremely limited number of researchers in the field of bryology greatly curtails the acquisition of this information, much of which is being lost when vegetation is destroyed before the floristic structure has been documented and conserved.

Wilfred Borden Schofield

Additional Reading
W.B. Schofield, Introduction to Bryology (1985); and E.V. Watson, The Structure and Life of Bryophytes, 3rd ed. (1971), are comprehensive introductions with extensive bibliographies that lead to more detailed treatises. Thorough analyses are found in Rudolf M. Schuster (ed.), New Manual of Bryology, 2 vol. (1983–84); R.N. Chopra and P.K. Kumra, Biology of Bryophytes (1988); and Advances in Bryology (biennial), an official publication of the International Association of Bryologists. A comprehensive survey of ecology and habitats is presented in A.J.E. Smith (ed.), Bryophyte Ecology (1982). G.C.S. Clarke and J.G. Duckett (eds.), Bryophyte Systematics (1979), covers various aspects of classification. Works concerned with the botanical details of mosses include William T. Doyle, The Biology of Higher Cryptogams (1970); and N.S. Parihar, An Introduction to Embryophyta, 5th ed., vol. 1, Bryophyta (1965). References helpful in the identification of mosses include Henry S. Conard, How to Know the Mosses and Liverworts, 2nd rev. ed. (1979), a good manual for American mosses; and, still unsurpassed for its illustrations, Paul W. Richards, A Book of Mosses (1950). The following periodicals are devoted mainly to bryology: The Bryologist (quarterly); Journal of Bryology (semiannual); Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Journal (semiannual), published in Japan with text in European languages; and Lindbergia (irregular), published by the Nordic and Dutch Bryological Societies. Wilfred Borden Schofield

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Universalium. 2010.

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