- Protestant ethic
* * *Value attached to hard work, thrift, and self-discipline under certain Protestant doctrines, particularly those of Calvinism.Max Weber, in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–05), held that the Protestant ethic was an important factor in the economic success of Protestant groups in the early stages of European capitalism, in that worldly success came to be interpreted as a sign of the individual's election to eternal salvation. Weber's thesis was variously criticized and expanded throughout the 20th century. See also Protestantism; Richard H. Tawney.
* * *in sociological theory, the value attached to hard work, thrift, and efficiency in one's worldly calling, which, especially in the Calvinist view, were deemed signs of an individual's election, or eternal salvation.German sociologist Max Weber (Weber, Max), in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–05), held that the Protestant ethic was an important factor in the economic success of Protestant groups in the early stages of European capitalism; because worldly success could be interpreted as a sign of eternal salvation, it was vigorously pursued. Calvinism's (Calvinism) antipathy to the worship of the flesh, its emphasis on the religious duty to make fruitful use of the God-given resources at each individual's disposal, and its orderliness and systemization of ways of life were also regarded by Weber as economically significant aspects of the ethic.Weber's thesis was criticized by various writers, especially Kurt Samuelsson in Religion and Economic Action (1957). Although English historian R.H. Tawney (Tawney, Richard Henry) accepted Weber's thesis, he expanded it in his Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926) by arguing that political and social pressures and the spirit of individualism with its ethic of self-help and frugality were more significant factors in the development of capitalism than was Calvinist theology.
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