/boohrddzh/, n.
a city in and the capital of Cher, in central France: cathedral. 80,379.

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      city, capital of Cher département, Centre région, almost exactly in the centre of France. It lies on the Canal du Berry, at the confluence of the Yèvre and Auron rivers, in marshy country watered by the Cher, southeast of Orléans. As ancient Avaricum, capital of the Bituriges, it was defended valiantly in 52 BC by Vercingetorix against Julius Caesar, who in his commentaries deemed it one of the most beautiful cities in Gaul. St. Ursin brought Christianity there in the 3rd century. Charlemagne unified Berry and made Bourges capital of Aquitaine. During the Hundred Years' War, Charles VII resided there (1422–37), and Joan of Arc wintered there (1429–30). In 1438 the Pragmatic Sanction was signed at Bourges. Louis XI, who was born there, endowed the city in 1463 with a university (abolished during the French Revolution) at which Jacques Cujas (1522–90) was once a renowned teacher of Roman law. John Calvin was converted to Luther's ideas in Bourges.

      The summit of the hill on which the city is built is crowned by the Gothic cathedral of Saint-Étienne, which dominates the city. Begun at the end of the 12th century on the site of earlier sanctuaries, it was completed in 50 years, receiving later additions. The cathedral has five magnificently sculptured doorways and two asymmetrical towers. Its inner aisles are remarkably high, and there are no transepts. The interior contains stained-glass windows of the 12th and 13th centuries that are of exceptional beauty. Beneath the choir is a splendid 12th-century crypt.

      The archbishop of Bourges bears the title of Primat des Aquitaines, Métropolite et Patriarche. The palace of Jacques Coeur, chief financier to Charles VII, is a fine example of French 15th-century civil architecture. The hôtel de ville and the Berry Museum were built in the 15th and 16th centuries, using Gallo-Roman fortifications. The city has many other fine old buildings.

      Capital of the historic province of Berry, Bourges still serves as the centre for marketing sheep, cattle, wine, and cereals. It also has diversified manufacturing, including foundries, armament works, food processing, and plants that manufacture tires and machinery. Pop. (1999) 72,480; (2005 est.) 71,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • BOURGES — BOURGES, capital of the department of Cher, central France. In 570 a Jew, Sigericus, was baptized in Bourges, while at about the same time a Jew practicing medicine there treated a cleric. sulpicius , bishop of Bourges, 624–647, attempted to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BOURGES (É.) — BOURGES ÉLÉMIR (1852 1925) On peut avancer qu’Élémir Bourges, ce solitaire, n’eut pas d’existence en dehors de la littérature. Né à Manosque, il monte à Paris en 1874 et collabore comme journaliste à diverses publications, dont La Revue des chefs …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bourges —   [burʒ], Stadt im Département Cher, Frankreich, im Berry, 130 m über dem Meeresspiegel auf einem Hügel am Zusammenfluss von Yèvre und Auron, 75 600 Einwohner; Verwaltungssitz; Erzbischofssitz; technologisches Universitätsinstitut, Militärschulen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • bourges — BOURGES, Le pays alentour de Bourges, Bituriges. Bourges est une ville Archiepiscopale en Berry, vulgo Bituricensis Episcopatus, Elle est garnie de petites rivieres, Ausron et Aurette d une part, et de Ievre et Molon de l autre …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Bourges — Avec un accent sur le E, ce serait l équivalent catalan ou occitan de Bourgeois. Mais l accent semble absent dans la plupart des cas rencontrés. Aussi, il s agit sans doute de personnes originaires de la ville de Bourges …   Noms de famille

  • Bourges — (spr. Bursch), 1) Arrondissement im französischen Departement Cher; 441/8 QM. u. 120,100 Ew.; 2) Canton u. 3) Hauptstadt desselben u. des Departements, am Zusammenfluß des Auron u. der Yèvre; hatte sonst starke, mit 80 hohen Thürmen versehene… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bourges — (spr. būrsch ), Hauptstadt des franz. Depart. Cher, 156 m ü. M., an der Yèvre und am Berrykanal, um eine Anhöhe gruppiert, Knotenpunkt an der Orléansbahn, hat zahlreiche Prachtbauten aus dem Mittelalter, darunter: die gotische Kathedrale St.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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