- Zavattini, Cesare
▪ Italian writerborn September 29, 1902, Luzzara [Reggio Emilia], Italydied October 13, 1989, RomeItalian screenwriter, poet, painter, and novelist, known as a leading exponent of Italian Neorealism (Neorealism).Born into a humble family, Zavattini completed a law degree at the University of Parma and began a career in journalism and publishing. He wrote two successful comic novels—Parliamo tanto di me (1931; “We Talk a Lot About Me”) and I poveri sono matti (1937; “The Poor Are Crazy”)—before he began supplying stories for the Italian cinema. His first film treatment became Mario Camerini's classic social satire, Darò un milione (1935; “I'll Give a Million”), starring Vittorio De Sica (De Sica, Vittorio).Zavattini completed 126 screenplays during his long career, 26 of which were for films directed by De Sica. He also worked with such noted Italian directors as Alessandro Blasetti, Giuseppe De Santis, Luchino Visconti (Visconti, Luchino), and Alberto Lattuada, but it was his scripts for De Sica that associated Zavattini with Neorealism. Among the classic films produced by the De Sica-Zavattini team were Teresa Venerdì (1941; Doctor Beware), I bambini ci guardano (1944; The Children Are Watching Us), Sciuscià (1946; Shoeshine), Ladri di biciclette (1948; The Bicycle Thief), Miracolo a Milano (1951; Miracle in Milan), and Umberto D. (1952). Zavattini's views on Neorealism emphasized a documentary style of film realism, the use of nonprofessional actors, a rejection of Hollywood conventions, real locations as opposed to studio sets, an avoidance of dramatic or intrusive editing, and contemporary, everyday subject matter about the common man. He advocated strict adherence to these principles until the early 1950s, when De Sica felt that the genre was becoming cliché. Though the two never totally abandoned Neorealist theories, they devoted themselves to more mainstream fare during the remaining years of their collaboration.After the end of the Neorealist era, Zavattini completed a number of De Sica scripts that had great commercial success: La ciociara (1961; Two Women), Ieri, oggi, domani (1963; Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow), and Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (1970; The Garden of the Finzi-Continis). In addition to his career in the cinema, Zavattini was an accomplished painter and published several volumes of poetry.
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