Armagnac

Armagnac
/ahr'meuhn yak"/; Fr. /annrdd mah nyannk"/, n.
a dry brandy distilled in the district of Armagnac in SW France.
[1840-50]

* * *

Small territory in historical Gascony, southwestern France.

A portion was part of the Roman province of Aquitania (see Aquitaine). From с 960 it was the separate countship of Armagnac, and it grew to occupy a buffer zone between lands controlled by the French kings (Toulouse) and those controlled by the English (Guyenne). It led the resistance to the English king Henry V's invasion of France but suffered a setback at the Battle of Agincourt. It was first annexed to France in 1497, became a countship again, but finally, by descent through the rulers of Navarra, returned to the French crown in 1607. Again a countship from 1645, it was dissolved in 1789. The region produces the famous Armagnac brandy.

* * *

▪ historical region, France
      historic region of southwestern France, now contained in the département of Gers. It is a region of hills reaching a height of 1,000 feet (300 m) and is drained by the Gers and other rivers, which descend fanwise from the Lannemezan Plateau. On the slopes of its hills grow the grapes from which the well-known Armagnac brandy is made.

      A part of the duchy of Gascony in Merovingian and Carolingian times, Armagnac became an autonomous political unit during the 10th century. From the 12th century on it gained strategic importance as a buffer zone between lands controlled by the kings of France (Toulouse) and those controlled by the kings of England (Guyenne). Its counts used their position to shift allegiance and became highly independent. The Treaty of Calais (1360) during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) gave suzerainty over Armagnac to the English; an appeal by the Armagnac count Jean I against English rule (1368) gave Charles V of France a pretext to resume that war.

      During the 14th century the counts of Armagnac greatly increased their holdings. By the beginning of the 15th century, their lands reached from the Garonne River to the Pyrenees and also included parts of the Massif Central.

      The position of his holdings, along with the services of Gascon mercenaries, made it possible for Count Bernard VII to play a major role in France's internal conflicts of the early 15th century. The Armagnac party was formed in opposition to the Burgundians as a result of the murder of Louis, Duke d'Orléans (brother of the mad king Charles VI), by John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy (1407). With the marriage of his daughter to the son of the victim, Bernard came to head what had been the Orleanist party. Because the Burgundians often aligned with the English, the Armagnacs seemed to be a national party but were basically a power-seeking group. They gained control of the mad king from 1413. Bernard was named constable, chief of the army, and governor of all finances. The Armagnacs led the resistance to the English king Henry V's invasion of France but suffered a setback in the Battle of Agincourt (1415). Profiting from discontent caused by the harsh government of the Armagnacs, the Burgundians entered Paris and killed Bernard and many of his followers in the summer of 1418. After 1418 the Armagnacs rapidly lost power as the new king Charles VII gained leadership and was reconciled with Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy.

      The counts gradually lost their regional position. In 1473 a royal army captured their capital of Lectoure, and Count John V was killed. On the death of his brother Charles in 1497, the countship was united to the crown of France by Charles VIII. Francis I of France, however, bestowed it upon another Charles (nephew of the last count) and at the same time gave him his sister Margaret in marriage. After the death of her husband, by whom she had no children, Margaret married Henry II of Navarre; and thus the countship of Armagnac came back to the French crown along with the other dominions of their grandson, who became king of France as Henry IV (1607). During the 17th and 18th centuries, Armagnac existed as an administrative division of the gouvernement-général of Guyenne-et-Gascogne.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ARMAGNAC — Grand fief de Gascogne, l’Armagnac correspond approximativement à l’actuel département du Gers. Issu du démembrement du diocèse d’Eauze Auch, il fut érigé en comté vers 960. L’acquisition du comté de Fezensac avec Auch, vers 1140, l’agrandit… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Armagnac — steht für: Armagnac (Region), eine Landschaft im Südwesten Frankreichs Armagnac (Grafschaft), eine Grafschaft in Frankreich Armagnac (Weinbrand), einen französischen Brandy Armagnacs, Soldaten der Grafschaft Armagnac im Hundertjährigen Krieg Sud… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Armagnac — can refer to: *The region of France: Armagnac (region) *The brandy: Armagnac (drink) *The aircraft: Sud Est Armagnac *The historical party during the 100 Years War: Armagnac (party) …   Wikipedia

  • Armagnac [1] — Armagnac (Ager Aremonicus), sonst Landschaft Südfrankreichs, zwischen Bearn, Bigorre, Cominges u. Languedoc; mäßig fruchtbar; Gebirge: Vorberge der Pyrenäen; Eintheilung: in das Obere (Weiße) u. in das Untere (Schwarze) A.; Flüsse: Gers, Adour …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Armagnac [2] — Armagnac, gräfliche Familie in Frankreich, die durch die Herzöge von Aquitanien u. Gascogne von König Chlodwig dem Merovinger abstammte u. im Besitz der Grafschaft Armagnac, der Herrschaft Rouergue u. des Thals Dorat war. Merkwürdig sind: 1) Jean …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Armagnac — Armagnac, casa de Región histórica francesa. Comprende casi todo el actual departamento de Gers. HISTORIA Nombre dado a los partidarios del duque de Orleáns en la Guerra de los Cien Años. * * * Pequeño territorio de la histórica Gascuña, en el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • armagnac — (izg. armanjȁk) m DEFINICIJA žestoko alkoholno piće, destilirano vino; konjak, rakija ETIMOLOGIJA fr. prema pokrajini Armagnac u kojoj se proizvodi …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Armagnac — [är′mən yak΄; ] Fr [ ȧr mȧ nyȧk′] n. [sometimes a ] brandy distilled from wine in the district of Armagnac in Gascony, France …   English World dictionary

  • Armagnac [1] — Armagnac (spr. manjack, Eru d A.), dem Kognak ähnliches Getränk aus den Weinen des Depart. Gers und einzelnen Gebieten der Depart. Lot et Garonne und Landes bereitet, enthält 52–56 Proz. Alkohol …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Armagnac [2] — Armagnac (spr. manjáck), Landschaft im südlichen Frankreich, ein Teil der Gascogne, jetzt größtenteils zum Depart. Gers gehörig, ist mäßig fruchtbar und besonders bekannt durch seinen Weinbau und seine Branntweinbrennereien. Das Ländchen führte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Armagnac — (spr. anjáck), Landschaft der Gascogne in Südfrankreich (jetziges Dep. Gers). Die Grafen von A. erloschen 1497. Am berühmtesten unter ihnen ist Graf Bernhard VII. von A., Haupt der Orléans in den Parteikämpfen unter Karl VI., entriß 1413 der… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”