▪ family of peoples
      four groups of North American Indians who lived in the Coast Ranges and along the coast of what is now northwestern California, U.S. They spoke distinctive languages that are unaffiliated with any other known language. The four Yuki groups were the Yuki-proper, who lived along the upper reaches of the Eel River and its tributaries; the Huchnom of Redwood Valley to the west; the Coast Yuki, who were distributed farther westward along the redwood coast; and the Wappo, who occupied an enclave among the Pomo, some 40 miles (65 km) southward in the Russian River valley.

      Only the linguistic identification links the Wappo with other Yuki; Wappo cultural traditions were otherwise like those of the Pomo. The other Yuki groups were traditionally organized into tribelets, communities composed of several scattered settlements or villages occupying a particular area. Each settlement had its own chief, and there was also a head chief for the community as a whole. There were also a war leader, a person in charge of religious dances, and a shaman, or medicine man or woman. Warfare was apparently frequent between certain communities, between the different Yuki groups, and with other California Indians (California Indian); the Coast Yuki were an exception, usually maintaining friendly relations with their neighbours. Trade was prevalent among all groups, inland people trading such items as furs with coastal groups, who in turn plied a variety of seafood and shells. Clamshell beads were used as currency.

      The Yuki economy was based on gathering acorns, fishing, mostly for salmon, and hunting such animals as bear and deer; the Coast Yuki relied somewhat more on seafood than the other groups. Interior groups lived in domed earth-covered houses; Coast Yuki had conical houses covered with bark. All had large dance houses and sweat houses.

      Traditional Yuki religious beliefs centred generally on two contrasting deities—a creator, whose actions were essentially well intended, and another deity, sometimes associated with thunder, who might help but might also blunder or do evil. Usually the creator was the supreme god of the two, but among the Coast Yuki he had disappeared and only Thunder remained. All Yuki had a great array of ceremonies, rituals, and initiations.

      Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 600 Yuki descendants.

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Universalium. 2010.

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