benzene hexachloride

benzene hexachloride
See BHC.

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      any of several stereoisomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane formed by the light-induced addition of chlorine to benzene. One of these isomers is an insecticide called lindane, or Gammexane.

      Benzene hexachloride was first prepared in 1825; the insecticidal properties were identified in 1944 with the γ-isomer (gamma-isomer), which is about 1,000 times more toxic than any of the other diastereomers formed in the reaction. The structural differences between these individuals are in the orientations of the chlorine atoms with respect to the ring of carbon atoms.

      The chemical addition of chlorine to benzene produces a mixture of several stereoisomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane. The γ-isomer, which makes up 20–25 percent of this mixture, is more soluble than the other isomers in certain solvents and can be separated from them. More volatile than DDT, BHC has a faster but less protracted action upon insects (insect).

      Lindane has been shown to accumulate in the food chain. This occurs because animals, including humans, eat foods grown in lindane-contaminated soils, and fishes and other marine life are exposed to lindane-contaminated waters. In fishes and mammals, exposure to high levels of lindane may cause acute poisoning, which is evidenced by nervous system dysfunction. Chronic exposure may adversely affect liver function in humans. Lindane's use indoors in smoke fumigators is no longer permitted, and its use as an insecticide has been banned in many countries. Topical use in lotions to combat lice (louse) is permitted.

Francis A. Carey

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Universalium. 2010.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • benzene hexachloride — benzene hexa·chlo·ride .hek sə klō(ə)r .īd, klȯ(ə)r n any of several stereoisomeric chlorine derivatives C6H6Cl6 of cyclohexane in which the chlorine atoms are all attached to different carbon atoms: BHC esp GAMMA BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE see… …   Medical dictionary

  • benzene hexachloride — [hek΄sə klôr′īd΄] n. a compound, C6H6Cl6, used as an insecticide: see also LINDANE …   English World dictionary

  • Benzene hexachloride — Lindane Lindane Général Nom IUPAC γ 1,2,3,4,5,6 Hexachlorocyclohexane Synonymes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • benzene hexachloride — noun : a compound C6H6Cl6 occurring in several stereoisomeric forms, obtained usually as a white to grayish musty powder containing some of these forms by chlorinating benzene in the presence of actinic light, and used as an insecticide see… …   Useful english dictionary

  • benzene hexachloride — noun Date: 1884 BHC …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gamma benzene hexachloride — One of the purified isomers of hexachlorobenzene which is used as a scabicide and pediculicide applied topically to the skin in various lotions, creams, and shampoos; GBH can be absorbed through the skin. Resembles DDT in its actions but is less… …   Medical dictionary

  • hexachloride — see BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE, GAMMA BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE …   Medical dictionary

  • Гаммабензенгексахлорид (Gamma Benzene Hexachloride) — инсектицид, применяемый в кремах, лосьонах, растворах или шампунях для лечения инвазий, вызванных чесоточным клещом, обычными клещами и вшами (в том числе головной вошью). Иногда у людей отмечаются незначительные кожные аллергические реакции.… …   Медицинские термины

  • (γ)-benzene hexachloride — See lindane …   Medical dictionary

  • gamma benzene hexachloride — noun Etymology: gamma (II) : lindane …   Useful english dictionary

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