Pune [po͞o′nə]city in W Maharashtra, W India: pop. 1,686,000
* * *Pu·ne or Poo·na (po͞oʹnə)A city of west-central India east-southeast of Mumbai (Bombay). It was a Maratha capital in the 17th and 18th centuries and passed to the British in 1818. Population: 1,203,351.
* * *Called "Queen of the Deccan," it is the cultural capital of the Maratha peoples (see Maratha confederacy). It first gained importance as the capital of the Bhonsle Marathas in the 17th century. Temporarily captured by the Mughals, it again became the Maratha capital from 1714 until 1817, when it fell to the British. It served as the seasonal capital of the Bombay presidency, and its mild weather has made it a popular tourist resort. It is a major educational centre and headquarters of the Indian army's southern command; it is ringed by a sprawling complex of industrial suburbs.
* * *▪ Indiaalso called Poonacity, west-central Maharashtra (Mahārāshtra) state, western India, at the junction of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Called “Queen of the Deccan,” Pune is the cultural capital of the Maratha (Marāṭhā) peoples. The city first gained importance as the capital of the Bhonsle Marathas in the 17th century. It was temporarily captured by the Mughals but again served as the official Maratha capital from 1714 until its fall to the British in 1817. It was the seasonal capital of the Bombay Presidency and is now a popular tourist resort, offering cool weather, historic and religious monuments, museums, parks, hotels, and cultural attractions.Pune has long been a major educational and cultural centre; former prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru (Nehru, Jawaharlal) referred to it as the “Oxford and Cambridge of India.” The city houses some 30 constituent and affiliated colleges of the University of Pune (1948); the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (1917) is renowned for research and instruction in the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and has more than 20,000 ancient manuscripts. Pune is also the headquarters of the southern command of the Indian army, with the Khadakwasla Academy located nearby.A sprawling complex of industrial suburbs has developed around the city. Large factories producing a wide variety of products are distributed along the roads radiating from Pune to Mumbai (Bombay), Ahmadnagar, Solapur, and Satara. The old city is largely residential and commercial and is served by large-scale commuter transport. In 1961 the Panshet Dam collapsed, washing away a substantial part of the old town.The region surrounding Pune includes the Sahyadri Hills, the Balaghat Range (north), and the Mahadeo Hills (south), which enclose the northern Bhima River valley. Chief crops are jowar (grain sorghum), bajra (pearl millet), sugarcane, and rice. Most of the important religious, historical, and tourist attractions of the region are located in the Sahyadri Hills. Some of the famous hill forts of the Marathas, such as Sinhgad, are now resorts. The important religious centres include Bhimashankar, site of a Jyotirlinga shrine; Dehu, birthplace of the Marathi poet-saint Tukaram (Tukārām); Alandi, home of Jnaneshvara ( Jnanadeva), author of a well-known commentary on the Bhagavadgita, a Hindu scripture; and Karli, site of famous Buddhist caves. Nearby are Meherazad and Meherabad, sites associated with Meher Baba. Pop. (2001) city, 2,538,473; urban agglom., 3,760,636.
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