/awl"teuhr pees'/, n.a painted or carved screen behind or above the altar or communion table in Christian churches; reredos.[1635-45; ALTAR + PIECE]
* * *Painting, relief, sculpture, screen, or decorated wall standing on or behind an altar in a Christian church.The images depict holy personages, saints, and biblical subjects. There are two types of altarpieces: the reredos, which rises from the floor behind the altar, and the retable, which stands on the altar itself or on a pedestal behind it. The diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels; a triptych, three panels; and a polyptych, four or more panels. Altarpieces vary in size; some are small and portable, some are huge and stationary, and some have movable wings that can be opened and closed. The practice of erecting sculptural altarpieces dates from the 11th century; altar paintings became common in the 14th century.
* * *▪ religiona work of art that decorates the space above and behind the altar in a Christian church. Painting, relief, and sculpture in the round have all been used in altarpieces, either alone or in combination. These artworks usually depict holy personages, saints, and biblical subjects.Several technical terms are associated with altarpieces. The predella is a low, decorated strip intended to raise the main part of the altarpiece to a height where it is readily visible from a distance. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two painted panels, a triptych has three panels, and a polyptych has four or more panels. A winged altarpiece is one equipped with movable wings that can be opened or closed over a fixed central part, thereby allowing various representations to be exposed to view. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition that is not directly attached to the altar table but is affixed to the wall behind it. The term retable simply refers to any ornamental panel behind an altar.The practice of erecting a structure above and behind the altar and adorning it with artworks extends back at least to the 11th century. Sculpture was the dominant element in the altarpieces of the late Middle Ages, especially in Germany. Altar paintings, by contrast, became common in northern Europe only in the 15th century. Among the most famous of them are “The Adoration of the Lamb,” also known as the “Ghent Altarpiece” (1432; Cathedral of Saint-Bavon, Ghent [see photograph—>]), a polyptych in 12 panels by Hubert and Jan van Eyck; and the Isenheim Altarpiece (1515; Unterlinden Museum, Colmar [see photograph—>]), a winged altarpiece by Matthias Grünewald. Renaissance Italy, by contrast, favoured altarpieces consisting of single, monumental paintings in simple gilded frames.The Baroque (Baroque period) artists of the 17th century excelled in the creation of large, stagelike altarpieces in which painting, sculpture, and florid ornament are dramatically merged. Gian Lorenzo Bernini's altarpieces are noteworthy examples of this flamboyant tradition, which continued to flourish in Germany, Austria, Spain, and Spanish America well into the 18th century. Religious painting declined elsewhere in Europe during this time, however, and in the 19th century, in keeping with the use of various historical styles in church architecture, the design of altarpieces declined into pure eclecticism. Interesting attempts were made in the 20th century to revive the altarpiece, but the general tendency in modern church design has been to reintroduce the unadorned altar table. See also retable.
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