▪ mammalIntroductionan ancient lineage of mammals comprising the armadillos (armadillo) (order Cingulata) and the sloths (sloth) and anteaters (anteater) (order Pilosa). The namesake feature shared by all members of Xenarthra is seen in the lower backbone. The lumbar vertebrae are “xenarthrous”; that is, they have extra contacts (joints, or arthroses) that function to strengthen the lower back and hips. This aids use of the forelegs in activities not associated with locomotion, such as digging—the primary method used by anteaters and armadillos to obtain food.Xenarthran diets range from strictly insectivorous in anteaters, which eat only ants and termites, to strictly folivorous in sloths, which eat only leaves. Armadillos, not nearly as specialized, eat a variety of plant matter and small animals. Xenarthran metabolisms, however, are similar in that all are low compared with those of other mammals; some burn calories at less than half the rate expected for mammals of similar size. As a result, xenarthrans eat less than other mammals and have body temperatures that are a few degrees cooler.Present distribution of xenarthrans is restricted to Latin America, the exception being the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), whose range extends into the southern United States.CingulataOrder Cingulata consists primarily of armoured armadillo-like animals, and the name refers to the girdlelike shell of present-day armadillos. The armadillo family (Dasypodidae), with 8 genera and 20 species, is the only surviving family of Cingulata. Five other families in this order are extinct and are known only from fossil remains. Members of extinct families include glyptodonts (Glyptodon) and huge North American armadillos.PilosaSloths (sloth) and anteaters (anteater) are the living members of the order Pilosa, whose name refers to the animals' hairiness. Three families exist today, encompassing five genera and nine species. Six families, primarily ground sloths, are extinct. The order Pilosa is further subdivided into the suborder Vermilingua, literally “worm-tongue,” which is descriptive of the long slender tongue of anteaters, and the suborder Phyllophaga, meaning “leaf-eater,” descriptive of the diet of sloths.Paleontology and classificationXenarthrans are known only from the Western Hemisphere and arose in South America during the Paleocene Epoch (65 million to 54.8 million years ago). The fossil record shows that the group was both more diverse and more widely distributed as recently as the Pleistocene Epoch (1,800,000 to 10,000 years ago), when ground sloths colonized the islands of the Greater Antilles and glyptodonts, ground sloths such as Megatherium, and giant armadillos roamed North America. At least one species of ground sloth reached present-day Alaska.Magnorder Xenarthra29 species among five living families. Xenarthrans were formerly grouped with pangolins and collectively referred to as edentates (order Edentata), which alludes to the absence of teeth in some members.Order CingulataFamily Dasypodidae (armadillos (armadillo))20 species in eight generaOrder PilosaSuborder Vermilingua (anteaters (anteater))Four species in two familiesFamily MyrmecophagidaeThree species in two generaFamily CyclopedidaeOne speciesSuborder Phyllophaga (sloths (sloth))Five species in two familiesFamily Megalonychidae (two-toed sloths)Two species in one genusFamily Bradypodidae (three-toed sloths)Three species in one genusAlfred L. GardnerAdditional ReadingAlfred L. Gardner, “Order Xenarthra,” in Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (1993), pp. 63–68, provides lists of the families, genera, and species of the Xenarthra; the author is a wildlife biologist and curator of mammals at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. Gerald G. Montgomery (ed.), The Evolution and Ecology of Armadillos, Sloths, and Vermilinguas (1985), compiles 43 well-illustrated scholarly reports on all aspects of xenarthran biology, including pathology and parasitology.
* * *