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▪ Chinese art

      in art, Chinese jade carved in the form of a flat disk with a hole in the centre. The earliest examples, which are unornamented, date from the Neolithic Period (c. 5000–2000 BC). Later examples, from the Shang (18th–12th century BC) and Zhou dynasties (Zhou dynasty) (1111–256/255 BC), have increasingly elaborate surface embellishment, especially in the late Zhou (c. 600–256/255 BC), when the bi appeared in combination with other forms.

      The bi may have been a symbol of heaven or of the sun (in that it resembles the ancient graph for “sun”). It was commonly used by nobles as a ceremonial utensil during sacrifices to the gods and to ancestors; during funerary rites, it was often placed in the mouth of a dead person. It was also seen as a totem to ward off evil. The size, colour, and pattern of the bi varied based on the owner's status. The bi was revived and widely imitated during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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Universalium. 2010.

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