/bee oh"sheuh/, n.a district in ancient Greece, NW of Athens. Cap.: Thebes.
* * *District and ancient republic, eastern central Greece.Bounded by Attica and the Gulf of Corinth, its chief cities were Orchomenus and Thebes. Inhabited by Boeotians, an Aetolian people from Thessaly, it became politically significant after the Boeotian League was formed under Theban leadership с 600–550 BC. Hostile to Athens, the League revolted against it с 447 BC. In the Peloponnesian War, Boeotia defeated Athens at Delium in 424 BC. Led by Thebes, it dominated Greece until Thebes was destroyed by Alexander the Great с 335 BC.
* * *Modern Greek Voiotíadistrict of ancient Greece (ancient Greek civilization) with a distinctive military, artistic, and political history. It corresponds somewhat to the modern nomós (department) of Boeotia, the administrative centre of which is Levádhia. The nomós extends farther to the northwest, however, to include part of ancient Phocis (Fokís). It is bounded by Attica (Attikí; southeast), the Gulf of Corinth (south), Phocis (west), the Gulf of Euboea (Euboea, Gulf of) (east), and the nomós of Fthiótis (north).Boeotia has two extensive fertile plains separated by a low ridge, an outlier of Mount Helicon (Helicon, Mount) (5,735 feet [1,748 metres]) on which Thebes (Thívai) stands. The northern plain is a drained basin that formerly contained Lake Kopaīs, once the largest lake in Greece, and now a fertile plain growing cereals and cotton and supporting pedigreed cattle. The southern plain is watered by the Asopós River.In classical times the much-reorganized Boeotian defensive league (Boeotian League) figured prominently in the rivalry between Athens and Sparta. The league led an uprising against Sparta during the Corinthian War (395–387 BC) and in the Battle of Chaeronea (338) was thoroughly decimated in the struggle to preserve Greek independence from Macedonia. When Boeotia rose again (335) against Alexander III (Alexander the Great) the Great, it was destroyed and thereafter was of little consequence.In spite of a harsh climate (the hills effectively block sea breezes), modern Boeotia's fertile plains produce wheat, corn (maize), tobacco, olives, and grapes. Bauxite is mined and converted to alumina and aluminum at a large plant at Áspra Spítia, on the Gulf of Corinth. A highway and rail line enters Boeotia's northwest-southeast–trending valley east of Delphi, running southeast past Thebes; the highway then swings northward to Chalcis (Khalkis), while the rail line passes around the hills to Attica, paralleled by the new superhighway from Athens. Area (nomós) 1,240 square miles (3,211 square km). Pop. (1991) 134,108.
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