/euh ridh"mee euh, ay ridh"-/, n. Pathol.any disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat.Also, arhythmia.[1885-90; < NL < Gk arrhythmía. See A-6, RHYTHM, -IA]
* * *Variation from the heartbeat's normal rate or rhythm, caused by problems in the heart's pacemaker or in nerves conducting its signals.Occasional arrhythmias are normal. Tachycardia is a fast regular rhythm; bradycardia is a slow rhythm. Premature atrial or ventricular beats are extra contractions in normal rhythm. Ongoing arrhythmia in some heart diseases can reduce the heart's ability to supply the body with blood and can lead to heart failure. Severe arrhythmias can trigger atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation. Arrhythmias are detected by electrocardiography and treated by electric shock (often with an implanted pacemaker) or by drugs such as quinidine and digitalis.
* * *variation from the normal rate or regularity of the heartbeat, usually resulting from irregularities within the conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias occur in both normal and diseased hearts and have no medical significance in and of themselves, although they may endanger heart function when coupled with other cardiac abnormalities.Types of arrhythmias include tachycardia, which is a regular acceleration of the heart rate; bradycardia, a regular slowing of the heart rate; and premature atrial or ventricular beats, which are extra contractions within otherwise normal heart rhythm. While occasional irregularities are normal, prolonged or chronic arrhythmias associated with some forms of heart disease may reduce cardiac output, lowering blood pressure and affecting the perfusion of vital organs with blood, and can precipitate heart failure. Severe arrhythmias can trigger atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation, in which the heart beats ineffectively at many times its normal rate.Arrhythmias reflect the failure of the sinoatrial node, the normal cardiac pacemaker, to maintain a regular heartbeat, usually because of defects in the various pathways by which electrical impulses are carried to different areas of the heart. Anatomical defects or disease can slow down or speed up the propagation of electrical impulses, causing them to arrive out of the normal rhythm, or can turn the impulses back on their path, short-circuiting the pacemaker. Many arrhythmias can be corrected through physical methods, such as artificial pacemakers (pacemaker), defibrillators, and radiofrequency ablation (the application of radiofrequency energy to the area of the heart that is causing the arrhythmia), or by drugs such as beta-blockers (beta-blocker) and calcium channel blockers.
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