town, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. It was the provisional capital (1981–94) of the republic of Ciskei. The town is located directly south of King William's Town. It was established in 1946 as a residential area for employees of the nearby Da Gama textile factory owned by the Good Hope Textile Corporation. Most of the housing was built by the South African Bantu Trust. Corn (maize), sorghum, and livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) are raised in the surrounding area. Industries in Zwelitsha produce furniture, leather goods, handwoven carpets, paints, agricultural equipment, plastic netting, ceramics, and toys. A small-scale industrial complex located in the town engages in wool washing, leather splitting, saw milling, and quarrying. A trade school giving instruction in welding, woodwork, and sheet-metal work is located at Zwelitsha, as is a teacher training centre. The indigenous population comprises two ethnic groups, the Xhosa and the Mfengu, who speak the Xhosa language. The town is connected by road with King William's Town and nearby East London. Pop. (2001) 28,283.

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