es-

es-
es- [es, is, əs]
EX-1 (sense 1): occurs in many words of French origin [escape]

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To be. Oldest form *ə₁es-, zero-grade *ə₁s-.
Derivatives include yes, soothe, sin1, essence, absent, and proud.
1. Athematic first person singular form *es-mi. am1, from Old English eam, eom, am, from Germanic *izm(i).
2. Athematic third person singular form *es-ti. is, from Old English is, is, from Germanic *ist(i).
3. Optative stem *sī-. yes, from Old English gēse, yes, from sīe, may it be (so) (gēa, yea; see i-), from Germanic *sijai-.
4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form *ə₁s-ont-, becoming *sont-, being, existing, hence real, true.
a. sooth, soothe, from Old English sōth, true, from Germanic *santhaz;
b. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form *sn̥t-yā-, “that which is.” sin1, from Old English synn, sin, from Germanic *sun(d)jō, sin (< “it is true,” “the sin is real”);
c. suttee; bodhisattva, Satyagraha, from Sanskrit sat-, sant-, existing, true, virtuous.
6. Basic form *es-. -ont, onto-; -biont, Homoiousian, Parousia, schizont, from Greek einai (present participle ont-, being), to be (in pareinai, to be present).
7. Suffixed form *es-ti-. swastika, from Sanskrit svasti, well-being (su-, good; see (e)su-).
 
[Pokorny es- 340.] See also extension (e)su-.

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Universalium. 2010.

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