Pink Floyd

Pink Floyd
one of the most popular British rock music groups, formed in 1965. The group’s most successful albums include The Dark Side of the Moon (1973) and The Wall (1979). The group is particularly well known for its exciting live performances involving lights and screen images.

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▪ British rock group
Introduction

      British rock (art rock) band at the forefront of 1960s psychedelia (psychedelic rock) who later popularized the concept album for mass rock audiences in the 1970s. The principal members were lead guitarist Syd Barrett (original name Roger Keith Barrett; b. Jan. 6, 1946, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.—d. July 7, 2006, Cambridge), bassist Roger Waters (b. Sept. 6, 1944, Great Bookham, Surrey), drummer Nick Mason (b. Jan. 27, 1945, Birmingham, West Midlands), keyboard player Rick Wright (in full Richard Wright; b. July 28, 1945, London—d. Sept. 15, 2008, London), and guitarist David Gilmour (b. March 6, 1944, Cambridge).

 Formed in 1965, the band went through several name changes before combining the first names of a pair of Carolina bluesmen, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. Their initial direction came from vocalist-guitarist-songwriter Barrett, whose mixture of blues, music hall (music hall and variety) styles, Lewis Carroll (Carroll, Lewis) references, and dissonant psychedelia established the band as a cornerstone of the British underground scene. They signed with EMI and early in 1967 had their first British hit with the controversial "Arnold Layne," a song about a transvestite. This was followed by their debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, a lush, experimental record that has since become a rock classic. Their sound was becoming increasingly adventurous, incorporating sound effects, spacy guitar and keyboards, and extended improvisation such as "Interstellar Overdrive."

      By 1968 Barrett, who had overused LSD and was struggling with schizophrenia, was replaced by guitarist Gilmour. Without Barrett's striking lyrics, the band moved away from the singles market to concentrate on live work, continuing its innovations in sound and lighting but with varying degrees of success. After recording a series of motion-picture soundtrack albums, they entered the American charts with Atom Heart Mother (1970) and Meddle (1971). Making records that were song-based but thematic in approach and that included long instrumental passages, the band did much to popularize the concept album. They hit the commercial jackpot with Dark Side of the Moon (1973). A bleak treatise on death and emotional breakdown underlined by Waters's dark songwriting, it sent Pink Floyd soaring into the megastar bracket and remained in the American pop charts for more than a decade. The follow-up, Wish You Were Here (1975), included "Shine On You Crazy Diamond," a song for Barrett, and, though it went to number one in both the United States and Britain, it was considered anticlimactic and pompous by many critics.

      By the release of Animals (1977), it was clear that Waters had become the band's dominant influence, and there was increasing internal conflict within Pink Floyd. Their sense of alienation (from both one another and contemporary society) was profoundly illustrated by the tour for 1979's best-selling album The Wall, for which a real brick wall was built between the group and the audience during performance. After the appropriately named The Final Cut (1983), Pink Floyd became inactive, and legal wrangles ensued over ownership of the band's name. Waters, who dismissed Wright after The Wall and took over most of the songwriting, was even more firmly in control. As a result the band split, but, much to Waters's chagrin, Gilmour, Mason, and Wright reunited, continuing as Pink Floyd. In the late 1980s Wright, Gilmour, and Mason released two albums, including the ponderous A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987) and The Division Bell (1994), while Waters pursued a solo career. Waters reunited with his former bandmates for a single performance at the Live 8 benefit concert in 2005. Pink Floyd was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996.

Lucy M. O'Brien

Representative Works

Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967)
A Saucerful of Secrets (1968)
Atom Heart Mother (1970)
The Dark Side of the Moon (1973)
Wish You Were Here (1975)
The Wall (1979)

Additional Reading
Nicholas Schaffner, Saucerful of Secrets: The Pink Floyd Odyssey (1991), examines the imagery used by the group. Mike Watkinson and Pete Anderson, Crazy Diamond: Syd Barrett & the Dawn of Pink Floyd, new rev. ed. (1993), covers the group from its beginning through the 1980s. Glenn Povey and Ian Russell, In the Flesh: The Complete Performance History (1997; also published in French, 1997), includes many concert photographs from throughout the group's career.

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Universalium. 2010.

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