/euh nab"euh sis/, n., pl. anabases /-seez'/.1. a march from the coast into the interior, as that of Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in his historical work Anabasis (379-371 B.C.).2. Literary. any military expedition or advance. Cf. katabasis.[1700-10; < Gk: a stepping up. See ANA-, BASIS]
* * *▪ work by XenophonGreek“Upcountry March” in full Anabasis Kyrou (The Expedition of Cyrus)prose narrative, now in seven books, by Xenophon, of the story of the Greek mercenary soldiers who fought for Cyrus The Younger in his attempt to seize the Persian throne from his brother, Artaxerxes II. It contains a famous account of the mercenaries' long trek (“the march of the 10,000”) from near Babylon to the Euxine (Black Sea) after Cyrus's defeat at the Battle of Cunaxa (401 BC). Xenophon, who had accompanied the force in a private capacity, was largely responsible for their successful retreat through his resourcefulness and courage.It is likely that the Anabasis, which was initially published under the pseudonym Themistogenes of Syracuse, was composed some 20 years after the events it describes. Textual evidence suggests that it was subsequently revised.Additional ReadingThree translations are widely available: Carleton L. Brownson (trans.), Anabasis, rev. ed. (1998), rev. by John Dillery (1998), part of The Loeb Classical Library, with Greek and English on facing pages; Robin Waterfield (trans.), The Expedition of Cyrus, introduction and notes by Tim Rood (2005); and Wayne Ambler (trans.), The Anabasis of Cyrus (2008). A valuable commentary is Jan P. Stronk, The Ten Thousand in Thrace: An Archaeological and Historical Commentary on Xenophon's Anabasis, Books VI.iii-vi-VII (1995).Books about Anabasis include Robin Waterfield, Xenophon's Retreat: Greece, Persia, and the End of the Golden Age (2006); and Robin Lane Fox (ed.), The Long March: Xenophon and the Ten Thousand (2004), a collection of essays. Effects on later literature are examined in Tim Rood, The Sea! The Sea!: The Shout of the Ten Thousand in the Modern Imagination (2004).
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