▪ Chinese theatreChinese“mixed drama or play” Wade-Giles romanization tsa-chüone of the major forms of Chinese drama. The style originated as a short variety play in North China during the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), and during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) it developed into a mature four-act dramatic form, in which songs alternate with dialogue. The zaju, or variety play, was distinguished from the nanxi, or Southern drama (and later the chuanqi), by a more rigid form. In the zaju, singing was restricted to a single character in each play, and each act had a single and distinct rhyme and musical mode. Melodies were those of the Beijing region. Beautiful poetic lyrics were highly valued, while plot incidents were of lesser importance.Of the thousands of romances, religious plays, histories, and domestic, bandit, and lawsuit plays that were composed, only about 200 zaju survive. Xixiangji (The Story of the Western Wing), by Wang Shifu, is a 13th-century adaptation of an epic romance of the 12th century. The student Zhang and his beautiful sweetheart Ying Ying are models of the tender and melancholy young lovers who figure prominently in Chinese drama. Loyalty is the theme of the history play Zhaoshi guer (“The Orphan of Zhao”), written in the second half of the 13th century. In it the hero sacrifices his son to save the life of young Zhao so that Zhao can later avenge the death of his family (a situation developed into a major dramatic type in 18th-century popular Japanese drama). One of the surviving zaju, Huilanji (The Chalk Circle)—which demonstrates the cleverness of the famous judge Bao—was adapted in 1948 by Bertolt Brecht in The Caucasian Chalk Circle. The life of commoners is portrayed with considerable reality in Yuan drama, though within a highly formalized artistic frame.The lasting worth of zaju is attested to by their continuous adaptation to new musical styles over the years; stories of zaju masterpieces remain a large part of the traditional opera repertory.
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