ombre

ombre
ombré [äm′brā΄, äm brā′]
adj.
Fr, pp. of ombrer, to shade < L umbrare < umbra, shade
shaded or graduated in tone: said of a color

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om·bre also om·ber (ŏmʹbər) or hom·bre (hŏmʹbər, ŏmʹ-) n.
A card game, played by three players with 40 cards, that was popular in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  [Spanish hombre, man, ombre, from Latin homō, homin-, man. See dhghem-.

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      Anglicized version of the classic Spanish card game originally called hombre (meaning “man”) and now known as tresillo in Spain and South America.

      Three players each receive 10 cards from the Spanish suited 40-card deck lacking 10-9-8 in each suit; the remaining cards go facedown as a stock. Players bid for the right to name the trump suit in exchange for undertaking to win more tricks than either opponent individually. The lowest bid, entrada, offers to do this after making any number of discards and drawing replacements from the stock. Vuelta is the same, except that the declarer must accept as trump the suit of the first card turned from stock. Highest is solo, in which the declarer chooses trump but plays with the hand as dealt. Whatever the contract, both opponents may discard and draw from stock before playing. This is done first by whoever is best placed to beat the contract by taking at least as many tricks as the declarer. Many other types of bids and contracts have also developed.

      In the 17th century ombre became the most culturally significant card game of Western high society, equivalent to whist in the 19th and bridge in the 20th century. Its popularity and historical importance are the result of its being the first game in which a trump was established by bidding rather than by the random process of turning the last card dealt. In the 18th century the French developed a four-hand version, quadrille. Quadrille in turn adopted the standard 52-card deck associated with whist and gave rise to Boston whist, from which derives solo whist. Other lines of descent and hybridization produced twenty-five, preference, and skat.

David Parlett

Additional Reading
Details of play are available in David Parlett, The Penguin Encyclopedia of Card Games, new ed. (2000; 1st ed. published as The Penguin Book of Card Games, 1979).

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Universalium. 2010.

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